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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924437/fundus-findings-in-wernicke-encephalopathy
#1
Tal Serlin, Elad Moisseiev
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, classically characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, confusion, and ataxia. While commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, WE may also occur in the setting of poor nutrition or absorption. We present a 37-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and presented with visual disturbance with bilateral horizontal nystagmus, confusion, and postural imbalance. Fundus examination revealed bilateral optic disc edema with a retinal hemorrhage in the left eye...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920810/newly-described-toxoplasma-gondii-strain-causes-high-mortality-in-red-necked-wallabies-macropus-rufogriseus-in-a-zoo
#2
Amanda Guthrie, Leah Rooker, Rommel Tan, Richard Gerhold, Karen Trainor, Tiantian Jiang, Chunlei Su
This manuscript describes an outbreak of fatal toxoplasmosis in wallabies. Ten adult red necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) were imported from New Zealand to the Virginia Zoo. Agglutination testing upon admission into quarantine showed all animals to be negative for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Nine of these wallabies died from acute toxoplasmosis within 59-565 (average 224) days after being moved onto exhibit. Clinical signs included lethargy, diarrhea, tachypnea, and ataxia that progressed rapidly; death without premonitory signs occurred in one case...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911995/ocular-dysfunctions-presenting-in-tacrolimus-induced-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-case-presentation
#3
Cora Brown, Alexander J Feng, Ernesto Cruz
The constellation of ocular symptoms, known as Balint's syndrome, is a rare disorder seen in bilateral parieto-occipital lesions and is most frequently due to arterial occlusive disease or acute hypertension. Here we present a case of a patient with tacrolimus-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) who presented with optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and ocular apraxia. These ocular findings, consistent with Balint's syndrome, are rarely the initial presentation of PRES. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of this unusual phenomenon as well as the importance of an individualized rehabilitation plan to maximize functional independence in these patients...
September 11, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898175/an-unusual-presentation-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-and-an-example-of-how-hickam-s-dictum-and-ockham-s-razor-can-both-be-right
#4
Eli S Neiman, Amtul Farheen, Nancy Gadallah, Thomas Steineke, Peter Parsells, Zev A Kizelnik, Michael Rosenberg
Patients can have more than one neurological problem, and sorting out acute from chronic disease can be challenging. The authors report a middle-aged patient who presented with ataxia, right hemiparesis, and abnormal nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a Chiari and an arachnoid cyst with brainstem compression that appeared to explain his abnormal examination. Shortly after admission, he was noted to have intermittent abnormal behavior and confusion. History from family revealed significant acute and chronic psychiatric problems that appeared to explain his abnormal mental status; this delayed the diagnosis of intermittent complex partial seizures...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894590/trpa1-channel-mediates-organophosphate-induced-delayed-neuropathy
#5
Qiang Ding, Sui Fang, Xueqin Chen, Youxin Wang, Jian Li, Fuyun Tian, Xiang Xu, Bernard Attali, Xin Xie, Zhaobing Gao
The organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), often leads to paresthesias, ataxia and paralysis, occurs in the late-stage of acute poisoning or after repeated exposures to organophosphate (OP) insecticides or nerve agents, and may contribute to the Gulf War Syndrome. The acute phase of OP poisoning is often attributed to acetylcholinesterase inhibition. However, the underlying mechanism for the delayed neuropathy remains unknown and no treatment is available. Here we demonstrate that TRPA1 channel (Transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1) mediates OPIDN...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887455/neonicotinoids-act-like-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-newly-emerged-bees-and-winter-bees
#6
Danica Baines, Emily Wilton, Abbe Pawluk, Michael de Gorter, Nora Chomistek
Accumulating evidence suggests that neonicotinoids may have long-term adverse effects on bee health, yet our understanding of how this could occur is incomplete. Pesticides can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in animals providing characteristic multiphasic dose-response curves and non-lethal endpoints in toxicity studies. However, it is not known if neonicotinoids act as EDCs in bees. To address this issue, we performed oral acute and chronic toxicity studies including concentrations recorded in nectar and pollen, applying acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to bumble bees, honey bees and leafcutter bees, the three most common bee species managed for pollination...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878050/antibody-associated-cns-syndromes-without-signs-of-inflammation-in-the-elderly
#7
Domingo Escudero, Mar Guasp, Helena Ariño, Carles Gaig, Eugenia Martínez-Hernández, Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus
OBJECTIVE: To report the CNS syndromes of patients ≥60 years of age with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens but no evidence of brain MRI and CSF inflammatory changes. METHODS: This was a retrospective clinical analysis of patients with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens who fulfilled 3 criteria: age ≥60 years, no inflammatory abnormalities in brain MRI, and no CSF pleocytosis. Antibodies were determined with reported techniques. RESULTS: Among 155 patients ≥60 years of age with neurologic syndromes related to antibodies against neuronal surface antigens, 35 (22...
September 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872354/video-and-clinical-screening-of-national-rugby-league-players-suspected-of-sustaining-concussion
#8
Andrew J Gardner, Magdalena Wojtowicz, Douglas P Terry, Christopher R Levi, Ross Zafonte DO, Grant L Iverson
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study reviewed the available sideline Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition (SCAT3) performance of players who were removed from play using the 'concussion interchange rule' (CIR), the available video footage of these incidences, and associated return to play and concussion diagnosis decisions. RESEARCH DESIGN: Descriptive, observational case series. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Data were collected from all NRL players who used the CIR during the 2014 season...
September 5, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860590/distinct-clinical-features-between-acute-and-chronic-progressive-parenchymal-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-disease-meta-analysis
#9
Mizuho Ishido, Nobuyuki Horita, Masaki Takeuchi, Etsuko Shibuya, Takahiro Yamane, Tatsukata Kawagoe, Takehito Ishido, Kaoru Minegishi, Ryusuke Yoshimi, Yohei Kirino, Shunsei Hirohata, Yoshiaki Ishigatsubo, Mitsuhiro Takeno, Takeshi Kaneko, Nobuhisa Mizuki
Neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD) is subcategorized into parenchymal-NBD (P-NBD) and non-parenchymal-NBD types. Recently, P-NBD has been further subdivided into acute P-NBD (A-P-NBD) and chronic progressive P-NBD (CP-P-NBD). Although an increasing number of studies have reported the various clinical features of A-P-NBD and CP-P-NBD over the last two decades, there was a considerable inconsistency. Two investigators systematically searched four electrical databases to detect studies that provided sufficient data to assess the specific characteristics of A-P-NBD and CP-P-NBD...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851278/toscana-virus-meningo-encephalitis-an-important-differential-diagnosis-for-elderly-travellers-returning-from-mediterranean-countries
#10
James Veater, Farhan Mehedi, Chee Kay Cheung, Laura Nabarro, Jane Osborne, Nicholas Wong, Martin Wiselka, Julian W Tang
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients have a long list of differentials for causes of acute confusion and altered consciousness levels, including infectious agents. In addition, elderly, retired patients often have more time to travel for tourism, particularly to exotic, warmer locations. Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy are popular holiday destinations for British and other tourists, especially during the winter months. However, these warm climates allow insect vectors to proliferate, increasing the risk of exposure to endemic vectorborne viral infections whilst on vacation...
August 29, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846437/oxygen-administration-improves-survival-but-worsens-cardiopulmonary-functions-in-chlorine-exposed-rats
#11
Obiefuna C Okponyia, Matthew D McGraw, Marilyn M Dysart, Rhonda B Garlick, Jacqueline S Rioux, Angela L Murphy, Gates B Roe, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
RATIONALE: Chlorine is a highly reactive gas that can cause significant injury when inhaled. Unfortunately, its use as a chemical weapon has increased in recent years. Massive chlorine inhalation can cause death within 4h of exposure. Survivors usually require hospitalization after massive exposure. No countermeasures exist for massive chlorine exposure, and supportive care measures lack controlled trials. METHODS: Adult rats were exposed to chlorine gas (LD58-67) in a whole-body exposure chamber, and given oxygen (0...
August 28, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831691/parvovirus-b19-infection-associated-with-hemolytic-anemia-and-cranial-polyneuropathy
#12
João Sequeira, Ana Calado, Margarida Dias, Manuel Manita
Parvovirus B19 (PB19) is a common, widespread, small, single-stranded DNA virus which has been linked with a broad spectrum of clinical illnesses, including a variety of neurological complications such as encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis, stroke, cerebellar ataxia, and neuropathy. The authors describe a case of PB19 infection associated with hemolytic anemia and cranial polyneuropathy involving the second and third cranial nerves in a 23-year-old immunocompetent woman. The diagnosis of acute PB19 infection was established with detection of positive DNA and anti-PB19 IgM antibodies in blood samples...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830430/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-a-naturally-infected-sheep
#13
Brigitte Böhm, Benjamin Schade, Benjamin Bauer, Bernd Hoffmann, Donata Hoffmann, Ute Ziegler, Martin Beer, Christine Klaus, Herbert Weissenböck, Jens Böttcher
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick borne zoonosis in Europe. In Germany, about 250 human cases are registered annually, with the highest incidence reported in the last years coming from the federal states Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg. In veterinary medicine, only sporadic cases in wild and domestic animals have been reported; however, a high number of wild and domestic animals have tested positive for the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibody...
August 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830332/hypersensitivity-reactions-to-obinutuzumab-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-and-relevance-to-humans
#14
Elisabeth Husar, Maria Solonets, Olaf Kuhlmann, Eginhard Schick, Hanna Piper-Lepoutre, Thomas Singer, Gaurav Tyagi
Obinutuzumab (GA101, Gazyva™, Gazyvaro®, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland) is a humanized, glycoengineered type II antibody targeted against CD20. The preclinical safety evaluation required to support clinical development and marketing authorization of obinutuzumab included repeat-dose toxicity studies in cynomolgus monkeys for up to 6-month dosing with a 9-month recovery period. Results from those studies showed decreases in circulating B cells and corresponding B-cell depletion in lymphoid tissues, consistent with the desired pharmacology of obinutuzumab...
July 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808226/atr-inhibition-facilitates-targeting-of-leukemia-dependence-on-convergent-nucleotide-biosynthetic-pathways
#15
Thuc M Le, Soumya Poddar, Joseph R Capri, Evan R Abt, Woosuk Kim, Liu Wei, Nhu T Uong, Chloe M Cheng, Daniel Braas, Mina Nikanjam, Peter Rix, Daria Merkurjev, Jesse Zaretsky, Harley I Kornblum, Antoni Ribas, Harvey R Herschman, Julian Whitelegge, Kym F Faull, Timothy R Donahue, Johannes Czernin, Caius G Radu
Leukemia cells rely on two nucleotide biosynthetic pathways, de novo and salvage, to produce dNTPs for DNA replication. Here, using metabolomic, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic approaches, we show that inhibition of the replication stress sensing kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) reduces the output of both de novo and salvage pathways by regulating the activity of their respective rate-limiting enzymes, ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), via distinct molecular mechanisms...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805579/nonmotor-manifestations-of-wilson-s-disease
#16
Samar Biswas, Neelanjana Paul, Shyamal K Das
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by excessive copper deposition initially in liver (hepatic variant) followed by brain (neuropsychiatric variant) and other organs such as cornea and kidney due to defect in biliary copper excretion. Predominant presentations of neuropsychiatric variant are extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions such as dystonias, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, and ataxias. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) can appear before clinical disease expression and during ongoing disease process...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777266/ataxia-and-headache-in-a-child-a-case-of-acute-cerebellar-infarction
#17
Kathryn M Hewett, Brett Lorenzetti, Benjamin F Jackson
A 4-year-old female patient presents to the pediatric emergency department with acute onset of ataxia and occipital headache. Initial investigation, including computed tomography imaging, failed to demonstrate any focal neurologic lesion. Subsequent studies, however, reveal an acute thrombosis of the superior cerebellar artery. Further work up identified the likely causative factor to be a heterozygous mutation at the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene. In this case report, we will discuss the work-up of pediatric ataxia, the evaluation and management of cerebrovascular accidents in children, and the association between stroke and mutation of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene...
August 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766925/posterior-column-ataxia-with-retinitis-pigmentosa-coexisting-with-sensory-autonomic-neuropathy-and-leukemia-due-to-the-homozygous-p-pro221ser-flvcr1-mutation
#18
Marco Castori, Silvia Morlino, Martin Ungelenk, Davide Pareyson, Ettore Salsano, Paola Grammatico, Emanuela Tolosano, Ingo Kurth, Deborah Chiabrando
FLVCR1 encodes for a ubiquitous heme exporter, whose recessive mutations cause posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa (PCARP). Recently, FLVCR1 recessive mutations were also found in two sporadic children with hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). We report the unique case of a 33-year-old Italian woman with a combination of typical PCARP, sensory-autonomic neuropathy with sensory loss to all modalities and multiple autonomic dysfuctions, and acute lymphocytic leukemia. Molecular analysis demonstrated homozygosity for the previously identified FLVCR1 p...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765488/wernicke%C3%A3-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-s-encephalopathy-associated-with-liver-abscess
#19
Rajesh Verma, Vipul Garg
Wernicke's encephalopathy is a rare neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, characterised by ocular motor dysfunction, ataxia and impairment in consciousness. It predominantly affects brain regions with a high metabolic rate such as mammillary bodies, medial thalamic nuclei, the tectal region and the cerebellum. Although chronic alcoholism is the most common cause of Wernicke's encephalopathy, various other conditions not related to alcohol consumption such as bariatric surgery, acute pancreatitis, hyperemesis gravidarum, prolonged fasting and gastrointestinal surgery have been implicated in its aetiology...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752511/wernicke-s-encephalopathy-after-bariatric-surgery-with-atypical-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-case-report
#20
Bo-An Chen, Lu-An Chen Chen
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a disease caused by thiamine deficiency related to alcoholism, hyperemesis, or thiamine malabsorption. The clinical manifestations of WE are mental change, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia. The typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of WE are symmetrical involvement of medial thalamus, periventricular region of the third ventricle, periaqueductal area, and mammillary body. The atypical MRI findings are more common in nonalcoholic WE. Since the increasing population of obesity and the preference of weight loss surgery, the risk of developing thiamine deficiencies associated with weight loss surgery has become a considerable etiology of WE...
March 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
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