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Update in Pulmonary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205373/pulmonary-hypertension-in-connective-tissue-diseases-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Ramya Aithala, Anoop G Alex, Debashish Danda
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a relatively commoner complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) with estimated prevalence ranging between 8% and 12% as compared to much lower figures in other connective tissue diseases (CTD). It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CTDs. PH is classified into five major groups. CTD-associated PH belongs to group 1 PH, also known as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Around 30% of scleroderma-related deaths are due to PAH. Underlying pathogenesis is related to pulmonary vasculopathy involving small vessels...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203783/effect-of-intermittency-on-treatment-outcomes-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
James C Johnston, Jonathon R Campbell, Dick Menzies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198573/radiation-dose-benchmarks-in-pediatric-cardiac-catheterization-a-prospective-multi-center-c3po-qi-study
#3
Priscila C Cevallos, Aimee K Armstrong, Andrew C Glatz, Bryan H Goldstein, Todd M Gudausky, Ryan A Leahy, Christopher J Petit, Shabana Shahanavaz, Sara M Trucco, Lisa J Bergersen
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to update benchmark values to use a quality measure prospectively. BACKGROUND: Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Outcomes Project - Quality Improvement (C3PO-QI), a multi-center registry, defined initial radiation dose benchmarks retrospectively across common interventional procedures. These data facilitated a dose metric endorsed by the American College of Cardiology in 2014. METHODS: Data was collected prospectively by 9 C3PO-QI institutions with complete case capture between 1/1/2014 and 6/30/2015...
February 15, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195640/subcutaneous-unfractionated-heparin-for-the-initial-treatment-of-venous-thromboembolism
#4
REVIEW
Lindsay Robertson, James Strachan
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a prevalent and serious condition. Its medical treatment requires anticoagulation, usually with either unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Administration of unfractionated heparin (UFH) is usually intravenous (IV) but can be subcutaneous as well. This is an update of a review first published in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of subcutaneous UFH versus intravenous UFH, subcutaneous LMWH or any other anticoagulant drug for the initial treatment of venous thromboembolism...
February 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185242/long-acting-muscarinic-antagonist-lama-plus-long-acting-beta-agonist-laba-versus-laba-plus-inhaled-corticosteroid-ics-for-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#5
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Horita, Atsushi Goto, Yuji Shibata, Erika Ota, Kentaro Nakashima, Kenjiro Nagai, Takeshi Kaneko
BACKGROUND: Three classes of inhaler medications are used to manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): long-acting beta-agonists (LABA), long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). When two classes of medications are required, LAMA plus LABA (LAMA+LABA) and LABA plus ICS (LABA+ICS) are often selected because these combinations can be administered via a single medication device. The previous Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidance recommended LABA+ICS as the first-line treatment for managing stable COPD in high-risk people of categories C and D...
February 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182753/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-type-ii-endoleaks-after-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-a-meta-analysis
#6
Qiang Guo, Xiaojiong Du, Jichun Zhao, Yukui Ma, Bin Huang, Ding Yuan, Yi Yang, Guojun Zeng, Fei Xiong
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the current evidence on risk factors for type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out for studies that evaluated the association of demographic, co-morbidity, and other patient-determined factors with the onset of type II endoleaks. Pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was updated. RESULTS: Among the 504 studies screened, 45 studies with a total of 36,588 participants were included in this review...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182249/fixed-dose-subcutaneous-low-molecular-weight-heparins-versus-adjusted-dose-unfractionated-heparin-for-the-initial-treatment-of-venous-thromboembolism
#7
REVIEW
Lindsay Robertson, Lauren E Jones
BACKGROUND: Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) have been shown to be effective and safe in preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE). They may also be effective for the initial treatment of VTE. This is the third update of the Cochrane Review first published in 1999. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed dose subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin compared to adjusted dose unfractionated heparin (intravenous or subcutaneous) for the initial treatment of people with venous thromboembolism (acute deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism)...
February 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168771/recent-updates-on-electronic-cigarette-aerosol-and-inhaled-nicotine-effects-on-periodontal-and-pulmonary-tissues
#8
REVIEW
Fawad Javed, Sergio V Kellesarian, Isaac K Sundar, Georgios E Romanos, Irfan Rahman
E-cigarette derived inhaled nicotine may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal and pulmonary diseases in particular via lung inflammation, injurious and dysregulated repair responses. Nicotine is shown to have anti-proliferative properties and affects fibroblasts in vitro, which may interfere in tissue myofibroblast differentiation in e-cig users. This will affect the ability to heal wounds by decreasing wound contraction. In periodontics, direct exposure to e-vapor has been shown to produce harmful effects in periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts in culture...
February 6, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168536/systemic-complications-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#9
REVIEW
Ravi Garg, Barak Bar
Many systemic complications follow aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and are primarily due to sympathetic nervous system activation. These complications play an important role in the overall outcome of patients. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of systemic complications specifically associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Special focus has been made on systemic complications that occur more frequently in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage compared to other stroke subtypes and in the neurocritical care patient population...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160496/molecular-pathogenesis-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-therapeutic-potential-by-targeting-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#10
REVIEW
Zhihui Zhang, Xiaoyu Cheng, Li Yue, Wenhui Cui, Wencheng Zhou, Jian Gao, Hongwei Yao
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide, which is characterized by a persistent airflow limitation caused by chronic inflammatory responses to noxious particles or gases. Cigarette smoke and environmental pollutions are major etiological factors for causing COPD. It has been shown that cigarette smoking causes abnormal inflammatory responses, cellular senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic dysregulation, suggesting their involvement in the development of COPD...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157458/estimating-the-global-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-prevalent-cases-of-tuberculosis
#11
S Nourzad, H E Jenkins, M Milstein, C D Mitnick
BACKGROUND: Estimates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden are based on incomplete, infrequently updated data among a limited pool of notified or incident pulmonary TB cases. METHODS: Using World Health Organization data reported by 217 countries/territories in 2014, we calculated the MDR-TB burden among prevalent TB cases and compared these with estimates among incident and notified TB patients. We also compared treatment coverage across estimates...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155117/update-on-the-management-of-adults-with-arterial-switch-procedure-for-transposition-of-the-great-arteries
#12
REVIEW
Lucy M Safi, Ami B Bhatt
The arterial switch operation (ASO) is now the most frequently performed surgical correction in individuals with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA). Patients who undergo this procedure as neonates have overall good clinical outcomes yet continued clinical follow-up is important to evaluate for postoperative complications. In this group, the highest mortality is in the immediate postoperative period and is generally associated with reimplantation of the coronary arteries. As these patients live into adulthood, longitudinal follow-up for other ASO complications including neo-pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction, or neo-aortic root dilation and resulting aortic insufficiency should be performed...
January 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149568/recommendations-for-the-management-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-south-africa-a-position-statement-of-the-south-african-thoracic-society
#13
REVIEW
Coenraad F N Koegelenberg, Gillian M Ainslie, Keertan Dheda, Brian W Allwood, Michelle L Wong, Umesh G Lalloo, Mohamed S Abdool-Gaffar, Hoosain Khalfey, Elvis M Irusen
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a very specific form of a chronic, progressive fibroproliferative interstitial pneumonia of unknown aetiology. The disease is generally associated with a poor prognosis. Several international evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis and management of IPF and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) have been published and updated in the last decade, and while the body of evidence for the use of some treatment modalities has grown, others have been shown to be futile and even harmful to patients...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147325/emerging-role-of-exosome-mediated-intercellular-communication-in-vascular-remodeling
#14
Sheng-An Su, Yao Xie, Zurong Fu, Yaping Wang, Jian-An Wang, Meixiang Xiang
Vascular remodeling refers to the alternations of function and structure in vasculature. A complex autocrine/paracrine set of cellular interaction is involved in vascular remodeling. Exosome, a newly identified natural nanocarrier and intercellular messenger, plays a pivotal role in regulating cell-to-cell communication. Exosome emerges as an important mediator in the process of vascular remodeling, showing the most prognostic and therapeutic potent in vascular diseases. Benefiting from exosomal trafficking, the vasculature can not only maintain its function and structure in physiological condition, but also adapt itself in pathological status...
January 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134583/pathology-of-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-pulmonary-and-renal-disease
#15
Maxwell L Smith
CONTEXT: -Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis commonly presents with pulmonary and renal involvement that may present diagnostic challenges. OBJECTIVES: -To highlight the updates in the classification of small vessel vasculitis, present the patterns of pulmonary and renal pathology in which ANCA-associated vasculitis is included in the differential diagnosis, analyze the screening and specific antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody testing methods in the clinical laboratory, compare and contrast the 3 major ANCA-associated vasculitis diseases, and review the pathophysiologic mechanisms of tissue injury in this setting...
February 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131123/update-in-the-management-of-patients-with-preeclampsia
#16
REVIEW
Nerlyne K Dhariwal, Grant C Lynde
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy complicate approximately 10% of all deliveries in the United States and are a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia is defined as hypertension in association with proteinuria, thrombocytopenia, impaired liver function, renal insufficiency, pulmonary edema, or new-onset cerebral or visual disturbances. The greatest risk factor for the development of preeclampsia is a history of preeclampsia. There currently is no effective means for the prevention of preeclampsia...
March 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121925/prospective-etiological-investigation-of-community-acquired-pulmonary-infections-in-hospitalized-people-living-with-hiv
#17
Claudia Figueiredo-Mello, Pontus Naucler, Marinella D Negra, Anna S Levin
The study of the etiological agents of community-acquired pulmonary infections is important to guide empirical therapy, requires constant updating, and has a substantial impact on the prognosis of patients. The objective of this study is to determine prospectively the etiology of community-acquired pulmonary infections in hospitalized adults living with HIV. Patients were submitted to an extended microbiological investigation that included molecular methods. The microbiological findings were evaluated according to severity of the disease and pneumococcal vaccine status...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118145/noninvasive-ventilation-for-patients-in-acute-respiratory-distress-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Nikita Joshi, Molly K Estes, Kayla Shipley, Hyun-Chul Danny Lee
Over the last 20 years, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) strategies have been used with increasing frequency. The ease of use of NIV makes it applicable to patients presenting in a variety of types of respiratory distress. In this review, the physiology of positive pressure ventilation is discussed, including indications, contraindications, and options for mask type and fit. Characteristics of patients who are most likely to benefit from NIV are reviewed, including those in respiratory distress from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and cardiogenic pulmonary edema...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116747/pneumococcal-vaccines-for-preventing-pneumonia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
REVIEW
Julia Ae Walters, Joanne Ngie Qing Tang, Phillippa Poole, Richard Wood-Baker
BACKGROUND: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease, especially pneumonia, as well as acute exacerbations with associated morbidity and healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of injectable pneumococcal vaccination for preventing pneumonia in persons with COPD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways COPD Trials Register and the databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase, using prespecified terms...
January 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114931/procalcitonin-guided-diagnosis-and-antibiotic-stewardship-revisited
#20
REVIEW
Ramon Sager, Alexander Kutz, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
Several controlled clinical studies have evaluated the potential of the infection biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) to improve the diagnostic work-up of patients with bacterial infections and its influence on decisions regarding antibiotic therapy. Most research has focused on lower respiratory tract infections and critically ill sepsis patients. A clinical utility for PCT has also been found for patients with urinary tract infections, postoperative infections, meningitis, and patients with acute heart failure with possible superinfection (i...
January 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
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