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Ob obesity overweight

Mary Pat Meaney, David C Nieman, Dru A Henson, Qi Jiang, Fu-Zhang Wang
The granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst (OB) activity assay can be used to study the innate immune system. This manuscript provides the necessary methodology to add this assay to an exercise immunology arsenal. The first step in this assay is to prepare two aliquots ("H" and "F") of whole blood (heparin). Then, dihydroethidium is added to the H aliquot, and both aliquots are incubated in a warm water bath followed by a cold water bath. Next, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is added to the H aliquot and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled S...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nurzalinda Zalbahar, Jake Najman, Harold D McIntrye, Abdullah Mamun
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prospective association between parental pre-pregnancy BMI and adult male and female offspring BMI and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: Sub-sample of 2,229 parent-offspring pairs with parental pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring BMI and WC at 21 years were used from the MUSP (Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort). Multivariable results were adjusted for maternal factors around pregnancy (e.g. gestational weight and smoking during pregnancy) and offspring factors in early life (e...
September 13, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Joseph W Beals, Richard A Sukiennik, Julian Nallabelli, Russell S Emmons, Stephan van Vliet, Justin R Young, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Scott A Paluska, Michael De Lisio, Nicholas A Burd
BACKGROUND: Excess body fat diminishes muscle protein synthesis rates in response to hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic clamps. However, muscle protein synthetic responses after the ingestion of a protein-dense food source across a range of body mass indexes (BMIs) have not been compared. OBJECTIVE: We compared the myofibrillar protein synthetic response and underlying nutrient-sensing mechanisms after the ingestion of lean pork between obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adults...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Viola Lanier, Corey Gillespie, Merle Leffers, Danielle Daley-Brown, Joy Milner, Crystal Lipsey, Nia Webb, Leonard M Anderson, Gale Newman, Johannes Waltenberger, Ruben Rene Gonzalez-Perez
Leptin increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and Notch expression in cancer cells, and transphosphorylates VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms involved in leptin's actions in endothelial cells are not completely known. Here we investigated whether a leptin-VEGFR-Notch axis is involved in these leptin's actions. To this end, human umbilical vein and porcine aortic endothelial cells (wild type and genetically modified to overexpress VEGFR-1 or -2) were cultured in the absence of VEGF and treated with leptin and inhibitors of Notch (gamma-secretase inhibitors: DAPT and S2188, and silencing RNA), VEGFR (kinase inhibitor: SU5416, and silencing RNA) and leptin receptor, OB-R (pegylated leptin peptide receptor antagonist 2: PEG-LPrA2)...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Trishana Nayiager, Ronald D Barr, Loretta Anderson, Amy Cranston, John Hay
Inadequate physical activity (PA) and elevated overweight/obesity (OW/OB) rates are common in survivors of cancer in childhood, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bony morbidity, including fractures, is also prevalent among survivors of ALL. This study examined the interrelationships of PA, measured in hours by the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale; OW/OG, defined by body mass index; and fractures (yes/no) in survivors of ALL (n=75) more than 10 years after diagnosis. All had been treated using protocols of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute Childhood ALL Consortium...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Giuseppe Iacomino, Paola Russo, Ilaria Stillitano, Fabio Lauria, Pasquale Marena, Wolfgang Ahrens, Pasquale De Luca, Alfonso Siani
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in the modulation of gene expression and in the control of numerous cell functions. Alterations of miRNA patterns frequently occur in cancer and metabolic disorders, including obesity. Recent studies showed remarkable stability of miRNAs in both plasma and serum making them suitable as potential circulating biomarkers for a variety of diseases and conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the profile of circulating miRNAs expressed in plasma samples of overweight or obese (OW/Ob) and normal weight (NW) prepubertal children from a European cohort (www...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
S M R Costa, E Isganaitis, T J Matthews, K Hughes, G Daher, J M Dreyfuss, G A P da Silva, M-E Patti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal obesity increases risk for childhood obesity, but molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from infants of overweight and obese mothers would harbor transcriptional patterns reflecting offspring obesity risk. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we recruited 13 lean (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) <25.0 kg m(-2)) and 24 overweight-obese ('ov-ob', BMI⩾25...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Cain C T Clark, Claire M Barnes, Mark Holton, Huw D Summers, Gareth Stratton
Obese children move less and with greater difficulty than their normal-weight counterparts. Whilst the effect of high BMI on cardiovascular fitness is well known, the effect on movement quality characteristics during a standardised fitness test has not been investigated. The aims of this study were, to characterise the movement quality of children performing the multi-stage fitness test (MSFT), and, report how movement quality characteristics cluster according to weight status. One hundred and three children (10...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Mirna Edith Morales-Marín, Alma Delia Genis-Mendoza, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate, Nuria Lanzagorta, Michael Escamilla, Humberto Nicolini
BACKGROUND: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been considered as an important candidate gene in bipolar disorder (BD); this association has been derived from several genetic and genome-wide studies. A polymorphic variant of the BDNF (Val66Met) confers some differences in the clinical presentation of affective disorders. In this study, we evaluated a sample population from Mexico City to determine whether the BDNF (rs6265) Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the body mass index (BMI) of patients with BD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
A J Arcari, M G Gryngarten, A V Freire, M G Ballerini, M G Ropelato, I Bergadá, M E Escobar
BACKGROUND: In girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty (ICPP) concern has been raised by the potential impact of GnRH-analogues (GnRHa) treatment on body weight. We evaluated the effect of GnRHa on Body Mass Index (BMI) in girls with ICPP according to weight status at diagnosis. METHODS: One hundred seventeen ICPP girls were divided according to pretreatment weight status in: normal weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB). BMI at one and two years of treatment was assessed...
2016: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
Tom J Hazell, Caitlin V L Ellery, Tamara R Cohen, Catherine A Vanstone, Celia J Rodd, Hope A Weiler
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a limited amount of research exploring physical activity measurement tools in overweight and obese (OW/OB) children using pedometers. Thus, our objective was to determine the accuracy of one spring-levered (SC-T2) and two piezoelectric pedometers (NL-1000 and Piezo) in OW/OB children. METHODS: A total of 26 boys and 34 girls (n = 60) participated. Pedometer step-counts were compared to observed step counts for walking (walking, stair ascent and decent) and hopping tests...
August 3, 2016: Pediatric Research
Kendra N Krietsch, Casey Lawless, David A Fedele, Christina S McCrae, David M Janicke
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric asthma and overweight/obesity (OV/OB) frequently co-occur and youth with both conditions exhibit poor sleep/bedtime habits. This study assessed differences in week-to-weekend bedtime/wake time variability among OV/OB youth with/without comorbid asthma, and tested whether variability predicted weekday sleep. METHODS: OV/OB youth (n = 142; 28% comorbid asthma; 7-12 years) wore an Accelerometer for 5 days (2 weekend days), providing estimates of week-to-weekend bedtime/wake-time variability, weekday Total Sleep Time (TST), weekday time in bed (TIB), and weekday wake after sleep onset (WASO)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Mónica Andrews, Elba Leiva, Miguel Arredondo-Olguín
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the relationship between the HO1 genotype, ferritin levels and the risk of type-2 diabetes and inflammation. RESEARCH METHODS: Eight hundred thirty-five individuals were evaluated and classified according to their nutritional status and the presence of type-2 diabetes: 153 overweight (OW); 62 obese (OB); 55 type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM); 202 OWDM; 239 OBDM and 124 controls (C). We studied biochemical (glycemia, insulin, lipid profile, liver enzyme, creatinine, hsCRP), hematological (hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, transferrin receptor and serum Fe and ferritin) and oxidative stress (SOD, GHS and TBARS) parameters...
September 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Ruizhi Zheng, Chengguo Liu, Chunmei Wang, Biao Zhou, Yi Liu, Feixia Pan, Ronghua Zhang, Yimin Zhu
Few studies have described the characteristics of metabolically healthy individuals with excess fat in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the natural course of metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MH-OW/OB) adults, and to assess the impact of weight change on developing metabolic abnormalities. During 2009-2010, 525 subjects without any metabolic abnormalities or other obesity-related diseases were evaluated and reevaluated after 5 years. The subjects were categorized into two groups of overweight/obese and normal weight based on the criteria of BMI by 24...
2016: Nutrients
Y Fatima, S A R Doi, A A Mamun
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of poor sleep quality on Overweight/Obesity (Ow/Ob) in young subjects, and explore if this association is independent of sleep duration. METHODS: Pubmed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers on sleep quality and overweight/obesity, focusing on children, adolescents, and young adults. Studies based on subjects with medical/psychological problems or published in languages other than English were excluded. Quality effects model was used to pool studies for meta-analysis...
July 15, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ana M López-Sobaler, Aránzazu Aparicio, Javier Aranceta-Bartrina, Ángel Gil, Marcela González-Gross, Lluis Serra-Majem, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Rosa M Ortega
Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18-64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status...
2016: BioMed Research International
Edward C Gaiser, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Patrick D Worhunsky, Ania M Jastreboff, Brian Pittman, Lauren Kantrovitz, Gustavo A Angarita, Kelly P Cosgrove, Marc N Potenza, Robert T Malison, Richard E Carson, David Matuskey
Most prior work with positron emission tomography (PET) dopamine subtype 2/3 receptor (D2/3R) non-selective antagonist tracers suggests obese (OB) individuals exhibit lower D2/3Rs when compared to normal weight (NW) individuals. A D3-preferring D2/3R agonist tracer, [(11)C](+)PHNO, has demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with D2/3R availability within striatal reward regions. To date, OB individuals have not been studied with [(11)C](+)PHNO. We assessed D2/3R availability in striatal and extrastriatal reward regions in fourteen OB and fourteen age- and gender-matched NW individuals with [(11)C](+)PHNO PET utilizing High Resolution Research Tomograph...
July 4, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Fatih Karatas, Gokmen Umut Erdem, Suleyman Sahin, Aydin Aytekin, Deniz Yuce, Ali R Sever, Taner Babacan, Ozturk Ates, Yavuz Ozisik, Kadri Altundag
PURPOSE: The relation between higher body mass index (BMI) and pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer (BC) is a controversial issue according to the data of Western and Asian patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate BMI and pCR to NAC and discuss the importance of pCR outcomes in Turkish BC patients as a bridging country between Europe and Asia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 4423 BC patients diagnosed between the years 1994 and 2015 in Hacettepe University Cancer Institute, 295 female patients with stage II and III BC were enrolled in the study...
June 15, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Zhongxiao Wan, Lugang Yu, Jinbo Cheng, Zengli Zhang, Baohui Xu, Xing Pang, Hui Zhou, Ting Lei
The aim of the present study is (1) to determine the correlation between circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and adiponectin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and glycerol and (2) to determine the alterations in circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) in Chinese male subjects with increased body mass index (BMI). A total of 45 male adults were enrolled with varied BMI [i.e., lean, overweight (OW), and obese (OB), N = 15 per group]. Blood samples were collected under overnight fasting condition, and plasma was isolated for the measurement of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, 25(OH)D, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and glycerol...
2016: BioMed Research International
Ying Li, Laura Binkowski, Alexandra Grzywna, Christopher B Robbins, Michelle S Caird, Frances A Farley, Michael Glotzbecker
STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, retrospective study of preoperative characteristics and surgical outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of obesity on (1) curve magnitude at first presentation to an orthopaedic surgeon, and (2) surgical outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Clinical exam findings for scoliosis may be less apparent in overweight adolescents. The effect of obesity on curve magnitude at presentation to an orthopaedic surgeon has not been studied...
May 31, 2016: Spine
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