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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429514/maternal-metabolic-adaptations-to-pregnancy-among-young-women-in-cebu-philippines
#1
Ruby L Fried, Nanette L Mayol, Thom W McDade, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: Evidence that fetal development has long-term impacts on health has increased interest in maternal-fetal nutrient exchange. Although maternal metabolism is known to change during gestation to accommodate fetal nutrient demands, little is known about these modifications outside of a Western, clinical context. This study characterizes maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy, and their associations with offspring birth weight (BW), among women living in the Philippines. METHODS: Fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed in 808 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines)...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423476/dietary-patterns-and-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-secondary-analysis-of-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children
#2
Victoria Coathup, Kate Northstone, Ron Gray, Simon Wheeler, Lesley Smith
BACKGROUND: Large general population surveys show that heavy regular and episodic alcohol consumption are associated with lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, and higher intakes of processed and fried meat. This is of particular concern regarding pregnant women, as both alcohol intake and inadequate maternal nutrition are independently associated with adverse fetal outcomes. The current study aimed to determine associations between maternal dietary patterns and alcohol consumption during pregnancy...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422119/current-lifestyle-factors-that-increase-risk-of-t2dm-in-china
#3
REVIEW
N Zhang, S M Du, G S Ma
The Report on the Status of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese residents (2015) indicated that the prevalence of diabetes was 9.7% among adults aged ⩾18 years, which markedly increased from 2.6% in 2002 within 10 years. In addition to the social economic factors, transitions in food consumption, behavioral and lifestyle playing the important roles in the fast increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2010-2012, the cereal food consumption of Chinese residents was 337 g/d, vegetables consumption 269 g/d, fruit consumption 41 g/d, legume and legume products 11 g/d, dairy and dairy products consumption 25 g/d, meat consumption 90 g/d, edible oil consumption 42 g/d and dietary fiber 10...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420495/fetal-programming-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Aleksandra Marciniak, Jolanta Patro-Małysza, Żaneta Kimber-Trojnar, Beata Marciniak, Jan Oleszczuk, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak
Prenatal development is currently recognized as a critical period in the etiology of human diseases. This is particularly so when an unfavorable environment interacts with a genetic predisposition. The fetal programming concept suggests that maternal nutritional imbalance and metabolic disturbances may have a persistent and intergenerational effect on the health of offspring and on the risk of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411942/transplacental-nutrient-transfer-in-the-human-in%C3%A2-vivo-determined-by-4-vessel-sampling
#5
Trond M Michelsen, Ane M Holme, Tore Henriksen
BACKGROUND: The intrauterine environment and especially the fetal nutritional conditions affect lifelong health. There are few human in vivo studies on fetal nutrition. The importance to test experimentally based concepts of fetal nutrition in a human in vivo setting is becoming increasingly apparent. A way of testing nutrient transfer in human is 4-vessel sampling, which implies blood sampling from artery and vein on both sides of the placenta. Here we give a brief review of the studies using the 4-vessel sampling method...
March 24, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407805/revelation-of-mrnas-and-proteins-in-porcine-milk-exosomes-by-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analysis
#6
Ting Chen, Qian-Yun Xi, Jia-Jie Sun, Rui-Song Ye, Xiao Cheng, Rui-Ping Sun, Song-Bo Wang, Gang Shu, Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Milk is a complex liquid that provides nutrition to newborns. Recent reports demonstrated that milk is enriched in maternal-derived exosomes that are involved in fetal physiological and pathological conditions by transmission of exosomal mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins. Until now, there is no such research relevant to exosomal mRNAs and proteins in porcine milk, therefore, we have attempted to investigate porcine milk exosomal mRNAs and proteins using RNA-sequencing and proteomic analysis...
April 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407219/multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-for-women-during-pregnancy
#7
REVIEW
Batool A Haider, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies often coexist among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. They are exacerbated in pregnancy due to the increased demands, leading to potentially adverse effects on the mother and developing fetus. Though supplementation with MMNs has been recommended earlier because of the evidence of impact on pregnancy outcomes, a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the replacement of iron and folic acid supplementation with MMNs...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393333/-application-of-epigenetics-in-perinatal-nursing-care
#8
Hsueh-Fen Chou, Chien-Huei Kao, Meei-Ling Gau
Epigenetics is a field of biomedicine that expanded tremendously during the 1980s. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression independent of underlying DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) sequence, which not only affect this generation but will be passed to subsequent generations. Although conception is the critical moment for making decisions regarding gene mapping and fetal health, studies have shown that perinatal nursing care practices also affect the genetic remodeling processes and the subsequent health of the mother and her offspring...
April 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390332/comparison-of-ultrasound-fetal-biometry-of-singleton-fetuses-with-a-reference-chart-in-pregnant-women-with-normal-nutritional-and-health-status
#9
Tiran Dias, D Chandrasiri, S Abeykoon, C Gunawardena, G Pragasan, T Padeniya, A Pathmeswaran
Objetives: The aim of this study was to compare fetal biometry of singleton fetuses in pregnant women with normal nutritional and health status in the Ampara district, with a commonly used reference chart. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the Ampara District. Women with normal nutritional and health status and minimal environmental constraints on fetal growth (n=714) were enrolled during the first trimester and gestational age was confirmed by fetal crown-rump length measurement between 11 weeks + 0 days and 13 weeks + 6 days...
March 31, 2017: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390193/functional-amino-acids-in-the-development-of-the-pig-placenta
#10
REVIEW
Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Cassandra Herring, Heewon Seo, Zhaolai Dai, Junjun Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Xiaolong Wang
The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378851/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-on-c-peptide-preservation-in-pregnant-women-with-type-1-diabetes-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#11
M Horvaticek, J Djelmis, M Ivanisevic, S Oreskovic, M Herman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is caused by autoimmune insulitis. There are evidences that pregnancy and n-3 fatty acids exhibit suppressive effect on human inflammatory system. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Ninety pregnant women with T1DM were included in the prospective randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Forty-seven of them were put on standard diabetic diet enriched with EPA and DHA twice a day (EPA 120 mg and DHA 616 mg; Study group) and 43 pregnant diabetic women were on standard diabetic diet with placebo (Control group)...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376077/maternal-nutrient-restriction-in-guinea-pigs-leads-to-fetal-growth-restriction-with-evidence-for-chronic-hypoxia
#12
Alexander A Elias, Yohei Maki, Brad Matushewski, Karen Nygard, Timothy R H Regnault, Bryan S Richardson
BACKGROUND: We determined if maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs leading to fetal growth restriction (FGR), impacts markers for tissue hypoxia implicating a mechanistic role for chronic hypoxia. METHODS: Guinea pigs were fed ad libitum (Control) or 70% of the control diet pre-pregnant switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Near term, Hypoxyprobe-1 (HP-1), a marker of tissue hypoxia, was injected into pregnant sows. Fetuses were then necropsied and liver, kidney and placental tissues were processed for erythropoietin (EPO), EPO-receptor (EPOR), and VEGF protein levels, and for HP-1 immunoreactivity (IR)...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369926/uteroplacental-insufficiency-reduces-rat-plasma-leptin-concentrations-and-alters-placental-leptin-transporters-ameliorated-with-enhanced-milk-intake-and-nutrition
#13
Jessica F Briffa, Rachael O'Dowd, Karen M Moritz, Tania Romano, Lisa R Jedwab, Andrew J McAinch, Deanne H Hryciw, Mary E Wlodek
KEY POINTS: Uteroplacental insufficiency compromises maternal mammary development, milk production and pup organ development; this is ameliorated by cross-fostering, which improves pup growth and organ development and prevents adult diseases in growth-restricted (Restricted) offspring by enhancing postnatal nutrition. Leptin is transported to the fetus from the mother by the placenta; we report reduced plasma leptin concentrations in Restricted fetuses associated with sex-specific alterations in placental leptin transporter expression...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369652/early-versus-late-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-intrauterine-growth-restricted-neonates-with-antenatal-doppler-abnormalities-an-open-label-randomized-trial
#14
Vishal Vishnu Tewari, Sachin Kumar Dubey, Reema Kumar, Shakti Vardhan, C M Sreedhar, Girish Gupta
Background of the study: Enteral feeding in preterm neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) on umbilical artery (UA) Doppler is delayed owing to an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Delaying enteral feeding with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) carries an increased risk of sepsis. Objectives: To study early versus late feeding in preterm IUGR neonates for time required to attain sufficient feed volume to discontinue PN and increased risk of NEC or feed intolerance (FI)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357523/early-nutrition-and-ageing-can-we-intervene
#15
Daniella Duque-Guimarães, Susan Ozanne
Ageing, a complex process that results in progressive decline in intrinsic physiological function leading to an increase in mortality rate, has been shown to be affected by early life nutrition. Accumulating data from animal and epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to a suboptimal nutritional environment during fetal life can have long-term effects on adult health. In this paper, we discuss the impact of early life nutrition on the development of age-associated diseases and life span. Special emphasis is given to studies that have investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects...
March 29, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356501/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-and-fertility-management-in-agricultural-species
#16
Francesca Mossa, Fermin Jimenez-Krassel, Danielle M Scheetz, Miriam Weber-Nielsen, Alexander C O Evans, Jim Ireland
A reliable, easy to assess marker for fertility in agricultural species would be highly desirable and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) is a promising candidate. This review summarizes recent findings concerning AMH and its role in fertility management, mainly in cattle. It focuses on: 1) alterations in circulating AMH concentrations from birth to puberty and during estrous cycles; 2) correlation of circulating AMH concentrations with ovarian follicle numbers and ovarian reserve; 3) factors that impact circulating AMH concentrations; 4) use of AMH as a predictor of fertility...
March 29, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353598/increase-in-the-prevalence-of-arthritis-in-adulthood-among-adults-exposed-to-chinese-famine-of-1959-to-1961-during-childhood-a-cross-sectional-survey
#17
Xianglong Xu, Lingli Liu, Wenxi Xie, Yong Zhang, Huan Zeng, Fan Zhang, Cesar Reis, Xianqing Cao, Yong Zhao
The developmental origins hypothesis postulates that under-nutrition in the early stage of life is associated with an increased risk of disease in adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association of exposure to the Chinese famine of 1959 to 1961 in early life with the risk of arthritis in adulthood.From July to September 2009, the study adopted multistage stratified random sampling cross-sectional survey to recruit 1224 eligible adults in Chongqing. Famine exposure groups were categorized into 3 groups: (1) childhood exposure, (2) fetal exposure, and (3) nonexposure...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346343/lifetime-exposure-to-a-constant-environment-amplifies-the-impact-of-a-fructose-rich-diet-on-glucose-homeostasis-during-pregnancy
#18
Aleida Song, Stuart Astbury, Abha Hoedl, Brent Nielsen, Michael E Symonds, Rhonda C Bell
The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0). We demonstrate that female offspring (Gen1) show an exaggerated hyperinsulinemic response to pregnancy when fed a standard diet and with high fructose intake, which continues throughout pregnancy...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344827/perinatal-high-methyl-donor-alters-gene-expression-in-igf-system-in-male-offspring-without-altering-dna-methylation
#19
Valérie Amarger, Fanny Giudicelli, Anthony Pagniez, Patricia Parnet
AIM: To investigate the effect of a protein restriction and a supplementation with methyl donor nutrients during fetal and early postnatal life on the expression and epigenetic state of imprinted genes from the IGF system. MATERIALS & METHODS: Pregnant female rats were fed a protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with methyl donor. RESULTS: Gene expression of the Igf2, H19, Igf1, Igf2r and Plagl1 genes in the liver of male offspring at birth and weaning was strongly influenced by maternal diet...
March 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343459/a-retrospective-analysis-of-a-societal-experiment-among-the-danish-population-suggests-that-exposure-to-extra-doses-of-vitamin-a-during-fetal-development-may-lower-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm-risk-later-in-life
#20
Amélie Keller, Lars Ängquist, Ramune Jacobsen, Allan Vaag, Berit L Heitmann
Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Individuals from birth cohorts with the higher prenatal vitamin A exposure (born 1 December 1962-31 March 1964) and those with lower prenatal exposure (born 1 September 1959-31 December 1960) were followed up with regard to development of T2DM before 31 December 2012 in the Danish National Diabetes Registry and National Patient Register...
March 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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