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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326821/understanding-self-harm-in-older-people-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-studies
#1
Anne Pamela Frances Wand, Carmelle Peisah, Brian Draper, Henry Brodaty
OBJECTIVE: Rates of suicide in older adults are generally higher than other age groups. Although risk factors for suicide attempts, and self-harm more generally, in this population are well-characterised, many of these vulnerabilities are common to older people and individual motivations are less well understood. Qualitative research may reveal more about the underlying thought processes, meaning and experiences of older people who self-harm. METHODS: A systematic review of qualitative studies examining the reasons why older people have self-harmed was undertaken by searching databases and screening the reference lists of articles...
March 22, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326536/risk-factors-for-obesity-in-preschool-aged-children-in-china
#2
Jyu-Lin Chen, Jill Howie Esquivel, Jia Guo, Catherine A Chesla, Siyuan Tang
AIMS: To examine the relationship between child, mother, and environmental factors and increased body mass index in preschool-aged children in China. BACKGROUND: There are about 120 million children in China are classified as overweight or obese. Understanding the key factors associated with childhood obesity (i.e. child, mother and environment) is the first step in combating the growing obesity epidemic in China, as well as in the global community, where large numbers of Chinese immigrants can be found...
March 21, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321132/the-outcomes-of-health-promoting-communities-being-active-eating-well-initiative-a-community-based-obesity-prevention-intervention-in-victoria-australia
#3
K A Bolton, P Kremer, L Gibbs, E Waters, B Swinburn, A de Silva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well (HPC:BAEW, 2007-2010) initiative which comprised of community-based multi-component interventions adapted to community context in five separate communities. The intervention aimed to promote healthy eating, physical activity and stronger, healthier communities. METHODS: A mixed method and multi-level quasi-experimental evaluation of the HPC:BAEW initiative captured process, impact and outcome data...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317483/a-critical-review-of-bioactive-food-components-and-of-their-functional-mechanisms-biological-effects-and-health-outcomes
#4
Rosa Pérez-Gregorio, Jesús Simal-Gándara
BACKGROUND: Eating behaviours are closely related to some medical conditions potentially leading to death such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Healthy eating practices, maintaining a normal weight, and regular physical activity could prevent up to 80% of coronary heart disease, 90% of type-2 diabetes and one-third of all cancers[1]. METHOD: Over the last two decades, the food industry has invested much effort in research and development of healthier, more nutritious foods...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315845/icarus-study-prevalence-and-clinical-features-of-impulse-control-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Angelo Antonini, Paolo Barone, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Karin Annoni, Mahnaz Asgharnejad, Paolo Stanzione
BACKGROUND: Impulse control disorders/other compulsive behaviours ('ICD behaviours') occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but prospective studies are scarce, and prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients are insufficiently defined. OBJECTIVES: To assess the presence of ICD behaviours over a 2-year period, and evaluate patients' clinical characteristics. METHODS: A prospective, non-interventional, multicentre study (ICARUS (Impulse Control disorders And the association of neuRopsychiatric symptoms, cognition and qUality of life in ParkinSon disease); SP0990) in treated Italian PD outpatients...
April 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315420/eating-behaviour-is-associated-with-eating-frequency-and-food-consumption-in-6-8-year-old-children-the-physical-activity-and-nutrition-in-children-panic-study
#6
H Jalkanen, V Lindi, U Schwab, S Kiiskinen, T Venäläinen, L Karhunen, T A Lakka, A M Eloranta
The association between eating behaviour and dietary factors has been studied narrowly in children. Therefore, we investigated whether eating frequency and food consumption are influenced by eating behaviour in a population sample of 406 children aged 6-8 years. We assessed features of eating behaviour by the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and dietary factors by a 4-day food record. The results showed that enjoyment of food was directly associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.041) and consumption of vegetables (p = 0...
March 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315417/higher-bmi-is-associated-with-stronger-effects-of-social-cues-on-everyday-snacking-behaviour
#7
Benjamin Schüz, Sarah Revell, Andrew P Hills, Natalie Schüz, Stuart G Ferguson
Discretionary food choices (snacks) contribute up to a third of the daily energy intake and potentially contribute to energy imbalance and weight gain. Individual snack intake behaviour is guided by internal and external cues, with social cues (seeing others eat, being alone) consistently showing large effects. A wide body of (mainly laboratory-based) research suggests marked differences in people's response to eating cues based on BMI. Here, we show that these BMI differences in cue responsiveness also pertain to everyday snacking behaviour...
March 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304341/the-efficacy-of-psychological-therapies-in-reducing-weight-and-binge-eating-in-people-with-bulimia-nervosa-and-binge-eating-disorder-who-are-overweight-or-obese-a-critical-synthesis-and-meta-analyses
#8
REVIEW
Marly Amorim Palavras, Phillipa Hay, Celso Alves Dos Santos Filho, Angélica Claudino
Recurrent binge eating episodes, the core feature of Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), are frequently comorbid with obesity. Psychological interventions, notably Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), are effective for binge eating reduction in BED or BN but less so for weight loss. Behavioural Weight Loss Therapy (BWLT) shows effectiveness for binge eating reduction and weight loss but the latter appears poorly sustained over time. Our aim was to review evidence for efficacy of psychological therapies for BN/BED associated with overweight or obesity in reducing binge frequency and weight...
March 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303707/assessment-of-nutritional-habits-and-preferences-among-secondary-school-students
#9
Paulina Duma-Kocan, Barbara Barud, Elżbieta Głodek, Marian Gil
Background: Appropriate nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting the proper development of man, nutritional status and maintaining good health. Adolescence is a period of development of skills of self-determination and self-realization, also in the case of nutrition. Children and school-age youth are the group most vulnerable to the effects of incorrect nutrition. The way of nutrition during this period determines psychophysical and emotional development, effectiveness in learning process and has influence on health in adulthood...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303706/selected-eating-behaviours-of-girls-and-boys-attending-sport-oriented-classes
#10
Nicola Szeja, Elżbieta Szczepańska, Karolina Janion, Anna Szymkiewicz, Biruta Lenard, Izabela Dudzik, Anna Kołdon
Background: Eating behaviours play a key role in lives of young people who stay physically active. They influence both their correct development and performance. Objective: Evaluation of selected eating behaviours of girls and boys attending sport-oriented classes and identification of differences between eating behaviours of studied groups. Materials and Methods: 460 students attending sport-oriented classes in Poland participated in the study...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302574/the-arginine-vasotocin-and-serotonergic-systems-affect-interspecific-social-behaviour-of-client-fish-in-marine-cleaning-mutualism
#11
Zegni Triki, Redouan Bshary, Alexandra S Grutter, Albert F H Ros
Many species engage in mutualistic relationships with other species. The physiological mechanisms that affect the course of such social interactions are little understood. In the cleaning mutualism, cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus do not always act cooperatively by eating ectoparasites, but sometimes cheat by taking bites of mucus from so-called "client" reef fish. The physiological mechanisms in these interspecific interactions, however, are little studied. Here, we focussed on three neuromodulator systems known to play important roles in intraspecific social behaviour of vertebrates to examine their role in clients' interspecific behaviour...
March 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296242/observed-parent-child-feeding-dynamics-in-relation-to-child-body-mass-index-and-adiposity
#12
C M Johnson, M S Henderson, G Tripicchio, P Rozin, M Heo, A Pietrobelli, R I Berkowitz, K L Keller, M S Faith
BACKGROUND: Restrictive feeding is associated with child overweight; however, the majority of studies used parent-report questionnaires. OBJECTIVES: The relationship between child adiposity measures and directly observed parent and child behaviours were tested using a novel behavioural coding system (BCS). METHODS: Data from 109 children, participants in a twin study and their mothers, were analyzed. Parent-child dyads were video-recorded twice in the laboratory, while children ate ad libitum from a buffet lunch...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294999/the-social-norms-of-suicidal-and-self-harming-behaviours-in-scottish-adolescents
#13
Jody Quigley, Susan Rasmussen, John McAlaney
Although the suicidal and self-harming behaviour of individuals is often associated with similar behaviours in people they know, little is known about the impact of perceived social norms on those behaviours. In a range of other behavioural domains (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, eating behaviours) perceived social norms have been found to strongly predict individuals' engagement in those behaviours, although discrepancies often exist between perceived and reported norms. Interventions which align perceived norms more closely with reported norms have been effective in reducing damaging behaviours...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294985/effects-of-a-diet-based-weight-reducing-program-with-probiotic-supplementation-on-satiety-efficiency-eating-behaviour-traits-and-psychosocial-behaviours-in-obese-individuals
#14
Marina Sanchez, Christian Darimont, Shirin Panahi, Vicky Drapeau, André Marette, Valerie H Taylor, Jean Doré, Angelo Tremblay
This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR)) on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men (n = 45) and women (n = 60) participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included a 12-week weight loss period (Phase 1) based on moderate energy restriction, followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance (Phase 2). During the two phases of the program, each subject consumed two capsules per day of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (10 mg of LPR equivalent to 1...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294965/differences-in-dietary-preferences-personality-and-mental-health-in-australian-adults-with-and-without-food-addiction
#15
Tracy Burrows, Leanne Hides, Robyn Brown, Christopher V Dayas, Frances Kay-Lambkin
Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294936/examining-the-feasibility-of-implementing-behavioural-economics-strategies-that-encourage-home-dinner-vegetable-intake-among-low-income-children
#16
Tashara M Leak, Alison Swenson, Aaron Rendahl, Zata Vickers, Elton Mykerezi, Joseph P Redden, Traci Mann, Marla Reicks
OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of implementing nine behavioural economics-informed strategies, or 'nudges', that aimed to encourage home dinner vegetable intake among low-income children. DESIGN: Caregivers were assigned six of nine strategies and implemented one new strategy per week (i.e. 6 weeks) during three dinner meals. Caregivers recorded child dinner vegetable intake on the nights of strategy implementation and rated the level of difficulty for assigned strategies...
March 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290749/identification-of-eating-disorder-symptoms-in-danish-adolescents-with-the-scoff-questionnaire
#17
Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen, René Klinkby Støving
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders often develop in adolescence and, therefore, instruments are needed that are useful to detect risk behaviour in young people. The SCOFF is a 5-item screening instrument, named SCOFF as an acronym of keywords from the questions. It has been used widely in adult samples, but studies that evaluate the scale in adolescents are missing. AIMS: The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the SCOFF in adolescents aged 11-20 years and for the first time validate the questionnaire in Danish...
March 14, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288443/the-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-smoothie-intake-cortisol-and-attentional-bias-in-anorexia-nervosa
#18
Jenni Leppanen, Valentina Cardi, Kah Wee Ng, Yannis Paloyelis, Daniel Stein, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterised by severe malnutrition as well as intense fear and anxiety around food and eating with associated anomalies in information processing. Previous studies have found that the neuropeptide, oxytocin, can influence eating behaviour, lower the neurobiological stress response and anxiety among clinical populations, and alter attentional processing of food and eating related images in AN. METHODOLOGY: Thirty adult women with AN and twenty-nine healthy comparison (HC) women took part in the current study...
February 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286739/people-trying-to-lose-weight-dislike-calorie-counting-apps-and-want-motivational-support-to-help-them-achieve-their-goals
#19
Linda Solbrig, Ray Jones, David Kavanagh, Jon May, Tracey Parkin, Jackie Andrade
BACKGROUND: Two thirds of UK adults are overweight or obese and at increased risk of chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. Basic public health support for weight loss comprises information about healthy eating and lifestyle, but internet and mobile applications (apps) create possibilities for providing long-term motivational support. AIMS: To explore among people currently trying to lose weight, or maintaining weight loss, (i) problems, experiences and wishes in regards to weight management and weight loss support including e-health support; (ii) reactions to Functional Imagery Training (FIT) as a possible intervention...
March 2017: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286164/changing-children-s-eating-behaviour-a-review-of-experimental-research
#20
REVIEW
Patricia DeCosta, Per Møller, Michael Bom Frøst, Annemarie Olsen
The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice...
March 9, 2017: Appetite
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