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Nonpharmacologic interventions

William M Jackson, Nicholas Davis, Stephen A Sands, Robert A Whittington, Lena S Sun
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? CONTEXT: The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Jessica Quinlan-Woodward, Autumn Gode, Jeffery A Dusek, Adam S Reinstein, Jill R Johnson, Sue Sendelbach
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of acupuncture to a standard-of-care (control) group on pain, nausea, anxiety, and ability to cope. 
. DESIGN: Pilot randomized, controlled trial. 
. SETTING: Abbott Northwestern Hospital, a large, urban, tertiary care hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
. SAMPLE: 30 adult women undergoing surgery for breast cancer.
. METHODS: Women were randomly assigned to two hospital-based acupuncture treatments versus usual care after breast cancer surgery...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Orjan Skogar, Johan Lokk
This review focuses on the diagnosis and management of Parkinson-related pain which is one of the more frequently reported nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Pain is ranked high by patients as a troublesome symptom in all stages of the disease. In early-stage PD, pain is rated as the most bothersome symptom. Knowledge of the correct diagnosis of pain origin and possible methods of treatments for pain relief in PD is of great importance...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Ahmad Ismail
Providing effective pain management is necessary for all patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Because of developmental considerations, caring for children may provide additional challenges. The purpose of this literature review is to describe key challenges in providing effective pain management in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), with the aim of bringing about a better understanding by health care providers caring for children. Challenges of providing effective pain management in the PICU can be categorized into four levels...
October 15, 2016: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Elena Antonelli, Laura Vagnoli, Enrica Ciucci, Chiara Vernucci, Federica Lachi, Andrea Messeri
OBJECTIVES: The majority of children and adolescents presenting to the emergency department are in pain and require painful procedures. This randomized study was to investigate the efficacy of 3 different nonpharmacologic interventions (clowns, dogs, and musicians) to reduce pain and analyze the perception of positive and negative affects after the presence of these activities in a short-stay observation unit (SSOU). METHODS: Participants were composed of 105 children (54 boys and 51 girls; aged 3-16 years) assigned randomly to an experimental group (N = 57) that was composed of patients who were present in the SSOU...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Safiya Imtiaz Shaikh, D Nagarekha, Ganapati Hegade, M Marutheesh
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the complex and significant problems in anesthesia practice, with growing trend toward ambulatory and day care surgeries. This review focuses on pathophysiology, pharmacological prophylaxis, and rescue therapy for PONV. We searched the Medline and PubMed database for articles published in English from 1991 to 2014 while writing this review using "postoperative nausea and vomiting, PONV, nausea-vomiting, PONV prophylaxis, and rescue" as keywords. PONV is influenced by multiple factors which are related to the patient, surgery, and pre-, intra-, and post-operative anesthesia factors...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Ipsit V Vahia, Rujvi Kamat, Cheng Vang, Carolina Posada, Lisa Ross, Sarah Oreck, Alok Bhatt, Colin Depp, Dilip V Jeste, Daniel D Sewell
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, safety, and utility of tablet devices as novel nonpharmacologic tools in managing older psychiatric inpatients with agitation and dementia. METHODS: Thirty-six patients at a geriatric psychiatry inpatient unit were provided with tablets when agitated and used various apps on the tablet related to communication, games, music, web browser, and photography during their stay. Study staff documented the frequency, duration, and app usage history and rated the extent to which agitation improved after tablet use...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Hongyong Deng, Clive E Adams
OBJECTIVE: To survey the reports of randomized trials of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interventions for schizophrenia and produce a broad overview of this type of research activity in this area. METHOD: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's comprehensive Trials Register (January 2016), selected all relevant randomized trials, and extracted the data within each study. Finally, we sought relevant reviews on the Cochrane Library. RESULTS: We initially screened 423 articles from which we identified 378 relevant studies randomizing 35 341 participants (average study size 94, SD 60)...
October 13, 2016: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Aileen Wk Chan, Doris Sf Yu, K C Choi, Diana Tf Lee, Janet Wh Sit, Helen Yl Chan
PURPOSE: Age-related cognitivee decline is a growing public health concern worldwide. More than a quarter of adults with cognitive impairment experience sleep disturbance. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the preliminary effects of tai chi qigong (TCQ) on improving the night-time sleep quality of older adults with cognitive impairment. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults with cognitive impairment who complain of sleep disturbance. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with two groups...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Ahmad Sabbahi, Ross Arena, Ahmed Elokda, Shane A Phillips
Hypertension (HTN) has recently been determined to be the number one overall risk factor of disease. With direct and indirect costs amounting to $46.4 billion in 2011 and projections of six-fold increases by 2030, the importance of low-cost nonpharmacological interventions can be appreciated. Vascular structural changes, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic overstimulation are major contributing factors to the pathophysiology of HTN. Exercise training (ET) for blood pressure (BP) control has been shown to be an effective and integral component of nonpharmacological interventions for BP control...
September 30, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Glenda M MacQueen, Katherine A Memedovich
Cognitive dysfunction is a recognized feature of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Cognitive impairment is associated with poor overall functional outcome and is therefore an important feature of illness to optimize for patients' occupational and academic outcomes. While generally people with BD appear to have a greater degree of cognitive impairment than those with MDD, direct comparisons of both patient groups within a single study are lacking. There are a number of methods for the assessment of cognitive function, but few are currently used in clinical practice...
September 29, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Yue Liu, Ting-Ting Wang, Ran Zhang, Wen-Yan Fu, Xu Wang, Fang Wang, Peng Gao, Yang-Nan Ding, Yan Xie, De-Long Hao, Hou-Zao Chen, De-Pei Liu
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by a localized dilation of the abdominal aorta, is a life-threatening vascular pathology. Because of the current lack of effective treatment for AAA rupture, prevention is of prime importance for AAA management. Calorie restriction (CR) is a nonpharmacological intervention that delays the aging process and provides various health benefits. However, whether CR prevents AAA formation remains untested. In this study, we subjected Apoe(-/-) mice to 12 wk of CR and then examined the incidence of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AAA formation...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
David Hui, Rony Dev, Eduardo Bruera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delirium is the most common and distressing neuropsychiatric syndrome in cancer patients. Few evidence-based treatment options are available due to the paucity of high quality of studies. In this review, we shall examine the literature on the use of neuroleptics to treat delirium in patients with advanced cancer. Specifically, we will discuss the randomized controlled trials that examined neuroleptics in the front line setting, and studies that explore second-line options for patients with persistent agitation...
September 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Blake J Lawrence, Natalie Gasson, Andrea M Loftus
The current study examined the prevalence and subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in an Australian sample of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Seventy participants with PD completed neuropsychological assessments of their cognitive performance, using MDS Task Force Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. A cut-off score of less than one standard deviation (SD) below normative data determined impaired performance on a neuropsychological test. Of 70 participants, 45 (64%) met Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI...
2016: Scientific Reports
Monica Marie Nelson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this focused ethnography was to describe the culture of care and nonpharmacologic nursing interventions performed by NICU nurses for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). METHOD: Roper and Shapira's framework for the analysis included participant observation, individual interviews, and examination of existing documents. SAMPLE: Twelve full-time nurses were observed and interviewed. RESULTS: Results described the culture of care provided to infants with NAS by NICU nurses as evidenced by six themes: learn the baby (routine care, comfort care, environment, adequate rest and sleep, feeding), core team relationships (support, interpersonal relationships), role satisfaction (nurturer/comforter, becoming an expert), grief, making a difference (wonderful insanity, critical to them), and education and care of the mother...
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
Danine Sullinger, Alexander Gilmer, Lesly Jurado, Lisa Hall Zimmerman, Joshua Steelman, Ann Gallagher, Tiffany Dupre, Elizabeth Acquista
BACKGROUND: Delirium in the critically ill is associated with increased mortality, length of stay (LOS), and prolonged cognitive dysfunction. Existing guidelines provide no recommendation for use of combination nonpharmacological and pharmacological prevention protocols or use of antipsychotic medications for the prevention or treatment of delirium. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the impact of implementing a delirium treatment protocol on the number of delirium-free days experienced by acutely delirious patients in the surgical trauma intensive care unit (STICU)...
September 14, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Barbara Resnick, Ann Kolanowski, Kimberly Van Haitsma, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Alice Bonner, Erin Vigne, Lauren Holtzman, Paula M Mulhall
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are common in nursing home residents, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services now require that nonpharmacological interventions be used as a first-line treatment. Few staff know how to implement these interventions. The purpose of this study was to pilot test an implementation strategy, Evidence Integration Triangle for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (EIT-4-BPSD), which was developed to help staff integrate behavioral interventions into routine care...
November 2016: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Giorgia Michelini, Glenn L Kitsune, Celeste H M Cheung, Daniel Brandeis, Tobias Banaschewski, Philip Asherson, Gráinne McLoughlin, Jonna Kuntsi
BACKGROUND: The processes underlying persistence and remission of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are poorly understood. We examined whether cognitive and neurophysiological impairments on a performance-monitoring task distinguish between ADHD persisters and remitters. METHODS: On average 6 years after initial assessment, 110 adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD (87 persisters, 23 remitters) and 169 age-matched control participants were compared on cognitive-performance measures and event-related potentials of conflict monitoring (N2) and error processing (error-related negativity and positivity) from an arrow flanker task with low-conflict and high-conflict conditions...
July 5, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Ruiying Kang, Yeqing Wu, Zhiwu Li, Jun Jiang, Qi Gao, Yuncui Yu, Keming Gao, Yuxiang Yan, Yan He
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their ability to improve negative symptoms, quality of life, and medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia. The addition of nonpharmacological interventions like social skills training has a positive effect on medication adherence and decreases rehospitalization rates but is limited in improving patients' symptoms, aggressive behaviors, and quality of life. Aerobic exercise, especially Tai-chi, can potentially reduce psychopathological and negative symptoms, decrease aggressive behaviors, and improve quality of life...
September 2, 2016: Psychopathology
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