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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210936/does-obesity-affect-the-non-invasive-measurement-of-cardiac-output-performed-by-electrical-cardiometry-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Luis Altamirano-Diaz, Eva Welisch, Ralf Rauch, Michael Miller, Teresa Sohee Park, Kambiz Norozi
Electrical cardiometry (EC) is a non-invasive and inexpensive method for hemodynamic assessment and monitoring. However, its feasibility for widespread clinical use, especially for the obese population, has yet to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the agreement and reliability of EC compared to transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE) in normal, overweight, and obese children and adolescents. We measured stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) of 131 participants using EC and TTE simultaneously...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163318/adrenal-medullary-dysfunction-as-a-feature-of-obesity
#2
M Reimann, N Qin, M Gruber, S R Bornstein, C Kirschbaum, T Ziemssen, G Eisenhofer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While there is strong evidence linking obesity with increased sympathoneural activity, involvement of the adrenal medulla is less clear. We therefore investigated adrenal medullary function under fasting and feeding conditions in normal weight (NW, n=33), overweight (OW, n=28) and obese (OB, n=36) adults (59% women). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven healthy adults participated in a cross-sectional study with recruitment stratified according to BMI...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138825/markers-of-oxidative-stress-in-human-milk-do-not-differ-by-maternal-bmi-but-are-related-to-infant-growth-trajectories
#3
Bridget E Young, Zachary W Patinkin, Laura Pyle, Becky de la Houssaye, Barbara S Davidson, Sheela Geraghty, Ardythe L Morrow, Nancy Krebs
Objective Obesity in adults is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Whether or not this phenotype is reflected in human milk (HM) composition, or may impact infant growth remains unknown. We investigated whether HM from overweight/obese (OW/Ob) mothers exhibited higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress. We also correlated these bioactive components with infant growth patterns. Methods This was an observational cohort of 56 breastfeeding mothers and their infants [33 normal weight (NW) and 23 OW/Ob]...
January 30, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121467/modifying-provider-practice-to-improve-assessment-of-unhealthy-weight-and-lifestyle-in-young-children-translating-evidence-in-a-quality-improvement-initiative-for-at-risk-children
#4
Nadine L Camp, Rebecca C Robert, Jessica E Nash, Cara B Lichtenstein, Candice S Dawes, Katherine Patterson Kelly
BACKGROUND: We designed a quality improvement (QI) project to address the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB) in our patient population and the inconsistencies among primary care providers in recognizing and addressing OW/OB. METHODS: We used mixed methods data collection approach to evaluate a QI project, the Childhood Healthy Behaviors Intervention (CHBI), to improve provider obesity prevention practice in two low-income, predominantly African American pediatric primary care clinics...
January 25, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077308/cookie-or-fruit-relative-reinforcing-value-of-snack-foods-among-preschoolers-with-overweight-obesity-compared-to-healthy-weight
#5
Mary Beth McCullough, Hayley Guilkey, Lori Stark
The reinforcing value of food is an important determinant of food intake. Research has yet to examine the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of snack foods in young children with overweight and obesity (OW/OB). The current study compared the RRV of high-energy dense foods (cookies) to low-energy dense foods (fruits) between preschoolers with OW/OB and healthy weight (HW). RRV of cookies and fruits in preschoolers with OW/OB (n = 30; Mage = 4.4 ± 0.84; 60% male) and HW (n = 30; Mage = 4.5 ± 0.85; 70% male) was assessed with a developmentally-tailored computer program which used a progressive fixed ratio reward schedule...
January 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073685/obesity-is-the-main-determinant-of-insulin-resistance-more-than-the-circulating-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-levels-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#6
Jesus Castillo-Hernandez, Martha Imelda Maldonado-Cervantes, Juan Pablo Reyes, Nuria Patiño-Marin, Enrique Maldonado-Cervantes, Claudia Solorzano-Rodriguez, Esperanza de la Cruz Mendoza, Brenda Alvarado-Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Systemic blockade of TNF-α in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with insulin resistance (IR) seems to produce more improvement in insulin sensitivity in normal weight patients with RA than in obese patients with RA, suggesting that systemic-inflammation and obesity are independent risk factors for IR in RA patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the insulin resistance in: normal weight patients with RA (RA NW), overweight patients with RA (RA OW), obese RA patients (RA OB), and matched control subjects with normal weight (NW) and obesity (OB); and its association with major cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of the disease...
December 20, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026713/a-family-centered-lifestyle-intervention-for-obese-six-to-eight-year-old-children-results-from-a-one-year-randomized-controlled-trial-conducted-in-montreal-canada
#7
Tamara R Cohen, Tom J Hazell, Catherine A Vanstone, Celia Rodd, Hope A Weiler
OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity interventions should be family-centered and focused on lifestyle behaviours that achieve sustainable reductions in adiposity. The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to test a family-centered lifestyle intervention using Canada's Food and Physical Activity (PA) Guidelines to reduce body mass index-for-age z-scores (BAZ) in overweight and obese (OW/OB) children. METHODS: Children (n = 78; ages 6-8.5 years) were randomized to standard (StnTx) or modified (ModTx) interventions or control (Ctrl)...
December 27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884961/therapeutic-silencing-of-fat-specific-protein-27-improves-glycemic-control-in-mouse-models-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#8
Cédric Langhi, Noemí Arias, Ananthi Rajamoorthi, Jeannine Basta, Richard G Lee, Ángel Baldán
Obesity is a component of the metabolic syndrome, mechanistically linked to diabetes, fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. Proteins that regulate the metabolic fate of intracellular lipid droplets are potential therapeutic candidates to treat obesity and its related consequences. CIDEC (cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector C), also known in mice as Fsp27 (fat-specific protein 27), is a lipid droplet-associated protein that prevents lipid mobilization and promotes intracellular lipid storage. The consequences of complete loss of FSP27 on hepatic metabolism and on insulin resistance are controversial, as both healthy and deleterious lipodystrophic phenotypes have been reported in Fsp27(-/-) mice...
January 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881930/psychological-consequences-of-childhood-obesity-psychiatric-comorbidity-and-prevention
#9
REVIEW
Jean Rankin, Lynsay Matthews, Stephen Cobley, Ahreum Han, Ross Sanders, Huw D Wiltshire, Julien S Baker
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW) or obese (OB), and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876761/early-infant-adipose-deposition-is-positively-associated-with-the-n-6-to-n-3-fatty-acid-ratio-in-human-milk-independent-of-maternal-bmi
#10
M C Rudolph, B E Young, D J Lemas, C E Palmer, T L Hernandez, L A Barbour, J E Friedman, N F Krebs, P S MacLean
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-month of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased threefold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBCs) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2 weeks and 4 months postpartum...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876519/the-effect-of-body-mass-index-on-major-outcomes-after-vascular-surgery
#11
REVIEW
George Galyfos, Georgios I Geropapas, Stavros Kerasidis, Argiri Sianou, Fragiska Sigala, Konstantinos Filis
OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, although pooled evidence in patients undergoing vascular surgery are lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on major postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing vascular surgery. METHODS: A systematic literature review conforming to established criteria to identify eligible articles published before May 2016 was conducted...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873461/human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-in-vitro-system-to-test-the-efficacy-of-food-bioactive-compounds-effects-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-relation-with-bmi
#12
Margalida Cifre, Rubén Díaz-Rúa, Rubén Varela-Calviño, Bàrbara Reynés, Jordi Pericás-Beltrán, Andreu Palou, Paula Oliver
SCOPE: To analyse the usefulness of isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to rapidly/easily reflect n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation gene profile, and evaluate if these effects are body mass index (BMI) dependent. METHODS AND RESULTS: PBMC from normoweight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) subjects were incubated with physiological doses of docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or their combination...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871636/correlates-of-overweight-and-obesity-among-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-in-the-national-comorbidity-survey-adolescent-supplement-ncs-a
#13
Benjamin I Goldstein, Carlos Blanco, Jian-Ping He, Kathleen Merikangas
OBJECTIVE: Despite substantial evidence on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity (OW/OB) in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), little is known about this topic in adolescents with BD. METHOD: The method consisted of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement, a face-to-face survey of mental disorders from 2001 through 2004, using a modified version of the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859458/children-of-parents-with-bed-have-more-eating-behavior-disturbance-than-children-of-parents-with-obesity-or-healthy-weight
#14
Janet A Lydecker, Carlos M Grilo
OBJECTIVE: A limited literature suggests an association between parental eating disorders and child eating-disorder behaviors although this research has focused primarily on restrictive-type eating disorders and very little is known about families with binge-eating disorder (BED). METHODS: The current study focused on parents (N = 331; 103 fathers and 226 mothers), comparing parents with core features of BED (n = 63) to parents with obesity and no eating disorder (OB; n = 85) and parents with healthy-weight and no eating disorder (HW; n = 183)...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854028/impaired-fasting-glucose-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-in-children-and-adolescents-with-overweight-obesity
#15
P Di Bonito, L Pacifico, C Chiesa, G Valerio, E Miraglia Del Giudice, C Maffeis, A Morandi, C Invitti, M R Licenziati, S Loche, G Tornese, F Franco, M Manco, M G Baroni
OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a large sample of overweight/obese (OW/OB) children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetic phenotypes such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and to assess their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hepatic steatosis (HS). METHODS: Population data were obtained from the CARdiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents in ITALY study. Between 2003 and 2013, 3088 youths (972 children and 2116 adolescents) received oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were included in the study...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818449/association-of-obesity-bmi-and-hispanic-ethnicity-on-ambulatory-status-in-children-with-spinal-dysraphism-followed-near-the-california-mexico-border
#16
Michelle L McDonald, Andy Huang, James A Proudfoot, Joan T Le, George J Chiang, Ruth A Bush
PURPOSE: Evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), overweight status (OW), or obesity (OB) and ambulatory status in a predominantly Hispanic population of children with spinal dysraphism (SD). METHODS: Retrospective data were extracted from records of 272 children and youth aged 0-24 years with a diagnosis of SD. Body mass index (BMI) and OW / OB rates were calculated for children 0-3 years, 4-11 years, and adolescents older than 11. RESULTS: Ethnicity was predominantly Hispanic (65...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774449/unsustainability-of-obesity-metabolic-food-waste
#17
Mauro Serafini, Elisabetta Toti
The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world's health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to "obesigen" consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684595/measuring-granulocyte-and-monocyte-phagocytosis-and-oxidative-burst-activity-in-human-blood
#18
Mary Pat Meaney, David C Nieman, Dru A Henson, Qi Jiang, Fu-Zhang Wang
The granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst (OB) activity assay can be used to study the innate immune system. This manuscript provides the necessary methodology to add this assay to an exercise immunology arsenal. The first step in this assay is to prepare two aliquots ("H" and "F") of whole blood (heparin). Then, dihydroethidium is added to the H aliquot, and both aliquots are incubated in a warm water bath followed by a cold water bath. Next, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is added to the H aliquot and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled S...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624991/parental-pre-pregnancy-bmi-influences-on-offspring-bmi-and-waist-circumference-at-21-years
#19
Nurzalinda Zalbahar, Jake Najman, Harold D McIntrye, Abdullah Mamun
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prospective association between parental pre-pregnancy BMI and adult male and female offspring BMI and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: Sub-sample of 2,229 parent-offspring pairs with parental pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring BMI and WC at 21 years were used from the MUSP (Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort). Multivariable results were adjusted for maternal factors around pregnancy (e.g. gestational weight and smoking during pregnancy) and offspring factors in early life (e...
December 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604771/anabolic-sensitivity-of-postprandial-muscle-protein-synthesis-to-the-ingestion-of-a-protein-dense-food-is-reduced-in-overweight-and-obese-young-adults
#20
Joseph W Beals, Richard A Sukiennik, Julian Nallabelli, Russell S Emmons, Stephan van Vliet, Justin R Young, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Scott A Paluska, Michael De Lisio, Nicholas A Burd
BACKGROUND: Excess body fat diminishes muscle protein synthesis rates in response to hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic clamps. However, muscle protein synthetic responses after the ingestion of a protein-dense food source across a range of body mass indexes (BMIs) have not been compared. OBJECTIVE: We compared the myofibrillar protein synthetic response and underlying nutrient-sensing mechanisms after the ingestion of lean pork between obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adults...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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