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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926743/antecedents-of-new-onset-major-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-at-high-familial-risk
#1
Frances Rice, Ruth Sellers, Gemma Hammerton, Olga Eyre, Rhys Bevan-Jones, Ajay K Thapar, Stephan Collishaw, Gordon T Harold, Anita Thapar
Importance: Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in individuals at high familial risk of depression and is associated with poor long-term mental health, social, and educational outcomes. Objectives: To examine the developmental pathways that lead to first-episode adolescent-onset MDD (incident cases) in those at high familial risk and to postulate a theoretically informed model that enables simultaneous testing of different pathways to incident adolescent-onset MDD composed of contributions from familial/genetic and social risk factors, as well as effects via specific clinical antecedents...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926681/influence-of-immediate-and-delayed-lower-limb-amputation-compared-with-lower-limb-salvage-on-functional-and-mental-health-outcomes-post-rehabilitation-in-the-u-k-military
#2
Peter Ladlow, Rhodri Phillip, Russell Coppack, John Etherington, James Bilzon, M Polly McGuigan, Alexander N Bennett
BACKGROUND: Medical practitioners face difficult decisions over whether to amputate or to salvage a lower limb that has undergone trauma. To our knowledge, there has been little evidence reporting the impact of different surgical decisions on functional and mental health outcomes following intensive rehabilitation that might inform decision-making. METHODS: This study is a retrospective, independent-group comparison of rehabilitation outcomes from a U.K. military complex trauma rehabilitation center...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923183/the-distal-consequences-of-physical-and-emotional-neglect-in-emerging-adults-a-person-centered-multi-wave-longitudinal-study
#3
Joseph R Cohen, Suvarna V Menon, Ryan C Shorey, Vi Donna Le, Jeff R Temple
Despite being the most prevalent form of child maltreatment, the correlates and consequences of neglect are poorly understood, particularly during early adulthood. The present multi-wave, longitudinal study sought to address this gap in this literature by examining physical and emotional neglect in emerging adults in a diverse community sample. 580 adolescents (AgeMean=18.25; AgeSD=0.59; 58.3% female; 31% Hispanic, 28.9% Caucasian; 26.2% African-American; 13.9% other) completed self-report measures for child maltreatment at baseline, and measures for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use every year for three years...
December 3, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923164/thinking-anxious-feeling-anxious-or-both-cognitive-bias-moderates-the-relationship-between-anxiety-disorder-status-and-sympathetic-arousal-in-youth
#4
Michelle Rozenman, Allison Vreeland, John Piacentini
Cognitive bias and physiological arousal are two putative markers that may underlie youth anxiety. However, data on relationships between cognitive bias and arousal are limited, and typically do not include behavioral measurement of these constructs in order to tap real-time processes. We aimed to examine the relationship between performance-based cognitive bias and sympathetic arousal during stress in clinically anxious and typically-developing youth. The sample included children and adolescents ages 9 to 17 (Mean age=13...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922605/pattern-of-structural-brain-changes-in-social-anxiety-disorder-after-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-a-longitudinal-multimodal-mri-study
#5
V R Steiger, A B Brühl, S Weidt, A Delsignore, M Rufer, L Jäncke, U Herwig, J Hänggi
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM)...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922448/the-second-randomised-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-cost-effectiveness-and-acceptability-of-computerised-therapy-reeact-2-trial-does-the-provision-of-telephone-support-enhance-the-effectiveness-of-computer-delivered-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-a-randomised
#6
Sally Brabyn, Ricardo Araya, Michael Barkham, Peter Bower, Cindy Cooper, Ana Duarte, David Kessler, Sarah Knowles, Karina Lovell, Elizabeth Littlewood, Richard Mattock, Stephen Palmer, Jodi Pervin, David Richards, Debbie Tallon, David White, Simon Walker, Gillian Worthy, Simon Gilbody
BACKGROUND: Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) is an efficient form of therapy potentially improving access to psychological care. Indirect evidence suggests that the uptake and effectiveness of cCBT can be increased if facilitated by telephone, but this is not routinely offered in the NHS. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone-facilitated free-to-use cCBT [e.g. MoodGYM (National Institute for Mental Health Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia)] with minimally supported cCBT...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920976/resting-state-theta-band-connectivity-and-graph-analysis-in-generalized-social-anxiety-disorder
#7
Mengqi Xing, Reza Tadayonnejad, Annmarie MacNamara, Olusola Ajilore, Julia DiGangi, K Luan Phan, Alex Leow, Heide Klumpp
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state studies show generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is associated with disturbances in networks involved in emotion regulation, emotion processing, and perceptual functions, suggesting a network framework is integral to elucidating the pathophysiology of gSAD. However, fMRI does not measure the fast dynamic interconnections of functional networks. Therefore, we examined whole-brain functional connectomics with electroencephalogram (EEG) during resting-state...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920738/an-investigation-of-diagnostic-accuracy-and-confidence-associated-with-diagnostic-checklists-as-well-as-gender-biases-in-relation-to-mental-disorders
#8
Jan C Cwik, Fabienne Papen, Jan-Erik Lemke, Jürgen Margraf
This study examines the utility of checklists in attaining more accurate diagnoses in the context of diagnostic decision-making for mental disorders. The study also aimed to replicate results from a meta-analysis indicating that there is no association between patients' gender and misdiagnoses. To this end, 475 psychotherapists were asked to judge three case vignettes describing patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Borderline Personality Disorder. Therapists were randomly assigned to experimental conditions in a 2 (diagnostic method: with using diagnostic checklists vs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920735/lower-sensitivity-to-happy-and-angry-facial-emotions-in-young-adults-with-psychiatric-problems
#9
Charlotte Vrijen, Catharina A Hartman, Gerine M A Lodder, Maaike Verhagen, Peter de Jonge, Albertine J Oldehinkel
Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919307/patterns-and-correlates-of-major-depression-in-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-of-0-5-million-men-and-women
#10
Y Chen, D Bennett, R Clarke, Y Guo, C Yu, Z Bian, L Ma, Y Huang, Q Sun, N Zhang, X Zheng, J Chen, R Peto, K S Kendler, L Li, Z Chen
BACKGROUND: Worldwide 350 million people suffer from major depression, with the majority of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the patterns, correlates and care-seeking behaviour of adults suffering from major depressive episode (MDE) in China. METHOD: A nationwide study recruited 512 891 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 provinces across China during 2004-2008. The 12-month prevalence of MDE was assessed by the Modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-short form...
December 6, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919020/psychosocial-factors-associated-with-migraine-and-tension-type-headache-in-medical-students
#11
Elena R Lebedeva, Natalia R Kobzeva, Denis V Gilev, Nadezhda V Kislyak, Jes Olesen
BACKGROUND: In our previous study of workers, blood donors and medical students, students stood out with a higher 1-year prevalence of migraine (28%) and tension-type headache (TTH) (74%). General factors associated with headache were common for all groups except low physical activity. The hypothesis of this study was therefore that a number of psychosocial factors relating to the personal sphere would better explain the high prevalence of migraine and TTH in students. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1042 students (719 females, 323 males, mean age 20...
November 8, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918275/behavioral-mechanisms-of-context-fear-generalization-in-mice
#12
Kylie A Huckleberry, Laura B Ferguson, Michael R Drew
There is growing interest in generalization of learned contextual fear, driven in part by the hypothesis that mood and anxiety disorders stem from impaired hippocampal mechanisms of fear generalization and discrimination. However, there has been relatively little investigation of the behavioral and procedural mechanisms that might control generalization of contextual fear. We assessed the relative contribution of different contextual features to context fear generalization and characterized how two common conditioning protocols-foreground (uncued) and background (cued) contextual fear conditioning-affected context fear generalization...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917492/predictors-of-developing-mathematics-anxiety-among-middle-school-students-a-2-year-prospective-study
#13
Nir Madjar, Gil Zalsman, Abraham Weizman, Shaul Lev-Ran, Gal Shoval
While there is an abundance of research pertaining to the development of anxiety disorders, there is still a dearth of knowledge regarding the development of anxiety in the general population. The objective of this study was to longitudinally explore the development of mathematics anxiety among normative middle-school students, and to identify the moderating role of gender, school transition and scholastic achievements on these trajectories. Subjects included 413 sixth grade students (53.3% females, mean age 11...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917455/what-s-the-worry-with-social-anxiety-comparing-cognitive-processes-in-children-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-social-anxiety-disorder
#14
Cate S Hearn, Caroline L Donovan, Susan H Spence, Sonja March, Monique C Holmes
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) in children is often comorbid with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We investigated whether worry, intolerance of uncertainty, beliefs about worry, negative problem orientation and cognitive avoidance, that are typically associated with GAD, are present in children with SAD. Participants included 60 children (8-12 years), matched on age and gender. Groups included children: with primary GAD and without SAD (GAD); with primary SAD and without GAD (SAD); and without an anxiety disorder (NAD)...
December 5, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917449/study-of-blood-exposure-related-mental-health-illness-among-clinical-nurses
#15
Xiaojia Xiong, Min Li, Yongliang Jiang, Xindeng Tong, Yanzhong Peng
Nurses are subjected to high amount of stress in the medical setting, and work-related stress often leads to mental problems. This study aims to investigate the mental health status of nurses exposed to blood through needlestick injuries. A total of 302 nurses working in the hospital of Guangdong, China, participated in this study. Out of the 302 nurses, 140 did not experience any needlestick injuries during the previous week, whereas 162 nurses experienced needlestick injuries. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-28 Standardized Questionnaire, which uses physical, anxiety, social function, and depression subscales, was used in this study...
December 5, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917000/emotional-working-memory-training-as-an-online-intervention-for-adolescent-anxiety-and-depression-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
E Leone de Voogd, Reinout W Wiers, Robert J Zwitser, Elske Salemink
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent disorders in adolescence. They are associated with deficits in working memory (WM), which also appears to increase rumination, worry, and negative mood. WM training, especially in an emotional context, might help in reducing or preventing these disorders. The current study investigated the direct effects of online emotional WM training on WM capacity, and short- and long-term effects on symptoms of anxiety and depression, and secondary measures of emotional functioning...
September 2016: Australian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915159/public-speaking-avoidance-as-a-treatment-moderator-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#17
Bita Mesri, Andrea N Niles, Andre Pittig, Richard T LeBeau, Ethan Haik, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have both garnered empirical support for the effective treatment of social anxiety disorder. However, not every patient benefits equally from either treatment. Identifying moderators of treatment outcome can help to better understand which treatment is best suited for a particular patient. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals who met criteria for social anxiety disorder were assessed as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing 12 weeks of CBT and ACT...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913990/sirukumab-a-potential-treatment-for-mood-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Aileen J Zhou, Yena Lee, Giacomo Salvadore, Benjamin Hsu, Trehani M Fonseka, Sidney H Kennedy, Roger S McIntyre
Convergent evidence indicates that abnormalities in the innate immune system may be pertinent to the pathogenesis, phenomenology, and possible treatment of several mental disorders. In keeping with this view, the targeting of interleukin-6 with the human monoclonal antibody sirukumab may represent a possible treatment and disease modification approach, for adults with brain-based disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder). A PubMed/Medline database search was performed using the following search terms: sirukumab; anti-IL-6; IL-6; major depressive disorder; inflammation...
December 2, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912875/long-term-chamomile-matricaria-chamomilla-l-treatment-for-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Jun J Mao, Sharon X Xie, John R Keefe, Irene Soeller, Qing S Li, Jay D Amsterdam
BACKGROUND: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders treated in primary care, yet current therapies have limited efficacy and substantial side effects. PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) use for prevention of GAD symptom relapse. METHODS: Outpatients from primary care practices and local communities with a primary diagnosis of moderate-to-severe GAD were enrolled for this two-phase study at a large US academic medical center...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912871/short-term-open-label-chamomile-matricaria-chamomilla-l-therapy-of-moderate-to-severe-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#20
John R Keefe, Jun J Mao, Irene Soeller, Qing S Li, Jay D Amsterdam
BACKGROUND: Conventional drug treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are often accompanied by substantial side effects, dependence, and/or withdrawal syndrome. A prior controlled study of oral chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) extract showed significant efficacy versus placebo, and suggested that chamomile may have anxiolytic activity for individuals with GAD. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that treatment with chamomile extract would result in a significant reduction in GAD severity ratings, and would be associated with a favorable adverse event and tolerability profile...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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