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Update in Pulmonary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#1
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913756/the-short-term-efficacy-of-vena-cava-filters-for-the-prevention-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-patients-with-venous-thromboembolism-receiving-anticoagulation-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Jun Jiang, Yuanyong Jiao, Xiwei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of inferior vena cava filters in patients with deep vein thrombosis for preventing pulmonary embolism. METHOD: Relevant randomized controlled trials of inferior vena cava filters for the prevention of pulmonary embolism were identified by searching electronic databases updated in February 2016. Relative risks of recurrent pulmonary embolism, recurrent deep vein thrombosis, and mortality at three months were analyzed...
December 2, 2016: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913236/effect-of-different-postoperative-limb-positions-on-blood-loss-and-range-of-motion-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
REVIEW
Yuangang Wu, Timin Yang, Yi Zeng, Haibo Si, Canfeng Li, Bin Shen
BACKGROUND: Postoperative limb positioning has been reported to be an efficient and simple way to reduce blood loss and improve range of motion following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This meta-analysis was designed to compare the effectiveness of two different limb positions in primary TKA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis of the PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, EMBASE and Google Search Engine electronic databases was performed. In this meta-analysis, two postoperative limb positions were considered: mild-flexion (flexion less than 60°) and high-flexion (flexion at 60° or more)...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910296/the-year-since-the-guidelines-a-concise-update-on-recent-advances-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#4
Abhishek Mishra, Maninder Singh, Edo Kaluski
Since the updated pulmonary hypertension (PH) guidelines published in 2015, two major landmark trials have provided additional insight regarding therapeutic algorithms of PH. In this review, we concisely summarized the key findings of peer‑reviewed studies published in the last one year in the field of PH. These studies have enhanced our therapeutic abilities by introducing a new potent agent, selexipag, and by demonstrating the advantage of upfront combination therapy (endothelin receptor antagonist and phosphodiesterase‑5 inhibitor) versus single agent therapy in group 1 PH...
February 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#5
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904587/inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-preterm-infants-an-updated-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Yang Yang, Yun Feng, Xiao-Guang Zhou, Jing-Jing Pan, Xiao-Yu Zhou
BACKGROUND: In the past several years, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have indicated that inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) can potentially lower for both the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality in affected infants. Other research has, however, disagreed with these findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an updated meta analysis of all relevant RCTs to assess the benefits of iNO in preterm infants by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, Wanfang, VIP, and CNKI databases for English and Chinese references...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903027/-esc-guidelines-2015-pulmonary-hypertension-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
Christian Opitz, Stephan Rosenkranz, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Ekkehard Grünig, Hans Klose, Horst Olschewski, Marius Hoeper
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by an increase in PAPmean > 25 mmHg associated with a reduced life expectancy. Recent advances in the management of these patients provided the basis for the updated recommendations of the 2015 joint guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) on the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. The updated version includes important modifications with regards to hemodynamic definitions, clinical classification and diagnostic assessment of patients with PH...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898998/nutritional-supplementation-for-hip-fracture-aftercare-in-older-people
#8
REVIEW
Alison Avenell, Toby O Smith, James P Curtain, Jenson Cs Mak, Phyo K Myint
BACKGROUND: Older people with hip fractures are often malnourished at the time of fracture, and subsequently have poor food intake. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2000, and previously updated in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To review the effects (benefits and harms) of nutritional interventions in older people recovering from hip fracture. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, trial registers and reference lists...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897995/monitoring-of-physiological-parameters-to-predict-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-a-systematic-review
#9
Ahmed M Al Rajeh, John R Hurst
INTRODUCTION: The value of monitoring physiological parameters to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations is controversial. A few studies have suggested benefit from domiciliary monitoring of vital signs, and/or lung function but there is no existing systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of monitoring physiological parameters to predict COPD exacerbation. METHODS: An electronic systematic search compliant with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891294/prevalence-and-clinical-impact-of-cachexia-in-chronic-illness-in-europe-usa-and-japan-facts-and-numbers-update-2016
#10
EDITORIAL
Stephan von Haehling, Markus S Anker, Stefan D Anker
Cachexia is a serious clinical consequence of almost all chronic diseases when reaching advanced stages. Its prevalence ranges from 5-15% in end-stage chronic heart failure to 50-80% in advanced malignant cancer. Cachexia is also frequently occurring in patients with chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or neurological diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis. Mortality rates of patients with cachexia range from 15-25% per year in severe COPD through 20-40% per year in patients with chronic heart failure or chronic kidney disease to 20-80% in cancer cachexia...
December 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876671/relevance-of-the-rat-lung-tumor-response-to-particle-overload-for-human-risk-assessment-update-and-interpretation-of-new-data-since-ilsi-2000
#11
REVIEW
D B Warheit, R Kreiling, L S Levy
The relevance of particle-overload related lung tumors in rats for human risk assessment following chronic inhalation exposures to poorly soluble particulates (PSP) has been a controversial issue for more than three decades. In 1998, an ILSI (International Life Sciences) Working Group of health scientists was convened to address this issue of applicability of experimental study findings of lung neoplasms in rats for lifetime-exposed production workers to PSPs. A full consensus view was not reached by the Workshop participants, although it was generally acknowledged that the findings of lung tumors in rats following chronic inhalation, particle-overload PSP exposures occurred only in rats and no other tested species; and that there was an absence of lung cancers in PSP-exposed production workers...
November 19, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870387/primary-myelofibrosis-2017-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#12
Ayalew Tefferi
: Disease overview: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation that is often but not always accompanied by JAK2, CALR or MPL mutation, abnormal cytokine expression, bone marrow fibrosis, anemia, splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), constitutional symptoms, cachexia, leukemic progression and shortened survival. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on bone marrow morphology...
December 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869893/-anmco-position-paper-recommendations-for-the-follow-up-of-patients-with-pulmonary-thromboembolism
#13
Carlo D'Agostino, Pietro Zonzin, Iolanda Enea, Michele Massimo Gulizia, Walter Ageno, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Michele Azzarito, Cecilia Becattini, Amedeo Bongarzoni, Francesca Bux, Franco Casazza, Nicoletta Corrieri, Michele D'Alto, Nicola D'Amato, Andrea Maria D'Armini, Maria Grazia De Natale, Giovanni Di Minno, Giuseppe Favretto, Lucia Filippi, Valentina Grazioli, Gualtiero Palareti, Raffaele Pesavento, Loris Roncon, Laura Scelsi, Antonella Tufano
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death. The management of the acute phase of VTE is well described in several papers and guidelines, whereas the management of the follow-up of the patients affected from VTE is less defined. This position paper of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) tries to fill the gap using currently available evidence and the opinion of the experts to suggest the most useful way to manage patients in the chronic phase...
September 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869081/long-term-update-of-nrg-oncology-rtog-0319-a-phase-1-and-2%C3%A2-trial-to-evaluate-3-dimensional-conformal-radiation-therapy-confined-to-the-region-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-lumpectomy-cavity-for-stage-i-and-ii-breast%C3%A2-carcinoma
#14
Rachel Rabinovitch, Jennifer Moughan, Frank Vicini, Helen Pass, John Wong, Susan Chafe, Ivy Petersen, Douglas W Arthur, Julia White
PURPOSE: NRG Oncology RTOG 0319 was the first cooperative group trial in the United States to evaluate 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). This report updates secondary endpoints of toxicity and efficacy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with stage I or II invasive breast cancer (tumor size ≤3 cm, ≤3 positive lymph nodes, negative margins) were eligible for 3D-CRT APBI: 38.5 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865240/prediction-equations-for-spirometry-in-adults-in-western-india
#15
Unnati Desai, Jyotsna M Joshi, S K Chhabra, Mujeeb-Ur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Spirometry is an essential investigation in pulmonology. The predicted normal spirometry values depend on various physiological parameters. This study was conducted to collect updated information on pulmonary functions in normal adults from western India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital in Mumbai enrolling healthy subjects, 18-75 years, with ethnic origin from western India. Spirometry measurements were carried out as per ATS/ERS-2005 guidelines using a non-heated Fleish Pneumotachograph spirometer...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863592/nursing-interventions-in-stroke-care-delivery-an-evidence-based-clinical-review
#16
Dimitrios Theofanidis, Bernard Gibbon
INTRODUCTION: Generally, nursing interventions during the acute stages following a stroke aim at preventing secondary brain injury (intracranial hypertension), maintaining the airways (due to paralysis of the pharynx muscles), providing general body support (vital signs, fluid and electrolyte balance), and anticipating the occurrence of complications (atelectasis and pneumonia). AIM: This literature review is to prioritize nursing interventions for acute stroke and to update nursing roles and input considering recommended levels of evidence of care to date...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863291/adenosine-guided-pulmonary-vein-isolation-versus-conventional-pulmonary-vein-isolation-in-patients-undergoing-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-an-updated-meta-analysis
#17
Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Rui Providência, Neil Srinivasan, Kostas Bronis, Francisco Moscoso Costa, Diogo Cavaco, Pedro Adragão, Dimitris Tousoulis, Ross J Hunter, Richard J Schilling, Oliver R Segal, Anthony Chow, Edward Rowland, Martin Lowe, Pier D Lambiase
BACKGROUND: Recurrent atrial fibrillation episodes following pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) are frequently due to reconnection of PVs. Adenosine can unmask dormant conduction, leading to additional ablation to improve AF-free survival. We performed a meta-analysis of the literature to assess the role of adenosine testing in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched through until December 2015 for studies reporting on the role of adenosine guided-PVI versus conventional PVI in AF ablation...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862475/treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-position-paper-from-a-nordic-expert-group
#18
REVIEW
C M Sköld, E Bendstrup, M Myllärniemi, G Gudmundsson, T Sjåheim, O Hilberg, A Altraja, R Kaarteenaho, G Ferrara
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal progressive lung disease occurring in adults. In the last decade, the results of a number of clinical trials based on the updated disease classification have been published. The registration of pirfenidone and nintedanib, the first two pharmacological treatment options approved for IPF, marks a new chapter in the management of patients with this disease. Other nonpharmacological treatments such as lung transplantation, rehabilitation and palliation have also been shown to be beneficial for these patients...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858952/subintimal-angioplasty-for-lower-limb-arterial-chronic-total-occlusions
#19
REVIEW
ZhiHui Chang, JiaHe Zheng, ZhaoYu Liu
BACKGROUND: In recent years subintimal angioplasty (SIA) has become an established percutaneous procedure for the treatment of symptomatic lower limb arterial chronic total occlusions. However, the clinical benefits of this practice remain unclear. The aim of the review was to determine the effectiveness of SIA on clinical outcomes. This is an update of a review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of SIA versus other treatment for people with lower limb arterial chronic total occlusions, determined by the effects on clinical improvement, technical success rate, patency rate, limb salvage rate, and morbidity rates...
November 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858232/pulmonary-hypertension-in-heart-failure-patients-pathophysiology-and-prognostic-implications
#20
REVIEW
Marco Guazzi, Valentina Labate
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left heart disease (LHD), i.e., group 2 PH, is the most common reason for increased pressures in the pulmonary circuit. Although recent guidelines incorporate congenital heart disease in this classification, left-sided heart diseases of diastolic and systolic origin including valvular etiology are the vast majority. In these patients, an increased left-sided filling pressure triggers a multistage hemodynamic evolution that ends into right ventricular failure through an initial passive increase in pulmonary artery pressure complicated over time by pulmonary vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and remodeling of the small-resistance pulmonary arteries...
November 17, 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
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