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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#1
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224190/metabolic-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#2
REVIEW
David E Cummings, Francesco Rubino
Several bariatric operations originally designed to promote weight loss have been found to powerfully treat type 2 diabetes, causing remission in most cases, through diverse mechanisms additional to the secondary consequences of weight loss. These observations have prompted consideration of such operations as 'metabolic surgery', used expressly to treat diabetes, including among patients who are only mildly obese or merely overweight. Large, long-term observational studies consistently demonstrate that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reductions in all cardiovascular risk factors, actual cardiovascular events, microvascular diabetes complications, cancer and death...
December 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224113/sex-gender-and-transgender-metabolic-impact-of-cross-hormone-therapy
#3
Roberta de Souza Santos, Aaron P Frank, Michael Douglas Nelson, Maurice M Garcia, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Most preclinical and clinical, animal, and human research has been biased with respect to sex and even more so with respect to gender. In fact, little is known about the impact of sex and even less about the influence of gender on overall metabolic processes. The National Institutes of Health has recognized this gap in scientific knowledge and now mandates that studies be conducted in both sexes and to include gender as variables influencing physiological processes such as metabolism. It is therefore critical to understand and appreciate how to incorporate sex and gender in preclinical and clinical research in order to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which metabolic processes differ by sex and gender...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223193/quality-indicators-for-evaluating-prehospital-emergency-care-a-scoping-review
#4
Ian Howard, Peter Cameron, Lee Wallis, Maaret Castren, Veronica Lindstrom
Introduction Historically, the quality and performance of prehospital emergency care (PEC) has been assessed largely based on surrogate, non-clinical endpoints such as response time intervals or other crude measures of care (eg, stakeholder satisfaction). However, advances in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems and services world-wide have seen their scope and reach continue to expand. This has dictated that novel measures of performance be implemented to compliment this growth. Significant progress has been made in this area, largely in the form of the development of evidence-informed quality indicators (QIs) of PEC...
December 10, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222905/premorbid-dietary-intake-of-protein-is-associated-with-early-outcomes-but-not-with-severity-of-ischemic-stroke
#5
Minhui Dai, Ling Tian, Wenjie Zi, Biyang Cai, Lulu Xiao, Keting Liu, Shuyu Zhou, Zhizhong Zhang, Wusheng Zhu, Fang Yang, Xinfeng Liu, Gelin Xu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary protein intake has been associated with reduced risk of stroke. This study aimed to examine the relationship between premorbid dietary intake of protein and both stroke severity and neurological outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in Jinling Hospital were screened for eligibility of participation. A validated foodfrequency questionnaire (FFQ) was performed to collect necessary data for calculating pre-stroke dietary intakes...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222902/fruit-and-vegetable-intake-of-korean-children-and-adolescents-according-to-cooking-location-and-daily-meal-study-based-on-2010-and-2011-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-data
#6
Yong-Suk Kwon, Yangsuk Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the intake of fruits and vegetables by cooking location and daily meals for Korean children and adolescents. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: For this study, 2,538 Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who participated in the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary intake survey (24-hour recall methods), were sampled. RESULTS: The total unsalted fruit and vegetable intake for all subjects was 300 g (aged 7-12 years, 280 g; aged 13-18 years, 316 g)...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222670/venetoclax-for-treating-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#7
REVIEW
Hema Mistry, Chidozie Nduka, Martin Connock, Jill Colquitt, Theodoros Mantopoulos, Emma Loveman, Renata Walewska, James Mason
Venetoclax is licensed to treat relapsed or refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). As part of the Single Technology Appraisal (STA) ID944, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited AbbVie, the manufacturer, to submit evidence on the use of venetoclax, within its licensed indication. The Evidence Review Group (ERG), Warwick Evidence, was asked to provide an independent and critical review of the submitted evidence. Evidence came from three single-arm trials in CLL patients with or without 17p deletion [del(17p])/TP53 chromosomal abnormalities...
December 8, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222394/equivalent-favorable-outcomes-possible-after-thrombectomy-for-posterior-circulation-large-vessel-occlusion-compared-with-the-anterior-circulation-the-musc-experience
#8
Ali Alawieh, Jan Vargas, Raymond D Turner, Aquilla S Turk, M Imran Chaudry, Jonathan Lena, Alejandro Spiotta
INTRODUCTION: In acute ischemic stroke (AIS), posterior circulation large vessel occlusions (LVOs) have been associated with poorer outcomes compared with anterior circulation LVOs. The outcomes of anterior versus posterior circulation thrombectomy for LVOs were compared at a high volume center employing a direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT). METHODS: We retrospectively studied a database of AIS cases that underwent ADAPT thrombectomy for LVOs. Cases were grouped by anatomical location of thrombectomy (posterior vs anterior circulation), and analysis was performed on both entire sample size...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222286/improving-emergency-department-based-care-of-sickle-cell-pain
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Glassberg
Pain is the leading cause of emergency department (ED) visits for individuals living with sickle cell disease (SCD). The care that is delivered in the ED is often cited by patients with SCD as the area of health care in greatest need of improvement. In 2014, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute released guidelines for the care of SCD, including recommendations for the management of acute sickle cell pain in the ED. These guidelines provide a framework to understand the elements of ideal emergency sickle cell pain care; however, they do not provide guidance on barriers and facilitators to achieving these ideals in the complex system of the ED...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221777/prevalence-of-sleep-apnea-at-the-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-with%C3%A2-or-without-thrombolysis
#10
Jaana K Huhtakangas, Juha Huhtakangas, Risto Bloigu, Tarja Saaresranta
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence, type, and severity of sleep apnea during the acute phase of ischemic stroke among patients either receiving or not receiving thrombolysis. METHODS: We recruited 246 consecutive adult ischemic stroke patients. Patients underwent cardiorespiratory sleep study with portable three-channel device during the first 48 h after the symptom onset of ischemic stroke. RESULTS: We enrolled 110 (65...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221496/does-intensive-management-improve-remission-rates-in-patients-with-intermediate-rheumatoid-arthritis-the-titrate-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Naomi H Martin, Fowzia Ibrahim, Brian Tom, James Galloway, Allan Wailoo, Jonathan Tosh, Heidi Lempp, Louise Prothero, Sofia Georgopoulou, Jackie Sturt, David L Scott
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled active rheumatoid arthritis can lead to increasing disability and reduced quality of life over time. 'Treating to target' has been shown to be effective in active established disease and also in early disease. However, there is a lack of nationally agreed treatment protocols for patients with established rheumatoid arthritis who have intermediate disease activity. This trial is designed to investigate whether intensive management of disease leads to a greater number of remissions at 12 months...
December 8, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221453/the-extra-cost-of-comorbidity-multiple-illnesses-and-the-economic-burden-of-non-communicable-diseases
#12
Sébastien Cortaredona, Bruno Ventelou
BACKGROUND: The literature offers competing estimates of disease costs, with each study having its own data and methods. In 2007, the Dutch Center for Public Health Forecasting of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment provided guidelines that can be used to set up cost-of-illness (COI) studies, emphasising that most COI analyses have trouble accounting for comorbidity in their cost estimations. When a patient has more than one chronic condition, the conditions may interact such that the patient's healthcare costs are greater than the sum of the costs for the individual diseases...
December 8, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220346/decreased-lymphocyte-to-monocyte-ratio-predicts-poor-prognosis-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-treated-with-thrombolysis
#13
Hao Ren, Lin Han, Hongbin Liu, Lin Wang, Xiao Liu, Yanjun Gao
BACKGROUND Our previous study found that lower lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) is an independent risk factor of clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, whether lower LMR is independently associated with adverse prognosis of AIS treated with thrombolysis has not been determined. In this study, we explored the relationship between LMR and prognosis of AIS treated with thrombolysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively enrolled 108 patients treated with thrombolysis. LMR was calculated according to lymphocyte count and monocyte count on admission...
December 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220330/early-recurrence-and-major-bleeding-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-and-atrial-fibrillation-treated-with-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants-raf-noacs-study
#14
Maurizio Paciaroni, Giancarlo Agnelli, Nicola Falocci, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Kostantinos Vadikolias, Chrysoula Liantinioti, Maria Chondrogianni, Paolo Bovi, Monica Carletti, Manuel Cappellari, Marialuisa Zedde, George Ntaios, Efstathia Karagkiozi, George Athanasakis, Kostantinos Makaritsis, Giorgio Silvestrelli, Alessia Lanari, Alfonso Ciccone, Jukka Putaala, Liisa Tomppo, Turgut Tatlisumak, Azmil H Abdul-Rahim, Kennedy R Lees, Andrea Alberti, Michele Venti, Monica Acciarresi, Cataldo D'Amore, Cecilia Becattini, Maria Giulia Mosconi, Ludovica Anna Cimini, Rossana Soloperto, Luca Masotti, Vieri Vannucchi, Gianni Lorenzini, Rossana Tassi, Francesca Guideri, Maurizio Acampa, Giuseppe Martini, Sung-Il Sohn, Simona Marcheselli, Nicola Mumoli, Maria Luisa De Lodovici, Giorgio Bono, Karen L Furie, Prasanna Tadi, Shadi Yaghi, Danilo Toni, Federica Letteri, Tiziana Tassinari, Odysseas Kargiotis, Enrico Maria Lotti, Yuriy Flomin, Michelangelo Mancuso, Miriam Maccarrone, Nicola Giannini, Fabio Bandini, Alessandro Pezzini, Loris Poli, Alessandro Padovani, Umberto Scoditti, Licia Denti, Domenico Consoli, Franco Galati, Simona Sacco, Antonio Carolei, Cindy Tiseo, Vanessa Gourbali, Giovanni Orlandi, Martina Giuntini, Alberto Chiti, Elisa Giorli, Gino Gialdini, Francesco Corea, Walter Ageno, Marta Bellesini, Giovanna Colombo, Serena Monaco, Mario Maimone Baronello, Theodore Karapanayiotides, Valeria Caso
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing to administer non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation is unclear. This prospective observational multicenter study evaluated the rates of early recurrence and major bleeding (within 90 days) and their timing in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation who received NOACs for secondary prevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: Recurrence was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and symptomatic systemic embolism, and major bleeding was defined as symptomatic cerebral and major extracranial bleeding...
November 29, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219878/community-based-management-of-multiple-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania-a-best-practice-implementation-project
#15
Isaya Jelly, Micah D J Peters
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has prioritized collaboration with communities in its 2016 "End TB" implementation strategy. Acknowledging the difficulties that some communities face in gaining access to health facilities due to barriers such as stigma, discrimination, healthcare expenditure, transport and income loss, partnering with communities in the roll-out of community-based TB management activities is vital. AIM: The aim of this project was to make a contribution to promoting evidence-based practice with regards to the community-based management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Kibong'oto National Infectious Disease Hospital, Tanzania, and thereby supporting improvements in patient outcomes and resource utilization...
December 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218967/call-for-national-dialogue-adapting-standards-of-care-in-extreme-events-we-are-not-ready
#16
Lynette Cusack, Kristine Gebbie
Clinical practices are based on a common understanding of nursing's professional standards in all aspects of patient care, no matter what the circumstances are. Circumstances can however, change dramatically due to emergencies, disasters, or pandemics and may make it difficult to meet the standard of care in the way nurses are accustomed. The Australian nursing profession has not yet facilitated a broad discussion and debate at the professional and institutional level about adapting standards of care under extreme conditions, a dialogue which goes beyond the content of basic emergency and disaster preparedness...
2017: Collegian: Journal of the Royal College of Nursing, Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218919/the-diversity-and-disparity-in-biomedical-informatics-ddbi-workshop
#17
William M Southerland, S Joshua Swamidass, Philip R O Payne, Laura Wiley, ClarLynda Williams-DeVane
The Diversity and Disparity in Biomedical Informatics (DDBI) workshop will be focused on complementary and critical issues concerned with enhancing diversity in the informatics workforce as well as diversity in patient cohorts. According to the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) at the NIH, diversity refers to the inclusion of the following traditionally underrepresented groups: African Americans/Blacks, Asians (>30 countries), American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Latino or Hispanic (20 countries)...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218914/advances-in-text-mining-and-visualization-for-precision-medicine
#18
Graciela Gonzalez-Hernandez, Abeed Sarker, Karen O'Connor, Casey Greene, Hongfang Liu
According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), precision medicine is "an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person." Although the text mining community has explored this realm for some years, the official endorsement and funding launched in 2015 with the Precision Medicine Initiative are beginning to bear fruit. This session sought to elicit participation of researchers with strong background in text mining and/or visualization who are actively collaborating with bench scientists and clinicians for the deployment of integrative approaches in precision medicine that could impact scientific discovery and advance the vision of precision medicine as a universal, accessible approach at the point of care...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218890/democratizing-data-science-through-data-science-training
#19
John Darrell Van Horn, Lily Fierro, Jeana Kamdar, Jonathan Gordon, Crystal Stewart, Avnish Bhattrai, Sumiko Abe, Xiaoxiao Lei, Caroline O'Driscoll, Aakanchha Sinha, Priyambada Jain, Gully Burns, Kristina Lerman, José Luis Ambite
The biomedical sciences have experienced an explosion of data which promises to overwhelm many current practitioners. Without easy access to data science training resources, biomedical researchers may find themselves unable to wrangle their own datasets. In 2014, to address the challenges posed such a data onslaught, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) initiative. To this end, the BD2K Training Coordinating Center (TCC; bigdatau.org) was funded to facilitate both in-person and online learning, and open up the concepts of data science to the widest possible audience...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217849/life-time-dosimetric-assessment-for-mice-and-rats-exposed-in-reverberation-chambers-of-the-2-year-ntp-cancer-bioassay-study-on-cell-phone-radiation
#20
Yijian Gong, Myles Capstick, Sven Kuehn, Perry Wilson, John Ladbury, Galen Koepke, David L McCormick, Ronald L Melnick, Niels Kuster
In this paper, we present the detailed life-time dosimetry analysis for rodents exposed in the reverberation exposure system designed for the two-year cancer bioassay study conducted by the National Toxicology Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The study required the well-controlled and characterized exposure of individually housed, unrestrained mice at 1900 MHz and rats at 900 MHz, frequencies chosen to give best uniformity exposure of organs and tissues. The wbSAR, the peak spatial SAR and the organ specific SAR as well as the uncertainty and variation due to the exposure environment, differences in the growth rates, and animal posture were assessed...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
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