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Update in Pulmonary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786135/scientific-update-on-nanoparticles-in-dentistry
#1
REVIEW
Gottfried Schmalz, Reinhard Hickel, Kirsten L van Landuyt, Franz-Xaver Reichl
Nanoparticles having a size from 1 to 100 nm are present in nature and are successfully used in many products of daily life. In dental materials, nanoparticles are typically embedded but they may also exist as by-products from milling processes. Possible adverse effects of nanoparticles have gained increased interest, with the lungs being the main target organ. Exposure to nanoparticles in the dental laboratory is addressed by legal regulations. In dental practice, nanoparticles are mainly produced by intra-oral grinding/polishing and removal of materials, by wear of restorations or release from dental implants...
May 22, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780621/thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-orthopaedics-an-update
#2
Dimitrios A Flevas, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Leonidas Dimopoulos, Evanthia Mitsiokapa, Panayiotis Koulouvaris, Andreas F Mavrogenis
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication during and after hospitalization, yet is a preventable cause of in-hospital death.Without VTE prophylaxis, the overall VTE incidence in medical and general surgery hospitalized patients is in the range of 10% to 40%, while it ranges up to 40% to 60% in major orthopaedic surgery. With routine VTE prophylaxis, fatal pulmonary embolism is uncommon in orthopaedic patients and the rates of symptomatic VTE within three months are in the range of 1.3% to 10%.VTE prophylaxis methods are divided into mechanical and pharmacological...
April 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777923/diagnosis-and-management-of-pulmonary-infection-due-to-rhodococcus-equi
#3
REVIEW
Weijie V Lin, Robert L Kruse, Katharine Yang, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is a recognized cause of disease in humans, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Because diphtheroids are regarded as part of normal respiratory flora, the importance of R. equi as a pulmonary pathogen may not be fully appreciated and its prevalence underestimated. Most treatment recommendations for R. equi infection were established before antiretroviral drugs became available for HIV/AIDS therapy, and therapeutic strategies may need to be updated...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766487/inhaled-corticosteroids-for-bronchiectasis
#4
REVIEW
Nitin Kapur, Helen L Petsky, Scott Bell, John Kolbe, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is being increasingly diagnosed and recognised as an important contributor to chronic lung disease in both adults and children in high- and low-income countries. It is characterised by irreversible dilatation of airways and is generally associated with airway inflammation and chronic bacterial infection. Medical management largely aims to reduce morbidity by controlling the symptoms, reduce exacerbation frequency, improve quality of life and prevent the progression of bronchiectasis...
May 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750581/cftr-dysfunction-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Elena Fernandez Fernandez, Chiara de Santi, Virginia De Rose, Catherine M Greene
Obstructive lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are causes of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. CF is a multiorgan genetic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and is characterized by progressive chronic obstructive lung disease. Most cases of COPD are a result of noxious particles, mainly cigarette smoke but also other environmental pollutants. Areas covered: Although the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CF and COPD differ, they do share key phenotypic features and because of these similarities there is great interest in exploring common mechanisms and/or factors affected by CFTR mutations and environmental insults involved in COPD...
May 11, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744015/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-women
#6
REVIEW
Humna Abid Memon, Myung H Park
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pathological hemodynamic elevation in pulmonary artery pressure. Development of international registries over the last decade has raised awareness about the disease, leading to the development of new and improved therapies. Paradigm shifts such as these warrant review of existing literature regarding PAH, especially in females, as the disease continues to affect women more than males. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PAH while focusing specifically on its impact on women...
October 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719792/acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-triggered-by-aspergillus-empyema
#7
Atsushi Suzuki, Tomoki Kimura, Kensuke Kataoka, Toshiaki Matsuda, Toshiki Yokoyama, Yuta Mori, Yasuhiro Kondoh
Acute exacerbation (AE) is a severe and life-threatening complication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In 2016, the definition and diagnostic criteria for AE-IPF were updated by an international working group. The new definition includes any acute, clinically significant respiratory deterioration (both idiopathic and triggered events) characterized by evidence of new widespread alveolar abnormality in patients with IPF. There are no currently proven beneficial management strategies for idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718783/an-update-on-emerging-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
Shambhu Aryal, Steven D Nathan
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The hallmark of the disease is impaired healing after alveolar epithelial injury in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Development of two new drugs has changed the landscape of the treatment of IPF but more work is needed to improve outcomes and improve survival. Areas covered: The development of two antifibrotic agents, nintedanib and pirfenidone has been an exciting landmark in the treatment of IPF...
May 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714617/pharmacotherapeutic-reports-as-tools-for-detecting-discrepancies-in-continuity-of-care
#9
Elena Yaiza Romero-Ventosa, Mónica Gayoso-Rey, Marisol Samartín-Ucha, Pablo Lamas-Domínguez, Martín Rubianes-González, David Rodríguez-Lorenzo, María Holanda Rodríguez-Vázquez, Julio García-Comesaña, Guadalupe Piñeiro-Corrales
BACKGROUND: The care transition is the time when more medication errors occur. The aim of this study is to analyze the usefulness of a pharmacotherapeutic report model at hospital discharge to prevent medication errors and to simplify pharmacotherapy during a patient's transition from the hospital to primary care. METHODS: Prospective study including patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were admitted to a short-stay unit or an emergency room...
January 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709052/can-vitamin-d-help-in-achieving-asthma-control-vitamin-d-revisited-an-updated-insight
#10
Izabela Szymczak, Rafal Pawliczak
Asthma - a prolonged respiratory disease related with hyper-responsiveness and increased inflammation of airways; affects millions peoples worldwide. Vitamin D possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Its deficiency (the level less than 20 ng/mL in the serum) is found to be related to occurrence of pulmonary diseases including bacterial and viral infections and asthma. Some studies indicate that low levels of vitamin D in the serum are related to reduced lung function and increased airway inflammation as well as overall poor results in asthmatic patients...
2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700855/long-term-extra-pulmonary-comorbidities-after-lung-transplantation-in-cystic-fibrosis-update-of-specificities
#11
REVIEW
Sabine Jardel, Quitterie Reynaud, Isabelle Durieu
Lung transplantation (LT) is the standard therapeutic option for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with end-stage lung disease. Both conditions lead to extra-respiratory complications, such as diabetes, renal insufficiency, bone disease, and cancer. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an update of the non-respiratory comorbidities following LT in adult patients with CF and their specificities regarding their multi-systemic underlying condition despite their younger age compared to other patients undergoing LT...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689237/dutch-lung-surgery-audit-a-national-audit-comprising-lung-and-thoracic-surgery-patients
#12
Martijn Ten Berge, Naomi Beck, David Jonathan Heineman, Ronald Damhuis, Willem Hans Steup, Pieter Jan van Huijstee, Jan Peter Eerenberg, Eelco Veen, Alexander Maat, Michel Versteegh, Thomas van Brakel, Wilhemina Hendrika Schreurs, Michel Wilhelmus Wouters
BACKGROUND: The nationwide Dutch Lung Surgery Audit (DLSA) started in 2012 to monitor and evaluate the quality of lung surgery in the Netherlands as an improvement tool. This outline describes the establishment, structure and organization of the audit by the Dutch Society of Lung Surgeons (NVvL) and the Dutch Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons (NVT), in collaboration with the Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing (DICA). In addition, first four-year results are presented. METHODS: The NVvL and NVT initiated a web-based registration including weekly updated online feedback for participating hospitals...
April 21, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688027/update-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-2017
#13
William Z Zhang, Kazunori Gomi, Seyed Babak Mahjour, Fernando J Martinez, Renat Shaykhiev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684313/breathing-and-coding-a-bit-easier-changes-to-international-classification-of-disease-coding-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Stephen C Mathai, Sherin Mathew
International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding system is broadly utilized by healthcare providers, hospitals, healthcare payers, and governments to track health trends and statistics at the global, national, and local levels and to provide a reimbursement framework for medical care based upon diagnosis and severity of illness. The current iteration of the ICD system, ICD-10, was implemented in 2015. While many changes to the prior ICD-9 system were included in the ICD-10 system, the newer revision failed to adequately reflect advances in the clinical classification of certain diseases such as pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
April 20, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684249/standard-head-down-tilt-versus-modified-without-head-down-tilt-postural-drainage-in-infants-and-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Diana A Freitas, Gabriela Ss Chaves, Thayla A Santino, Cibele Td Ribeiro, Fernando Al Dias, Ricardo O Guerra, Karla Mpp Mendonça
BACKGROUND: Postural drainage is used primarily in infants with cystic fibrosis from diagnosis up to the moment when they are mature enough to actively participate in self-administered treatments. However, there is a risk of gastroesophageal reflux associated with this technique.This is an update of a review published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of standard postural drainage (15º to 45º head-down tilt) with modified postural drainage (15º to 30º head-up tilt) with regard to gastroesophageal reflux in infants and young children up to six years old with cystic fibrosis in terms of safety and efficacy...
March 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665733/natural-history-predictors-of-outcome-and-effects-of-treatment-in-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-a-multicenter-cohort-study-from-the-north-american-clinical-trials-network
#16
Jefferson R Wilson, Blessing Jaja, Brian K Kwon, James Guest, James Shields Harrop, Bizhan Aarabi, Christopher Shaffrey, Jetan Badhiwala, Elizabeth Toups, Robert Grossman, Michael G Fehlings
The course, treatment response and recovery potential following acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to differ depending on the neurological level of injury. However, there are limited data focused on thoracic-level injuries. A cohort of 86 patients from the prospectively maintained North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) SCI registry were identified and studied to characterize the patterns of neurological recovery as well as to determine rates of acute hospital mortality and pulmonary complications...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662294/application-of-enhanced-recovery-after-gastric-cancer-surgery-an-updated-meta-analysis
#17
Liu-Hua Wang, Ren-Fei Zhu, Cheng Gao, Shou-Lin Wang, Li-Zong Shen
AIM: To provide an updated assessment of the safety and efficacy of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols in elective gastric cancer (GC) surgery. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, World Health Organization International Trial Register, and Cochrane Library were searched up to June 2017 for all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ERAS protocols and standard care (SC) in GC surgery. Thirteen RCTs, with a total of 1092 participants, were analyzed in this study, of whom 545 underwent ERAS protocols and 547 received SC treatment...
April 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642692/noncardiac-chest-pain-a-2018-update
#18
Marilena Durazzo, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Rinaldo Pellicano
Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is defined as recurring, angina-like, chest pain of noncardiac origin. Studies have estimated that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common contributing factor for NCCP. In patients with non-GERD related NCCP, esophageal motility disorders, and functional chest pain (FCP) of presumed esophageal origin are the main underlying mechanisms for symptoms. Epidemiologic studies show a high prevalence of panic disorder, anxiety and major depression in NCCP patients. The diagnostic esophageal workup starts only after that cardiac and pulmonary diseases have been ruled out...
April 11, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623556/anesthesia-for-interventional-pulmonology-procedures-a-review-of-advanced-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-bronchoscopy
#19
Andres de Lima, Fayez Kheir, Adnan Majid, John Pawlowski
PURPOSE: Interventional pulmonology is a growing subspecialty of pulmonary medicine with flexible and rigid bronchoscopies increasingly used by interventional pulmonologists for advanced diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This review discusses different technical aspects of anesthesia for interventional pulmonary procedures with an emphasis placed on pharmacologic combinations, airway management, ventilation techniques, and common complications. SOURCE: Relevant medical literature was identified by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for publications on different anesthesia topics applicable to interventional pulmonary procedures...
April 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622078/update-of-mr-imaging-for-evaluation-of-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Mario Ciliberto, Yuji Kishida, Shinichiro Seki, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Yoshiharu Ohno
Since MR imaging was introduced for the assessment of thoracic and lung diseases, various limitations have hindered its widespread adoption in clinical practice. Since 2000, various techniques have been developed that have demonstrated the usefulness of MR imaging for lung cancer evaluation, and it is now reimbursed by health insurance companies in many countries. This article reviews recent advances in lung MR imaging, focusing on its use for lung cancer evaluation, especially with regard to pulmonary nodule detection, pulmonary nodule and mass assessment, lung cancer staging and detection of recurrence, postoperative lung function prediction, and therapeutic response evaluation and prediction...
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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