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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920183/chikungunya-in-the-americas-recommendations-and-conclusions
#1
Barney S Graham, Patricia M Repik, Sergio Yactayo
Discovered in 1953, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulated in Africa and Southeast Asia, with periodic outbreaks, for many years. Highly efficient transmission following a genetic mutation of the virus in 2005 caused its global spread. Associated with significant morbidity, CHIKV creates a large public health burden, and despite various efforts, there are currently no licensed vaccines nor specific treatments. To garner a better understanding of the virus, identify gaps in knowledge, and guide the development of more-effective interventions, the World Health Organization and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases assembled global experts for discussion and review...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920003/clinical-significance-of-the-glasgow-prognostic-score-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#2
Takaaki Arigami, Yoshikazu Uenosono, Sumiya Ishigami, Shigehiro Yanagita, Keishi Okubo, Yasuto Uchikado, Yoshiaki Kita, Shinichiro Mori, Hiroshi Kurahara, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
AIM: To assess the clinical utility of the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) as a blood predictor of postoperative recurrence in patients with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with gastric GISTs undergoing gastrectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified based on GPS criteria as follows: GPS of 2: elevated C-reactive protein (>1.0 mg/dl) and hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dl), GPS of 1: one of these hematological abnormalities, and GPS of 0: neither elevated CRP nor hypoalbuminemia...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919864/taxonomy-for-the-rehabilitation-of-knee-conditions-trak-a-digital-intervention-to-support-the-self-care-components-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rehabilitation-protocol-of-a-feasibility-study
#3
Emma Dunphy, Fiona L Hamilton, Kate Button
BACKGROUND: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common, especially in the active population. In defining the problem of ACL rehabilitation, this study draws from the knowledge that improved self-care, strength, and fitness are associated with better outcomes. Traditional rehabilitation involves regular physiotherapy, but it is not clear what the optimal way for delivering rehabilitation is, and it varies widely across the world. Evidence for treatments are discussed in the literature, however standard length of rehabilitation and frequency of appointments are unknown...
December 5, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919793/inter-rater-reliability-for-thrombolysis-in-cerebral-infarction-with-tici-2c-category
#4
Ondrej Volny, Petra Cimflova, Viktor Szeder
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) with 2b/3 (>50% of occluded territory/complete reperfusion) has been regarded as a successful angiographic outcome. To account for near-perfect angiographic results, the category TICI 2c (near-complete reperfusion) has been introduced. As the degree of inter-rater reliability for TICI with 2c category remains poorly studied, we strived to evaluate the agreement among stroke-treating specialists. METHODS: All consecutive patients, who underwent stent-retriever thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke in the period between January 2014 and April 2016 at the Department of Neurointerventional Radiology, were analyzed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919582/external-validation-of-a-prognostic-model-for-predicting-nonresponse-following-knee-arthroplasty
#5
Daniel L Riddle, Gregory J Golladay, William A Jiranek, Robert A Perera
BACKGROUND: Instruments designed to predict the extent of pain and function following knee arthroplasty (KA) recovery has strong potential to guide patients and clinicians in shared decision making. Our purpose was to test the external validity of a recently developed prognostic instrument designed to estimate the probability of nonresponse following KA. METHODS: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a 9-year multisite National Institutes of Health study designed to examine the natural history of knee osteoarthritis in 4796 subjects...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919238/an-equity-analysis-of-utilization-of-health-services-in-afghanistan-using-a-national-household-survey
#6
Christine Kim, Khwaja Mir Ahad Saeed, Ahmad Shah Salehi, Wu Zeng
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan has made great strides in the coverage of health services across the country but coverage of key indicators remains low nationally and whether the poorest households are accessing these services is not well understood. METHODS: We analyzed the Afghanistan Mortality Survey 2010 on utilization of inpatient and outpatient care, institutional delivery and antenatal care by wealth quintiles. Concentration indexes (CIs) were generated to measure the inequality of using the four services...
December 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919148/-contribution-of-amenable-mortality-to-the-decrease-of-overall-mortality-in-piedmont-region-northern-italy-1980-2011
#7
Teresa Dalla Zuanna, Marco Dalmasso, Alberto Amidei, Roberto Gnavi
OBJECTIVES: to describe overall and amenable mortality trends over the last 30 years in the Local Health Authorities (LHAs) of Piedmont Region (Northern Italy). By comparing these trends, it is possible to analyse intraregional variability in the performance of the healthcare system. DESIGN: descriptive study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: mortality data from the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) for the population between 0 and 74 years resident in Piedmont Region for the period 1980-2011...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919055/associations-with-health-related-quality-of-life-after-intracerebral-haemorrhage-pooled-analysis-of-interact-studies
#8
Candice Delcourt, Danni Zheng, Xiaoying Chen, Maree Hackett, Hisatomi Arima, Jun Hata, Emma Heeley, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Mark Woodward, Yining Huang, Thompson Robinson, Pablo M Lavados, Richard I Lindley, Christian Stapf, Leo Davies, John Chalmers, Craig S Anderson, Shoichiro Sato
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Limited data exist on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to determine baseline factors associated with HRQoL among participants of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trials (INTERACT 1 and 2). METHODS: The INTERACT studies were randomised controlled trials of early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in patients with ICH (<6 hours) and elevated systolic BP (150-220 mm Hg)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918784/association-of-long-term-low-intensity-smoking-with-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-the-national-institutes-of-health-aarp-diet-and-health-study
#9
Maki Inoue-Choi, Linda M Liao, Carolyn Reyes-Guzman, Patricia Hartge, Neil Caporaso, Neal D Freedman
Importance: A growing proportion of US smokers now smoke fewer than 10 cigarettes per day (CPD), and that proportion will likely rise in the future. The health effects of smoking only a few CPD over one's lifetime are less understood than are the effects of heavier smoking, although many smokers believe that their level is modest. Objective: To evaluate the associations of long-term smoking of fewer than 1 or 1 to 10 CPD (low intensity) with all-cause and cause-specific mortality compared with never smoking cigarettes...
December 5, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918253/placental-growth-factor-alone-or-in-combination-with-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-as-an-aid-to-the-assessment-of-women-with-suspected-pre-eclampsia-systematic-review-and-economic-analysis
#10
Geoff K Frampton, Jeremy Jones, Micah Rose, Liz Payne
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) prediction based on blood pressure, presence of protein in the urine, symptoms and laboratory test abnormalities can result in false-positive diagnoses. This may lead to unnecessary antenatal admissions and preterm delivery. Blood tests that measure placental growth factor (PlGF) or the ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) to PlGF could aid prediction of PE if either were added to routine clinical assessment or used as a replacement for proteinuria testing...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917972/pastoralism-in-the-drylands-of-latin-america-argentina-chile-mexico-and-peru
#11
J M Grünwaldt, G Castellaro, E R Flores, C R Morales-Nieto, R D Valdez-Cepeda, J C Guevera, E G Grünwaldt
This article discusses various aspects of pastoralism in the Latin American countries with the largest dryland areas. The topics covered include: social, economic and institutional issues; grasslands and their carrying capacity; production systems and productivity rates; competition for forage resources between domestic livestock and wildlife; and the health status of livestock and wildlife. Most grasslands exhibit some degree of degradation. The percentage of offspring reaching weaning age is low: 47-66% of calves and 40-80% of lambs...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917960/a-vision-for-the-future-of-pastoralism
#12
J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, G Zinsstag, L Crump, I O Alfaroukh, M F Abakar, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, K Liechti, M A Seid, E Schelling
Pastoral regions are challenged by social and ecological changes. Yet, there is increasingly robust evidence that pastoralism is a viable and sustainable livelihood and that pastoralists play a role in attaining the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the authors take a broad view of pastoralism and pastoral livestock production from a number of different perspectives, taking into account societal and ecological viewpoints as well as issues of animal and human health...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917777/the-identification-and-treatment-of-women-with-hyperglycaemia-in-pregnancy-an-analysis-of-individual-participant-data-systematic-reviews-meta-analyses-and-an-economic-evaluation
#13
Diane Farrar, Mark Simmonds, Susan Griffin, Ana Duarte, Debbie A Lawlor, Mark Sculpher, Lesley Fairley, Su Golder, Derek Tuffnell, Martin Bland, Fidelma Dunne, Donald Whitelaw, John Wright, Trevor A Sheldon
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a higher risk of important adverse outcomes. Practice varies and the best strategy for identifying and treating GDM is unclear. AIM: To estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies for identifying and treating women with GDM. METHODS: We analysed individual participant data (IPD) from birth cohorts and conducted systematic reviews to estimate the association of maternal glucose levels with adverse perinatal outcomes; GDM prevalence; maternal characteristics/risk factors for GDM; and the effectiveness and costs of treatments...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917761/research-competency-and-specialist-registration-quo-vadis
#14
C P Szabo, S Ramlall
The requirement of 'research completion' as necessary for specialist registration with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) has recently been subject to legal action, with a court order potentially shifting requirements beyond those envisaged by the HPCSA. The research requirement is congruent with National Department of Health strategy in this regard, i.e. the strengthening of research as a stated priority. While the expectation of research competency is not in itself contentious, the capacity of institutions and the ability of registrars to facilitate and complete, respectively, have brought the issue into focus...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917722/racial-disparities-in-papillary-thyroid-microcarcinoma-survival
#15
U C Megwalu, A T Saini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of race on survival in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. METHODS: The study cohort included 17 668 patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma between 1988 and 2009, identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database of the National Cancer Institute. RESULTS: Black patients had lower overall survival than other racial groups (p < 0.001). Black patients had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio = 2...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917405/efficacy-and-safety-of-3-week-response-guided-triple-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-a-phase-2-open-label-proof-of-concept-study
#16
George Lau, Yves Benhamou, Guofeng Chen, Jin Li, Qing Shao, Dong Ji, Fan Li, Bing Li, Jialiang Liu, Jinlin Hou, Jian Sun, Cheng Wang, Jing Chen, Vanessa Wu, April Wong, Chris L P Wong, Stella T Y Tsang, Yudong Wang, Leda Bassit, Sijia Tao, Yong Jiang, Hui-Mien Hsiao, Ruian Ke, Alan S Perelson, Raymond F Schinazi
BACKGROUND: To shorten the course of direct-acting antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we examined the antiviral efficacy and safety of 3 weeks of response-guided therapy with an NS3 protease inhibitor and dual NS5A inhibitor-NS5B nucleotide analogue. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2a, single centre study, Chinese patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection without cirrhosis were randomly allocated by a computer program to one of three treatment groups (sofosbuvir, ledipasvir, and asunaprevir; sofosbuvir, daclatasvir, and simeprevir; or sofosbuvir, daclatasvir, and asunaprevir) until six patients in each group (1:1:1) achieved an ultrarapid virological response (plasma HCV RNA <500 IU/mL by day 2, measured by COBAS TaqMan HCV test, version 2...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916711/implementation-of-a-surgeon-level-comparative-quality-performance-review-to-improve-positive-surgical-margin-rates-during-radical-prostatectomy
#17
Richard S Matulewicz, Jeffrey J Tosoian, C J Stimson, Ashley E Ross, Meera Chappidi, Tamara L Lotan, Elizabeth Humphreys, Alan W Partin, Edward M Schaeffer
PURPOSE: Success in the era of value-based payment will depend on the capacity of health systems to improve quality while controlling costs. Comparative quality performance review (CQPR) can be used to drive improvements in surgical outcomes and thereby reduce costs. We sought to determine the efficacy of CQPR to improve a surgeon-level measure of surgical oncologic quality: positive surgical margin (PSM) rate at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: Between 1-1-2015 and 12-31-15, eight surgeons performing consecutive RP at a single high-volume institution were included...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916601/gaucher-disease-circa-2016-progress-and-ongoing-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Pramod K Mistry, Grisel Lopez, Raphael Schiffmann, Norman W Barton, Neal J Weinreb, Ellen Sidransky
Over the past decades, tremendous progress has been made in the field of Gaucher disease, the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Many of the colossal achievements took place during the course of the sixty-year tenure of Dr. Roscoe Brady at the National Institutes of Health. These include the recognition of the enzymatic defect involved, the isolation and characterization of the protein, the localization and characterization of the gene and its nearby pseudogene, as well as the identification of the first mutant alleles in patients...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#19
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916384/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-isolates-from-kolkata-india-over-a-15-years-period-1998-2012
#20
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Ujjwayini Ray, Indranil Roy, Shanta Dutta
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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