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Pavel Golubchik, Arad Kodesh, Abraham Weizman
OBJECTIVES: Methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to reduce the risk for injuries. In the present study, the rate and timing of injuries were compared among the various MPH preparations (4 and 6-8 vs 12 hour-acting) in children with ADHD. METHODS: This real-world retrospective study covered the years 2011 to 2013. Participants included 2042 youngsters (aged 4-18 years, 13.01 ± 3.2 years; 71...
January 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Angelo Fallu, Farida Dabouz, Melissa Furtado, Leena Anand, Martin A Katzman
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child's development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA(®) to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C(®)...
August 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Laura Park-Wyllie, Judy Van Stralen, Doron Almagor, Wendy Dobson-Belaire, Katia Charland, Andrew Smith, Jacques Le Lorier
PURPOSE: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare medication use patterns of a long-acting extended-release methylphenidate (Osmotic Release Oral System [OROS(®)] methylphenidate, CONCERTA(®)) and Teva-methylphenidate (methylphenidate ER-C), a generic drug determined by the Canadian regulatory authority, Health Canada, to be bioequivalent to OROS(®) methylphenidate. METHODS: We established an OROS(®) methylphenidate-experienced and new-user population cohort to compare medication use patterns, including medication persistence, duration of therapy, and treatment-switching patterns...
August 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Justin L Kandler, Concerta L Holley, Jennifer L Reimche, Vijaya Dhulipala, Jacqueline T Balthazar, Artur Muszyński, Russell W Carlson, William M Shafer
During infection, the sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) encounters numerous host-derived antimicrobials, including cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) produced by epithelial and phagocytic cells. CAMPs have both direct and indirect killing mechanisms and help link the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection. Gonococcal CAMP resistance is likely important for avoidance of host nonoxidative killing systems expressed by polymorphonuclear granulocytes (e.g., neutrophils) and intracellular survival...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Dharanesh Gangaiah, Xinjun Zhang, Beth Baker, Kate R Fortney, Hongyu Gao, Concerta L Holley, Robert S Munson, Yunlong Liu, Stanley M Spinola
Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid in adults and cutaneous ulcers in children. In humans, H. ducreyi resides in an abscess and must adapt to a variety of stresses. Previous studies (D. Gangaiah, M. Labandeira-Rey, X. Zhang, K. R. Fortney, S. Ellinger, B. Zwickl, B. Baker, Y. Liu, D. M. Janowicz, B. P. Katz, C. A. Brautigam, R. S. Munson, Jr., E. J. Hansen, and S. M. Spinola, mBio 5:e01081-13, 2014, suggested that H. ducreyi encounters growth conditions in human lesions resembling those found in stationary phase...
May 2016: Infection and Immunity
Michelle D Lally, Mary C Kral, Andrea D Boan
Treatment effectiveness between equivalent doses of non-OROS (osmotic controlled release oral delivery system) methylphenidate ER and OROS methylphenidate ER (brand name Concerta) was examined in a clinical case series of children and adolescents followed for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Conners-Third Edition: Parent Rating Scale was used to compare ADHD symptoms when patients were taking non-OROS versus OROS at follow-up visits. A repeated-measures mixed-model approach was used to compare treatment effectiveness...
November 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Concerta L Holley, Xinjun Zhang, Kate R Fortney, Sheila Ellinger, Paula Johnson, Beth Baker, Yunlong Liu, Diane M Janowicz, Barry P Katz, Robert S Munson, Stanley M Spinola
The (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is important for bacterial survival in nutrient limiting conditions. For maximal effect, (p)ppGpp interacts with the cofactor DksA, which stabilizes (p)ppGpp's interaction with RNA polymerase. We previously demonstrated that (p)ppGpp was required for the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans. Here, we constructed an H. ducreyi dksA mutant and showed it was also partially attenuated for pustule formation in human volunteers. To understand the roles of (p)ppGpp and DksA in gene regulation in H...
August 2015: Infection and Immunity
Karen A Kleinschmidt
The disposal of controlled medication left in the school nurse office is problematic for school nurses. Medications are left for a variety of reasons: students transfer out of the district, state, or country; parents and guardians lack transportation to pick up their child's medication; and some families simply forget. The medications of concern are controlled substances, primarily Schedule II medications including Adderall, Concerta, and methylphenidate. Over time, these medications begin to accumulate in a school nurse's office...
September 2015: NASN School Nurse
Elisabeth Schapperer, Heike Daumann, Stéphane Lamouche, Ursula Thyroff-Friesinger, François Viel, Werner Weitschies
The aim was to assess the bioequivalence of Sandoz methylphenidate osmotic-controlled release (OCR) tablets (Sandoz [Methylphenidate[ MPH OCR) with Concerta®, a methylphenidate formulation indicated for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Four open-label, randomized, single-dose, two-way crossover bioequivalence studies were conducted in healthy subjects: three fasting studies with 54-, 36- and 18-mg doses of methylphenidate, and one fed study with the 54-mg dose. The d- and l-threo-methylphenidate plasma levels were quantified using liquid chromatographic methods with tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS)...
February 2015: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Martin A Katzman, Tia Sternat
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioural disorder with onset during childhood. It affects a child's development, both at home and at school, and impacts on social, emotional and cognitive functioning, in both the home and the school environment. Untreated ADHD is very often associated with poor academic achievement, low occupational status, increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. Current practice guidelines recommend a multimodal approach in the treatment of ADHD, which includes educational, behavioural and mental health interventions, and pharmacological management...
November 2014: CNS Drugs
Concerta Holley, Dharanesh Gangaiah, Wei Li, Kate R Fortney, Diane M Janowicz, Sheila Ellinger, Beth Zwickl, Barry P Katz, Stanley M Spinola
(p)ppGpp responds to nutrient limitation through a global change in gene regulation patterns to increase survival. The stringent response has been implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic bacterial species. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, has homologs of both relA and spoT, which primarily synthesize and hydrolyze (p)ppGpp in Escherichia coli. We constructed relA and relA spoT deletion mutants to assess the contribution of (p)ppGpp to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. Both the relA single mutant and the relA spoT double mutant failed to synthesize (p)ppGpp, suggesting that relA is the primary synthetase of (p)ppGpp in H...
August 2014: Infection and Immunity
Alexander M Ponizovsky, Eli Marom, Israel Fitoussi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe trends in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs consumption in Israel (Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana, Vyvanse, Focalin, and Adderall) over the 8 years, 2005-2012, and to explore explanations for changes in amounts and patterns of the utilization. METHODS: Data for the period from 2005 to 2012 were extracted from the database maintained by the Israel Ministry of Health's Pharmaceutical Administration...
May 2014: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Ozgür Oner, Esra Safak Yilmaz, Hasan Karada X011f, Mert Vural, Elif Hilal Vural, Akif Akbulat, Hakk X0131 Gürsöz, Hakan Türkçapar, Saim Kerman
Objective: To investigate the change of ADHD medication prescriptions in Turkey between 2009 and 2013. Method: Consumption data of ADHD medications, immediate release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), OROS MPH (Concerta), and atomoxetine (Strattera) were obtained from IMS Health database for the November 2008 to October 2013 period. Defined daily dose (DDD) of each drug was calculated according to WHO definitions and time-series analysis was conducted. Results: There was a significant seasonal effect for prescription of all drugs...
February 19, 2014: Journal of Attention Disorders
Judy Pm van Stralen
OBJECTIVE: In Canada, novo-methylphenidate extended-release capsules (Novo-MPH ER-C, Novopharm Limited, Canada) was approved as being bioequivalent to a current first-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), CONCERTA (OROS-MPH, Janssen Inc, Canada). The present practice review was undertaken to determine whether bioequivalence of these products translates into therapeutic equivalence. METHODS: The present study was a retrospective, single-centre, observational review of consecutive paediatric ADHD patients prescribed OROS-MPH during a seven-month period...
February 2013: Paediatrics & Child Health
Sean Esteban McCabe, Brady T West
OBJECTIVE: To examine the lifetime prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (e.g., Adderall, Concerta, Ritalin, Dexedrine) among high school seniors in the United States, and to assess substance use behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, binge drinking, marijuana, and other drug use) based on lifetime histories of medical and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. METHOD: Nationally representative samples of high school seniors from the Monitoring the Future study were surveyed via self-administered questionnaires...
December 2013: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
David Coghill, Tobias Banaschewski, Alessandro Zuddas, Antonio Pelaz, Antonella Gagliano, Manfred Doepfner
BACKGROUND: The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) has been a mainstay of treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for many years. Owing to the short half-life and the issues associated with multiple daily dosing of immediate-release MPH formulations, a new generation of long-acting MPH formulations has emerged. Direct head-to-head studies of these long-acting MPH formulations are important to facilitate an evaluation of their comparative pharmacokinetics and efficacy; however, to date, relatively few head-to-head studies have been performed...
September 27, 2013: BMC Psychiatry
V Gormez, B Avery, H Mann
BACKGROUND: Switching from Immediate Release Methylphenidate (MPH-IR) to a sustained release formulation in treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often required to provide better compliance and convenience. However; the switch has been reported to be not always successful and small doses of MPH-IR may be added to sustained release preparations when its effect wears off. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this survey, clinical case notes of 77 subjects aged 6-18 years who had been switched from MPH-IR to Concerta XL were retrospectively analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the switch...
September 2013: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Andre Jackson
PURPOSE: Investigate the performance of partial area under the drug concentration-time curve (PAUC) metrics (0-3 h) and (3-24 h), for Concerta, Ritalin LA and Focalin XR (different Methylphenidate modified-release formulations). The metrics have been chosen as additional BE metrics for Ritalin LA by the FDA to establish BE for these products due to the early and late peak concentrations critical for treatment of morning and afternoon symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2014: Pharmaceutical Research
Theresa A Cassidy, Emily C McNaughton, Sajan Varughese, Leo Russo, Mirella Zulueta, Stephen F Butler
OBJECTIVE: To examine nonmedical use (NMU) of prescription ADHD stimulants among adults evaluated for substance abuse treatment. METHOD: 147,816 assessments from the National Addictions Vigilance Intervention and Prevention Program (NAVIPPRO) system (10/01/2009 through 03/31/2012) examined NMU prevalence, routes of administration (ROA), and diversion sources. RESULTS: Past 30-day NMU for prescription stimulants (1.29%) was significantly lower than that of prescription opioids (19...
April 2015: Journal of Attention Disorders
Rafael Maldonado
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder of which the main features are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Methylphenidate (MPH) is the mainstay of treatment, but its short duration of action and consequent need for multiple administrations has been problematic for children attending school. Extended-release (ER) formulations have been developed to help overcome the drawbacks associated with immediate-release (IR) preparations...
August 2013: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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