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Pulmonary Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150624/semiquantative-visual-assessment-of-sub-solid-pulmonary-nodules-%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-cm-in-differentiation-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-spectrum
#1
Fu-Zong Wu, Po-An Chen, Carol C Wu, Pei-Lun Kuo, Shu-Ping Tsao, Chu-Chun Chien, En-Kuei Tang, Ming-Ting Wu
We aimed to analyze CT features of persistent subsolid nodules (SSN) ≦3 cm diagnosed pathologically as adenocarcinoma spectrum to investigate whether parameters enable distinction between invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas (IPAs) and pre-invasive lesions. A total of 129 patients with 141 SSNs confirmed with surgically pathologic proof were retrospectively reviewed. Of 141 SSNs, there were 57 pure ground-glass nodules (GGNs), 22 heterogeneous GGNs, and 62 part-solid nodules. SSN subclassification showed a significant linear trend with invasive degree of the adenocarcinoma spectrum (pure GGNs 7%; heterogeneous GGNs 36...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149952/financial-impact-of-incidental-radiologic-findings-during-living-kidney-donor-evaluation
#2
A Mutneja, L Saling, M Yano, A Vijayan
Living kidney donor (LKD) transplantation is an important alternative for the end-stage renal disease population and is preferred due to superior outcomes when compared with dialysis or deceased donor transplantation. LKD evaluation includes a computed tomography angiogram (CTA) for assessment of renal and renovascular anatomy. Incidental nonrenal findings are frequently noted during the CTAs, and these may have variable clinical significance. These incidental findings lead to further testing, procedures, and referrals, which incur additional cost...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148977/the-role-of-micrornas-in-chronic-respiratory-disease-recent-insights
#3
Lindsay R Stolzenburg, Ann Harris
Chronic respiratory diseases encompass a group of diverse conditions affecting the airways, which all impair lung function over time. They include cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma, which together affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene repression, are now recognized as major regulators in the development and progression of chronic lung disease. Alterations in miRNA abundance occur in lung tissue, inflammatory cells, and freely circulating in blood and are thought to function both as drivers and modifiers of disease...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148856/novel-applications-for-serum-procalcitonin-testing-in-clinical-practice
#4
Justin J Choi, Matthew W McCarthy
Procalcitonin has emerged as a reliable marker of acute bacterial infection in hospitalized patients and the assay has recently been incorporated into several clinical algorithms to reduce antimicrobial overuse, but its use in patients with end-organ dysfunction is controversial. Areas covered: In this review, the authors examine what is known about procalcitonin testing in patients with organ dysfunction, including those with end-stage renal disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cirrhosis, and explore how the assay is now being used in the management of non-infectious diseases...
November 17, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148851/airway-geometry-airway-flow-and-particle-measurement-methods-implications-on-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#5
A Kourmatzis, S Cheng, H-K Chan
The effectiveness of drug delivery to the lungs is inextricably linked to the fundamental interactions that occur between particles and flow in the extrathoracic airway. Research in this field requires time resolved in-vivo and in-vitro measurements of three separate, yet intricately linked parameters: i) airway flow, ii) airway geometry, and iii) drug particle characteristics. A number of recent significant developments have been made in the experimental diagnostic tools used to characterise these parameters...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148206/comparison-of-valvar-and-right-ventricular-function-following-transcatheter-and-surgical-pulmonary-valve-replacement
#6
Wendy F Li, Heidi Pollard, Mohsen Karimi, Jeremy D Asnes, William E Hellenbrand, Veronika Shabanova, Constance G Weismann
OBJECTIVE: Trans-catheter (TC) pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) has become common practice for patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) and/or pulmonic insufficiency (PI). Our aim was to compare PVR and right ventricular (RV) function of patients who received TC vs surgical PVR. DESIGN: Retrospective review of echocardiograms obtained at three time points: before, immediately after PVR, and most recent. PATIENTS: Sixty-two patients (median age 19 years, median follow-up 25 months) following TC (N = 32) or surgical (N = 30) PVR at Yale-New Haven Hospital were included...
November 17, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148061/endocannabinoids-modulate-gq-11-protein-coupled-receptor-agonist-induced-vasoconstriction-via-a-negative-feedback-mechanism
#7
REVIEW
Olga Karpińska, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Monika Kloza, Hanna Kozłowska
OBJECTIVES: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system centrally and peripherally regulates cardiovascular parameters, including blood pressure, in health and disease. The relationship between Gq/11 protein-coupled receptor activation, regulation of eCBs release (mainly 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and subsequent CB1 receptor activation was initially observed in the central nervous system. Here, we review the latest findings from systemic physiological studies which include for the first time data from pulmonary arteries...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147917/recommendations-for-perioperative-management-of-lung-cancer-patients-with-comorbidities
#8
REVIEW
Hiroyoshi Tsubochi, Tomoki Shibano, Shunsuke Endo
OBJECTIVES: To improve surgical outcomes, clinicians must provide optimal perioperative care for comorbidities identified as significant factors in risk models for patients undergoing lung cancer surgery. METHODS: We reviewed trends in perioperative care for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cardiovascular diseases, and end-stage renal diseases in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery, as large clinical databases indicate that these comorbidities are significant risk factors for lung cancer surgery...
November 16, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146419/syncope-on-presentation-is-a-surrogate-for-submassive-and-massive-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#9
Hesham R Omar, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Michael B Weinstock, Garett Enten, Devanand Mangar, Enrico M Camporesi
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting data regarding the prognostic value of syncope in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of 552 consecutive adults with computed tomography pulmonary angiogram-confirmed APE to determine the correlates and outcome of the occurrence of syncope at the time of presentation. RESULTS: Among 552 subjects with APE (mean age 54years, 47% men), syncope occurred in 12...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146235/macrophages-their-role-activation-and-polarization-in-pulmonary-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Shweta Arora, Kapil Dev, Beamon Agarwal, Pragnya Das, Mansoor Ali Syed
Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products...
November 12, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146100/emerging-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-as-a-senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-lung-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Tsukasa Kadota, Yu Fujita, Yusuke Yoshioka, Jun Araya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Takahiro Ochiya
Aging is a major risk factor for the development of chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lung cancer. A main aspect of aging is the impaired function of maintaining homeostasis in the organs and body, which is associated with cellular senescence. Cellular senescence is recognized as the state of irreversible cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of cellular stresses. Senescent cells are not simply cell cycle-arrested cells; they also affect bystander cells through the secretion of bioactive molecules, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145955/cardiovascular-complications-of-cancer%C3%A2-therapy-best-practices-in-diagnosis-prevention-and-management-part-2
#12
REVIEW
Hui-Ming Chang, Tochukwu M Okwuosa, Tiziano Scarabelli, Rohit Moudgil, Edward T H Yeh
In this second part of a 2-part review, we will review cancer or cancer therapy-associated systemic and pulmonary hypertension, QT prolongation, arrhythmias, pericardial disease, and radiation-induced cardiotoxicity. This review is based on a MEDLINE search of published data, published clinical guidelines, and best practices in major cancer centers. Newly developed targeted therapy can exert off-target effects causing hypertension, thromboembolism, QT prolongation, and atrial fibrillation. Radiation therapy often accelerates atherosclerosis...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145819/recurrent-tuberculosis-in-finland-1995-2013-a-clinical-and-epidemiological-cohort-study
#13
Virve Korhonen, Hanna Soini, Tuula Vasankari, Jukka Ollgren, Pieter W Smit, Petri Ruutu
BACKGROUND: We investigated the epidemiology and prevalence of potential risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) recurrence in a population-based registry cohort of 8084 TB cases between 1995 and 2013. METHODS: An episode of recurrent TB was defined as a case re-registered in the National Infectious Disease Register at least 360 days from the date of the initial registration. A regression model was used to estimate risk factors for recurrence in the national cohort...
November 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145324/a-rare-case-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-presenting-as-a-giant-intra-thoracic-mass-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Feng-Wei Kong, Miao Zhang, Heng Wang, Cun-Tao Lu, Wen-Bin Wu, Yuan-Yuan Liu
RATIONALE: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine-derived cutaneous cancer. Ectopic or single metastatic MCC located in thorax is extremely rare; meanwhile, its definite management has not been elucidated yet. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old female patient with a giant mass located in her left thorax was presented for stuffy pain of left chest for 6 months and fever for half a month. She underwent radical resection of vulvar MCC 10 years ago...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145315/iodine-125-seed-implantation-for-synchronous-pancreatic-metastases-from-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Junjie Xiong, Selina Kwong Chian, Jiao Li, Xubao Liu
RATIONALE: The image-guided iodine-125 seed implantation has been widely used for a variety of tumors, including prostatic cancer, pulmonary cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer. However, the clinical value of iodine-125 seed implantation for the treatment of pancreatic metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma has not been reported. We presented the first case with ultrasound-guided iodine-125 seed implantation for this disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: We presented the case of a 48-year-old man patient with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic metastasis who was managed with ultrasound-guided iodine-125 seeds implantation...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145311/pulmonary-hypertension-as-a-manifestation-of-mitochondrial-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Shan Xu, Xiaoling Xu, Jisong Zhang, Kejing Ying, Yuquan Shao, Ruifeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases are a group of multisystem heterogeneous diseases caused by pathologic dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A wide range of clinical expression has been described. However, pulmonary hypertension has rarely been described in association with mitochondrial disease until the past decade, and there is no currently recognized treatment for the pulmonary hypertension complicated with mitochondrial disorder. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with shortness of breath and exercise limitation after a cold, and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was confirmed by right heart catheter...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145248/esophageal-duplication-cyst-with-hemivertebrae-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Yanfang Liu, Ling Zhou, Shuixue Li, Jun He, Abudusaimi, Kai Li, Aziguli, Haixia Yao
BACKGROUND: Esophageal duplication cysts (EDCs) are rare congenital anomalies that can be associated with symptomatic spinal abnormalities, but presentations due to EDC symptoms are rarely found in the presence of spinal abnormalities. CASE SUMMARY: A 6-month-old infant weighing approximately 5.0 kg presented with a 2-month pulmonary infection and more recent difficulty swallowing and nutritional intolerance that did not improve with medical treatment. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography showed a well-defined, mediastinal, homogeneous, low-density cystic mass of 11...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145106/metachronous-mediastinal-lymph-node-metastasis-from-ascending-colon-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Kosuke Toda, Kenji Kawada, Yoshiharu Sakai, Hiroshi Izumi
INTRODUCTION: Metachronous mediastinal lymph node metastasis without pulmonary metastasis is extremely rare in colorectal cancer, which makes the clinical diagnosis difficult and treatment strategy unclear. PRSENTATION OF CASE: A case was a 59-year-old man, who had undergone right hemicolectomy for ascending colon cancer 2 years and 8 months previously, presented with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography revealed FDG was accumulated only into the mediastinal lymph nodes...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143657/clinical-benefits-of-incorporating-doxycycline-into-a-canine-heartworm-treatment-protocol
#19
C Thomas Nelson, Elizabeth S Myrick, Thomas A Nelson
BACKGROUND: The objective of heartworm treatment is to improve the clinical condition of the patient and to eliminate pre-cardiac, juvenile, and adult worm stages with minimal complications. Pulmonary thromboembolisms are an inevitable consequence of worm death and can result in severe pulmonary reactions and even death of the patient. To minimize these reactions, various treatment protocols involving melarsomine, the only adulticidal drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA), in conjunction with macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives and glucocorticosteroids have been advocated...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143503/-lung-and-pleural-space-ultrasonography-for-pulmonologist
#20
Leslie Noirez, Laurent P Nicod
In the past twenty years ultrasound has been the subject of renewed interest in lung exploration in the broad sense. The necessity of accessing a means of rapid exploration at the bed of the patient in a critical situation has led to the development of a pleuro-pulmonary ultrasound semiology to make it a diagnostic tool of choice which exceeds the strict framework intensive care units and emergency services. With the diagnosis of thoracic tumors or the exploration of interstitial syndromes, it tends to integrate more into the daily practice of the pulmonologist...
November 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
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