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Pulmonary Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922886/intracranial-bypass-of-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-aneurysms-indications-technical-aspects-and-clinical-outcomes
#1
David J Bonda, Mohamad Labib, Jeffrey M Katz, Rafael A Ortiz, David Chalif, Avi Setton, David J Langer, Amir R Dehdashti
BACKGROUND: For some posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms, there is no constructive endovascular or direct surgical clipping option. Intracranial bypass is an alternative to a deconstructive technique. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features, surgical techniques, and outcome of PICA aneurysms treated with bypass and obliteration of the diseased segment. METHODS: Retrospective review of PICA aneurysms treated via intracranial bypass was performed...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922813/meta-analyses-and-the-evidence-base-for-microbial-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-disease
#2
Jotam G Pasipanodya, Deborah Ogbonna, Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the level of funding support and the sputum culture conversion rates in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (P-MAC) disease in adult patients without cystic fibrosis or HIV infection, treated with recommended antibiotic regimens. Methods: We performed a literature search to identify clinical trials, prospective studies and registries that reported outcomes in P-MAC patients. Studies that reported P-MAC diagnosis and treatments based on established guidelines met the inclusion criteria and were examined for bias and quality...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#4
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921405/cannabis-associated-asthma-and-allergies
#5
REVIEW
J M Chatkin, L Zani-Silva, I Ferreira, N Zamel
Inhalation of cannabis smoke is its most common use and the pulmonary complications of its use may be the single most common form of drug-induced pulmonary disease worldwide. However, the role of cannabis consumption in asthma patients and allergic clinical situations still remains controversial. To review the evidence of asthma and allergic diseases associated with the use of marijuana, we conducted a search of English, Spanish, and Portuguese medical using the search terms asthma, allergy, marijuana, marihuana, and cannabis...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920554/a-pulmonary-embolism-response-team-s-initial-20-month-experience-treating-87-patients-with-submassive-and-massive-pulmonary-embolism
#6
Akhilesh K Sista, Oren A Friedman, Eda Dou, Brendan Denvir, Gulce Askin, Jamie Stern, Jaclyn Estes, Arash Salemi, Ronald S Winokur, James M Horowitz
Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERTs) have emerged to provide rapid multidisciplinary assessment and treatment of PE patients. However, descriptive institutional experience and preliminary outcomes data from such teams are sparse. PERT activations were identified through a retrospective review. Only confirmed submassive or massive PEs were included in the data analysis. In addition to baseline variables, the therapeutic intervention, length of stay (LOS), in-hospital mortality, and bleeding rate/severity were recorded...
September 1, 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920166/clinical-significance-of-aspergillus-species-isolated-from-respiratory-specimens-in-patients-with-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease
#7
K Furuuchi, A Ito, T Hashimoto, S Kumagai, T Ishida
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is associated with mortality in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). An Aspergillus-positive respiratory specimen often reflects colonization, and thus the clinical significance of Aspergillus isolation in MAC-LD patients is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MAC-LD patients in whom Aspergillus was isolated from respiratory specimens. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 329 MAC-LD patients...
September 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919137/pseudoaneurysm-complicating-right-ventricle-to-pulmonary-artery-conduit-surgery-incidence-and-risk-factors
#8
Michelle C Sykes, Meena Nathan, Stephen P Sanders, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Frank A Pigula, Jonathan Rhodes
OBJECTIVES: Although pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication after right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit placement, it has the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We performed a review of patients with pseudoaneurysms diagnosed at our institution in a 20-year period (from 1995 through 2015) and compared their clinical characteristics with a group of age- and sex-matched control patients. RESULTS: We found that younger age, smaller size, the diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot, the use of a pulmonary homograft conduit, the presence of an unrestrictive ventricular septal defect after conduit placement, and having at least systemic right ventricular pressure were all more common in patients who had pseudoaneurysms develop...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918971/-pulmonary-nocardiosis-with-cerebral-abscesses-mimicking-metastatic-lung-cancer-three-cases-and-a-review-of-literature
#9
A Fourrier, M Kerjouan, C Piau, P A Lentz, C Ricordel, H Léna, R Corre, B Desrues, S Jouneau
Nocardiosis is an infectious disease with wide range of clinical features, which can eventually lead to death. The agent responsible belongs to the genus Nocardia that includes about fifty different species. Nocardiosis occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report here three cases of disseminated nocardiosis misdiagnosed initially as cerebral metastatic lung cancer. These patients, including two immunocompetent hosts, presented with both pulmonary and cerebral lesions. In all three patients, the diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion sequence, apparent diffusion coefficient reconstruction and neurosurgical cerebral biopsies...
September 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918665/considerations-in-establishing-bioequivalence-of-inhaled-compounds
#10
Irvin Mayers, Mohit Bhutani
Generic inhalers are often perceived as inferior to their branded counterparts; however, they are safe and effective if they can meet the regulatory requirements. The approach to assess bioequivalence (BE) in oral dosage form products is not sufficient to address the complexities of inhalational products (e.g., patient-device interface); hence, more considerations are needed and caution should be applied in determining BE of inhaled compounds. Areas covered: This review outlines the evaluation process for generic inhalers, explores the regulatory approaches in BE assessment, and highlights the considerations and challenges in the current in vitro and in vivo approaches (lung deposition, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic/clinical studies, and patient-device interface) for establishing BE of inhaled compounds...
September 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918529/anatomic-repair-of-congenitally-corrected-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-single-center-intermediate-term-experience
#11
Shagun Sachdeva, Roni M Jacobsen, Ronald K Woods, Michael E Mitchell, Joseph R Cava, Nancy S Ghanayem, Peter C Frommelt, Peter J Bartz, James S Tweddell
We present our experience for patients who have undergone an anatomic repair (AR) for congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent AR for CCTGA from 2001 to 2015 was performed. The cohort consisted of 15 patients (74% male). Median age of anatomic repair was 15 months (range 4.5-45.6 months). Four patients had a bidirectional Glenn (BDG) prior to AR. At the time of AR,-9 (60%) underwent Senning/Rastelli procedure, 4 (26...
September 16, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918442/the-role-of-periostin-in-lung-fibrosis-and-airway-remodeling
#12
REVIEW
David N O'Dwyer, Bethany B Moore
Periostin is a protein that plays a key role in development and repair within the biological matrix of the lung. As a matricellular protein that does not contribute to extracellular matrix structure, periostin interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins to regulate the composition of the matrix in the lung and other organs. In this review, we discuss the studies exploring the role of periostin to date in chronic respiratory diseases, namely asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma is a major health problem globally affecting millions of people worldwide with significant associated morbidity and mortality...
September 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918422/the-modern-art-of-reading-computed-tomography-images-of-the-lungs-quantitative-ct
#13
Felix J F Herth, Miranda Kirby, Jered Sieren, Jonas Herth, Joshua Schirm, Susan Wood, Maren Schuhmann
Lung diseases are increasing in prevalence and overall burden worldwide. To stem the tide, more and more national and international guidelines are recommending the use of various diagnostic algorithms that are disease specific. There is growing consensus among the respiratory community that although patient histories and lung function testing are the minimum required for clinical examinations, these tests alone are not sufficient for disease characterization. Therefore, the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasing used in clinical decision making for lung diseases...
September 16, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917138/pulmonary-venous-anomalies-causing-misdiagnosis-of-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations
#14
Cheng Ting Lin, Stefan Loy Zimmerman, Sally Elizabeth Mitchell, Elliot K Fishman
PURPOSE: To investigate pulmonary venous anomaly as a cause of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) misdiagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed adult patients within a 7.5-year period with CT scans initially diagnosed with PAVM and subsequent conventional pulmonary angiograms. RESULTS: Pulmonary arteriography showed no PAVM on arterial phase for 10 out of 99 patients, comprising the misdiagnosed group. Four misdiagnosed patients had pulmonary venous anomalies and six had nodular lesions on CT...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917022/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-management-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Shams Y-Hassan, Per Tornvall
Takotsubo syndrome is a recently recognized acute cardiac disease entity with a clinical presentation resembling that of an acute coronary syndrome. The typical takotsubo syndrome patient has a unique circumferential left (bi-) ventricular contraction abnormality profile that extends beyond a coronary artery supply territory and appears to follow the anatomical cardiac sympathetic innervation. The syndrome predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is often preceded by emotional or physical stress. Patients with predisposing factors such as malignancy and other chronic comorbidities are more prone to suffer from takotsubo syndrome...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916915/inflammatory-diseases-and-bone-fragility
#16
REVIEW
K Briot, P Geusens, I Em Bultink, W F Lems, C Roux
Systemic osteoporosis and increased fracture rates have been described in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of these patients receive glucocorticoids, which have their own deleterious effects on bone. However, the other main determinant of bone fragility is the inflammation itself, as shown by the interactions between the inflammatory mediators, the actors of the immune system, and the bone remodelling...
September 15, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916901/pulmonic-valve-disease-review-of-pathology-and-current-treatment-options
#17
REVIEW
Mouhammad Fathallah, Richard A Krasuski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our review is intended to provide readers with an overview of disease processes involving the pulmonic valve, highlighting recent outcome studies and guideline-based recommendations; with focus on the two most common interventions for treating pulmonic valve disease, balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and pulmonic valve replacement. RECENT FINDINGS: The main long-term sequelae of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty, the gold standard treatment for pulmonic stenosis, remain pulmonic regurgitation and valvular restenosis...
September 16, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915874/unmet-needs-in-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-insights-from-patient-chart-review-in-five-european-countries
#18
Toby M Maher, Maria Molina-Molina, Anne-Marie Russell, Francesco Bonella, Stéphane Jouneau, Elena Ripamonti, Judit Axmann, Carlo Vancheri
BACKGROUND: Two antifibrotic drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, are approved by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this analysis, treatment patterns of European patients with IPF were investigated to understand antifibrotic prescribing and identify unmet needs in IPF treatment practice. METHODS: Between February and March 2016, respiratory physicians from France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK participated in an online questionnaire designed to collect information on IPF treatment patterns in patients under their care...
September 15, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915527/palliative-therapies-for-congenital-heart-disease-with-ductus-dependent-pulmonary-circulation
#19
Shi-Min Yuan
In neonates, the management of ductus dependent pulmonary circulation is challenging. There have been three palliative therapies for this lesion: the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, ductal stenting and prostaglandin E infusions, for maintaining the ductal patency before definite operations. Debates remain with regard to the indications and disadvantages of three palliative therapies. The aim of this article is to give a brief review of these three palliative therapies.
September 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915085/pooled-analysis-safety-profile-of-nivolumab-and-ipilimumab-combination-therapy-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma
#20
Mario Sznol, Pier Francesco Ferrucci, David Hogg, Michael B Atkins, Pascal Wolter, Massimo Guidoboni, Celeste Lebbé, John M Kirkwood, Jacob Schachter, Gregory A Daniels, Jessica Hassel, Jonathan Cebon, Winald Gerritsen, Victoria Atkinson, Luc Thomas, John McCaffrey, Derek Power, Dana Walker, Rafia Bhore, Joel Jiang, F Stephen Hodi, Jedd D Wolchok
Purpose The addition of nivolumab (anti-programmed death-1 antibody) to ipilimumab (anti-cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte-associated 4 antibody) in patients with advanced melanoma improves antitumor response and progression-free survival but with a higher frequency of adverse events (AEs). This cross-melanoma study describes the safety profile of the approved nivolumab plus ipilimumab regimen. Methods This retrospective safety review on data from three trials (phase I, II, and III) included patients with advanced melanoma who received at least one dose of nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks × 4 and then nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity while following established guidelines for AE management...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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