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Sabrin R M Ibrahim, Gamal A Mohamed, Mohamed F Zayed, Samir A Ross
Iris species are well recognized as wealthy sources of isoflavonoids. In the present study, phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Iris germanica (Iridaceae) procure the isolation of two new isoflavonoids namely, 8-hydroxyirilone 5-methyl ether (2) and 8-hydroxyirilone (3), along with eight known isoflavonoids: irilone 4'-methyl ether (1), irilone (4), irisolidone (5), irigenin S (6), irigenin (7), irilone 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), iridin S (9), and iridin (10). The isolated flavonoids were structurally characterized with the assist of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRMS) and comparing with the published data...
December 30, 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
Bonnie J Ohler, Christelle Guédot, Richard S Zack, Peter J Landolt
Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
Reza Feyzi, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhosseini Tamijani, Houshang Rafatpanah, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Several biological and medical benefits of Saffron, Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), have been demonstrated. However, mechanisms of actions for purified constituents are greatly unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of Safranal, a main constituent of Saffron stigma, on cell viability and cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were examined. METHODS: Effects of Safranal at 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM concentrations were evaluated on cell viability and production of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) from non-stimulated and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated PBMCs, compared to 0...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover, metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, but because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors...
November 12, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Arindam Ghosh Mazumder, Pallavi Sharma, Vikram Patial, Damanpreet Singh
Crocin is a pharmacologically active carotenoid pigment mainly present in the stigmas of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae). It has been well explored in experimental animal models of cognitive impairments, depression, anxiety and epilepsy. This study was designed to understand the effect of crocin on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling development and its associated cognitive deficit in mouse. Crocin treatment at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg p.o. doses showed a marked reduction in severity of PTZ-induced seizures. There was an increase in novel object preference index and discrimination ratio in the crocin-treated groups in the novel object recognition test...
October 31, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Bonnie J Ohler, Christelle Guédot, Richard S Zack, Peter J Landolt
Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
R B Miz, L O Tacuatiá, F W Cidade, A P de Souza, F Bered, L Eggers, T T de Souza-Chies
Recent phylogenetic studies on Sisyrinchium strongly suggest that species classified in section Hydastylus and section Viperella belong to a single group of plants in recent adaptive radiation (Clade IV). These species neither present clear morphological differentiation among them nor show clear identification using DNA barcode markers. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a set of polymorphic microsatellite markers compatible for representative species of both sections to ensure variability that could be revealed by SSR markers...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Lijuan Cheng, Yanan Wang, Zhang Cai, Jie Liu, Binbin Yu, Qixing Zhou
As a green remediation technology, phytoremediation is becoming one of the most promising methods for treating petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) contaminated soil. Pot-culture experiments were conducted in this study to investigate phytoremediation potential of two representative Iridaceae species (Iris dichotoma Pall. and Iris lactea Pall.) in remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated saline-alkali soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results showed that I. lactea was more endurable to extremely high concentration of PHCs (about 40,000 mg/kg), with a relatively high degradation rate of 20...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Kyeong Wan Woo, Ki Ho Lee, Ji Hun Jang, Min Suk Kim, Hyun Woo Cho, Jung Hee Cho, Byeongkwan An
Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Iris minutiaurea (Iridaceae) using column chromatography led to the isolation of a new xanthone glycoside, 1-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-xanthone-6-O-β-D-glucoside (1), together with one known flavonoid glycoside (2). The structure of this new compound was elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic, including 1D (1H, 13C), 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC), and high resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric (HR-FAB-MS) data and enzyme hydrolysis...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
Angelino Carta, Sarah Hanson, Jonas V Müller
Seed germination is the most important transitional event between early stages in the life cycle of spermatophytes and understanding it is crucial to understand plant adaptation and evolution. However, so far seed germination of phylogenetically closely related species has been poorly investigated. To test the hypothises that phylogenetically related plant species have similar seed ecophysiological traits thereby reflecting certain habitat conditions as a result of local adaptation, we studied seed dormancy and germination in seven Mediterranean species in the genus Romulea (Iridaceae)...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
O Olga Mykchailenko, M Vladimir Kovalyov
UNLABELLED: This article presents the results of testing of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, isoflavonoids, xanthones, phenolcarboxylic acids, tannins, coumarins, etc.) in the rhizomes of four Iris species (Iris sibirica L., Iris pseudacorus L., Iris imbricatа Lindl., Iris hungarica Waldst. et Kit.). With the use of paper and thin-layer chromatography, fifteen phenolic compounds were identified: gallic, coumaric, cinnamic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, ferulic, caffeic acids; kaempferol, quercetin, hispidulin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, mangiferin and isomangiferin...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
B Anderson, A Pauw, W W Cole, S C H Barrett
Mating patterns and natural selection play important roles in determining whether genetic polymorphisms are maintained or lost. Here, we document an atypical population of Lapeirousia anceps (Iridaceae) with a bimodal distribution of floral-tube length and investigate the reproductive mechanisms associated with this pattern of variation. Flowers were visited exclusively by the long-proboscid fly Moegistorhynchus longirostris (Nemestrinidae), which exhibited a unimodal distribution of proboscis length and displayed a preference for long-tubed phenotypes...
August 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Masomeh Khalili, Hamed Fathi, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh
Crocus genus (Iridaceae) is comprises approximately 80 species. In this study in vitro antioxidant activities of extracts from C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts were investigated. Ultrasonically assisted extraction (US), percolation method (PE) and polyphenolic fraction (PP) were used. Antioxidant activities were evaluated with five different tests. Aerial parts US extract with high levels of phenol and flavonoids were the most potent extract in DPPH radical scavenging than others. Aerial parts PE extract had shown very potent reducing power, which was so better than other extracts (p<0...
May 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hui Wang, María Talavera, Ya Min, Elodie Flaven, Eric Imbert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Flower colour polymorphism in plants has been used as a classic model for understanding the importance of neutral processes vs. natural selection in population differentiation. However, current explanations for the maintenance of flower colour polymorphism mainly rely on balancing selection, while neutral processes have seldom been championed. Iris lutescens (Iridaceae) is a widespread species in the northern Mediterranean basin, which shows a stable and striking purple-yellow flower colour polymorphism...
May 2016: Annals of Botany
Vivienne K Y Lam, Vincent S F T Merckx, Sean W Graham
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Few-gene studies with broad taxon sampling have provided major insights into phylogeny and underpin plant classification. However, they have typically excluded heterotrophic plants because of loss, pseudogenization, or rapid evolution of plastid genes. Here we performed a phylogenetic survey of three commonly retained plastid genes to assess their utility in placing mycoheterotrophs. METHODS: We surveyed accD, clpP, and matK for 34 taxa from seven monocot families that include full mycoheterotrophs and a broad sampling of photosynthetic taxa...
April 2016: American Journal of Botany
Le Zhang, Kunhua Wei, Jianping Xu, Dawei Yang, Chunhong Zhang, Zhipeng Wang, Minhui Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC is the sole species in the genus Belamcanda Adans. (Iridaceae), found mainly in Northeast Asia. Bombus chinensis has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for its multiple therapeutic uses in the form of antipyretic agents, antidote, expectorant, antiphlogistic and analgesic. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This manuscript comprehensively summarizes the various studies published in recent years on the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicology of B...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jan C De Vynck, Richard M Cowling, Alastair J Potts, Curtis W Marean
The coastal environments of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene...
2016: PeerJ
Fatma Yildiztekin, Said Nadeem, Ebru Erol, Mahmut Yildiztekin, Atilla L Tuna, Mehmet Ozturk
Context We report the first ever chemical/biochemical study on Crocus mathewii Kerndorff (Iridaceae) - a Turkish endemic angiosperm. This plant has never been explored for its phytochemistry and bioactivities. Objective This study explores C. mathewii corm and aerial parts for the chemical and biological properties of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fractions of the extracts. Material and methods Plant material (20 g) was extracted by methanol (250 mL × 5, 3 days each) and fractioned into hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water...
September 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Adriana Campos, Débora Barbosa Vendramini-Costa, Giovanna Francisco Fiorito, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois Ruiz, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Greice Maria Rodrigues de Souza, Franco Delle-Monache, Valdir Cechinel Filho
CONTEXT: Cipura paludosa Aubl. (Iridaceae) is widely used in folk medicine to treat several ailments. Experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and neuroprotective effects. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the possible antiproliferative potential of the crude methanol extract and three isolated compounds from the bulbs of C. paludosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phytochemical analysis was carried out by conventional chromatographic techniques, and the resulting compounds were identified by NMR (1)H and (13)C...
2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Iriny M Ayoub, Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed El-Shazly, Mohamed L Ashour, Abdel Nasser B Singab, Michael Wink
Volatile oils from the leaves, flowers and rhizomes of Dietes bicolor (Steud.) Sweet ex Klatt (Iridaceae) were analyzed using GLC/FID and GLC/MS. A total of 84 compounds were identified accounting for 94.65, 95.63 and 87.09% in the hydrodistilled oils from flowers, leaves and rhizomes, respectively. Spathulenol (48.44%) represented the major component in the leaf oil, followed by dihydro-edulan I (6.25%), cubenol (6.00%) and τ-cadinol (5.90%). For the flower and rhizome oils, fatty acids, their esters, aliphatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives predominate...
July 1, 2015: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
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