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Antimicrobial therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742161/abundance-and-co-occurrence-of-extracellular-capsules-increases-environmental-breadth-implications-for-the-emergence-of-pathogens
#1
Olaya Rendueles, Marc Garcia-Garcerà, Bertrand Néron, Marie Touchon, Eduardo P C Rocha
Extracellular capsules constitute the outermost layer of many bacteria, are major virulence factors, and affect antimicrobial therapies. They have been used as epidemiological markers and recently became vaccination targets. Despite the efforts to biochemically serotype capsules in a few model pathogens, little is known of their taxonomic and environmental distribution. We developed, validated, and made available a computational tool, CapsuleFinder, to identify capsules in genomes. The analysis of over 2500 prokaryotic genomes, accessible in a database, revealed that ca...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742057/effect-of-photodynamic-therapy-in-the-reduction-of-halitosis-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-trial
#2
Marcela Leticia Leal Gonçalves, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Yara Dadalti Fragoso, Vinícius Vieira Belarmino da Silva, Alessandro M Deana, Ana Carolina Ciarcia, Erika Horácio Pinto, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Cristiane Miranda França
Smell and odours play a vital role in social interaction. Halitosis is a social problem that affects one-third of the population causing a negative impact in the quality of life. There is little knowledge on the prevalence and management of halitosis in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the presence of halitosis in patients with MS when compared to a control group and the treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against halitosis. This is a case-control clinical study where 60 patients were evaluated: 30 MS patients in treatment at the Specialties Clinic School of Medicine, and 30 healthy patients, matched in age and gender, for the control group...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741188/-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-germany-the-current-epidemiological-situation
#3
Viviane Bremer, Sandra Dudareva-Vizule, Susanne Buder, Matthias An der Heiden, Klaus Jansen
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can impair sexual health. Surveillance and study data were used to provide an overview over STIs in Germany. We estimated 3900 new HIV diagnoses in 2015. Of newly diagnosed infections, 57% were attributed to men who have sex with men (MSM). It was further estimated that there were 3200 new HIV infections and 84,700 people living with HIV in 2015. A total of 6834 syphilis infections were recorded in 2015, which corresponds to an increase of 149% since 2009. The incidence in men was 16-times higher than in women...
July 24, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740520/vitamin-d-levels-and-their-impact-on-mineral-metabolism-in-hiv-infected-patients-an-exploratory-study
#4
Silvina Mastaglia, Dana Watson, Natalia Bello, Vanesa Fridman, Daniel Stecher, Beatriz Oliveri
Vitamin D has immunomodulating properties. The nuclear receptor for vitamin D is expressed in several immune cells, which convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to the active form 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2 D]. Under conditions of infection, 1,25(OH)2 D promotes production of cathelicidin (an antimicrobial peptide) in monocytes and activated macrophages. In vitro studies have shown the ability of cathelicidin to inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in T CD4 lymphocytes and macrophages...
January 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739828/mice-bone-marrow-sca-1-cd44-mesenchymal-stem-cells-kill-avirulent-mycobacteria-but-not-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-through-modulation-of-cathelicidin-expression-via-p38-mapk-dependent-pathway
#5
Sumanta Kumar Naik, Avinash Padhi, Geetanjali Ganguli, Srabasti Sengupta, Sanghamitra Pati, Dasarathi Das, Avinash Sonawane
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) primarily infects lung macrophages. However, recent study has shown that Mtb also infect and persist in dormant form inside the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) even after successful antibiotic therapy. However, the mechanism(s) by which Mtb survives in BM-MSCs is still not known. Like macrophages, BM-MSCs do not contain a well-defined endocytic pathway, which is known to play a central role in the clearance of internalized mycobacteria. Here, we studied the fate of virulent and avirulent mycobacteria in Sca-1(+)/CD44(+) BM-MSCs...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739780/multicenter-evaluation-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-and-ceftolozane-tazobactam-inhibitory-activity-against-meropenem-non-susceptible-p-aeruginosa-from-blood-respiratory-tract-and-wounds
#6
Mordechai Grupper, Christina Sutherland, David P Nicolau
The recent escalation of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized globally and threatens to erode the widespread clinical utility of this class of compounds for this prevalent healthcare associate pathogen. Herein, we compared the in-vitro inhibitory activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftolozane-tazobactam against 290 meropenem non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa non-duplicate clinical isolates from 34 US hospitals using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftolozane-tazobactam were active, with ceftolozane-tazobactam having significantly higher inhibitory activity than ceftazidime-avibactam...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738710/use-of-traditional-herbal-medicine-as-an-alternative-in-dental-treatment-in-mexican-dentistry-a-review
#7
Cindy Cruz Martínez, Martha Diaz Gómez, Myung Sook Oh
CONTEXT: Herbal therapies are used worldwide to treat health conditions. In Mexico, generations have used them to treat gingivitis, periodontitis, mouth infections, and discoloured teeth. However, few studies have collected scientific evidence on their effects. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at searching and compiling scientific evidence of alternative oral and dental treatments using medicinal herbs from Mexico. METHODS: We collected various Mexican medicinal plants used in the dental treatment from the database of the Institute of Biology at the National Autonomous University of Mexico...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735117/pubic-osteomyelitis-after-surgery-for-perforated-colonic-diverticulitis-with-fecal-peritonitis-a-case-report
#8
Daichi Kitaguchi, Tsuyoshi Enomoto, Yusuke Ohara, Tatsuya Oda, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
INTRODUCTION: Pubic osteomyelitis is a rare type of suppurative osteomyelitis. Early diagnosis of pubic osteomyelitis is difficult, and prolonged inflammation results in progressive bone degradation, severe pelvic pain and a wide-based gait. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the case of an 82-year-old woman who was admitted to a previous hospital with severe abdominal pain caused by a perforated colonic diverticulum with fecal peritonitis. She underwent an emergency operation and a postoperative wound infection occurred...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735049/in-vitro-activity-of-daptomycin-combinations-with-rifampicin-gentamicin-fosfomycin-and-fusidic-acid-against-mrsa-strains
#9
Gulseren Aktas, Sengul Derbentli
OBJECTIVES: Although new antimicrobial agents designed to treat infections with limited therapeutic options have been introduced in the past few years, resistant Gram positive cocci have continued to emerge and spread. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that has rapid bactericidal activity against broad spectrum of Gram positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Antibiotics are sometimes used in combination in an attempt to prevent or delay the in vivo emergence of drug-resistant subpopulations of pathogenic organisms...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733718/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-next-30%C3%A2-years-humankind-bugs-and-drugs-a-visionary-approach
#10
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Garyphallia Poulakou, Etienne Ruppe, Emilio Bouza, Sebastian J Van Hal, Adrian Brink
PURPOSE: To describe the current standards of care and major recent advances with regard to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to give a prospective overview for the next 30 years in this field. METHODS: Review of medical literature and expert opinion were used in the development of this review. RESULTS: There is undoubtedly a large clinical and public health burden associated with AMR in ICU, but it is challenging to quantify the associated excess morbidity and mortality...
July 21, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732791/detection-of-a-mecc-positive-staphylococcus-saprophyticus-from-bovine-mastitis-in-argentina
#11
Mariela E Srednik, Marie Archambault, Mario Jacques, Elida R Gentilini
INTRODUCTION: Bovine mastitis causes important economic losses in the dairy industry. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a group of bacteria commonly isolated from bovine mastitis and can display resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine staphylococcal resistance towards β-lactam, macrolide and lincosamide antimicrobials in quarters previously treated with third-generation cephalosporin and after lincosamide intramammary therapy...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732784/secondary-antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-in-israeli-children-and-adults
#12
Johad Khoury, Yuval Geffen, Ron Shaul, Hisham Sholy, Yehuda Chowers, Tarek Saadi
BACKGROUND: Failure of standard therapy for H. pylori infections results primarily from increasing antibiotic resistance. Patients in Israel are referred for H. pylori culture after failure of at least two therapeutic regimens. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of secondary antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori in Israel. METHODS: We retrospectively collected results of H. pylori cultures performed by gastric biopsies at Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel, between the years 2012-2015...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732743/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-the-treatment-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#13
Julie A Gibbons, Hayden L Smith, Sudhir C Kumar, Katherine Johnson Duggins, Amanda M Bushman, Jayme M Danielson, William J Yost, Jonathan J Wadle
BACKGROUND: Research on treating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) has shown improved patient outcomes with effective pharmaceutic prescribing. Antimicrobial stewardship programs can reduce consequences of broad-spectrum antimicrobial administration in SSTI treatment. METHODS: Prospective and historic control data were collected during two 7-month periods. Intervention consisted of implementing a new SSTI evidence-based treatment algorithm and provider education, including calls and medical record notes targeted at physicians...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731836/mortality-rate-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-complicated-diverticulitis-report-of-272-consecutive-patients-worldwide-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Federico Coccolini, Mattia Trevisan, Giulia Montori, Massimo Sartelli, Fausto Catena, Marco Ceresoli, Antonio Costanzo, Arianna Heyer, Luca Ansaloni
BACKGROUND: Complicated diverticulitis (CD) is a common problem for surgeons. In treating it, as a general principle, every verified source of infection should be controlled. Supplementary antimicrobial management involves a delicate balance of optimizing empirical therapy while reducing unnecessary antibiotic use. The necessity to know the most frequent infecting pathogens and their spectra of resistance is becoming pivotal. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiologic profile of complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) secondary to CD, to analyze the role of empirical antimicrobial therapy, and to describe the clinical aspects of CD worldwide...
July 21, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730906/mortality-intensive-care-treatment-and-cost-evaluation-role-of-a-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-patients-with-sepsis
#15
Markota Andrej, Sinkovič Andreja
Objective We examined whether patients with a positive SeptiFast (SF) assay (LightCycler SeptiFast; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) developed higher long-term mortality, a more difficult course of treatment, and a higher antimicrobial treatment cost than patients with a negative SF assay. Methods We performed a post-hoc analysis of data collected in a 1-year prospective interventional study of adults with severe sepsis and septic shock. In addition to the standard treatment, an additional 5 ml of blood was obtained for an SF assay, and the antimicrobial treatment was changed according to the SF results...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730603/hidradenitis-suppurativa-in-children-treated-with-finasteride-a-case-series
#16
Fernando Mota, Susana Machado, Manuela Selores
BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is rare in childhood, with only 2% of cases in patients younger than 11 years. It is a chronic, recurrent, debilitating condition for which no universally effective treatment has been developed. We present five cases of children with HS diagnosed between the ages of 6 and 11 years. METHODS: Patients were treated with oral finasteride 1 to 5 mg/day. All had entered puberty at the time of treatment initiation. All had normal laboratory results before starting treatment...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727999/drug-ion-co-delivery-multi-functional-nanocarrier-to-regenerate-infected-tissue-defect
#17
Jung-Hwan Lee, Ahmed El-Fiqi, Nandin Mandakhbayar, Hae-Hyoung Lee, Hae-Won Kim
Regeneration of infected tissues is a globally challenging issue in medicine and dentistry. Common clinical therapies involving a complete removal of infected areas together with a treatment of antimicrobial drugs are often suboptimal. Biomaterials with anti-bacterial and pro-regenerative potential can offer a solution to this. Here we design a novel nanocarrier based on a mesoporous silicate-calcium glass by doping with Ag ions and simultaneously loading antimicrobial drugs onto mesopores. The nanocarriers could controllably release multiple ions (silver, calcium, and silicate) and drugs (tetracycline or chlorohexidine) to levels therapeutically relevant, and effectively internalize to human dental stem cells (∼90%) with excellent viability, ultimately stimulating odontogenic differentiation...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727741/antimicrobial-resistance-rates-in-gram-positive-bacteria-do-not-drive-glycopeptides-use
#18
Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Andrea Cona, Parichehr Shamsrizi, Tuba Vilken, Winfred V Kern, Nisar Malek, Evelina Tacconelli
Surveillance data are considered essential to appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy and stewardship. The objective of this study was to determine if a change in the rates of antibiotic resistance impacts antibiotic use in European hospitals. Glycopeptides use was selected to study the correlation between resistance rates and antibiotic use because of the restricted spectrum against resistant gram positive bacteria. PubMed, ECDC databases and national/regional surveillance systems were searched to identify glycopeptides´ consumption in defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitant-days (DID) and rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in European countries between 1997 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726037/can-a-collaborative-subspecialty-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-have-lasting-effects
#19
Kaushal B Shah, Ramzy H Rimawi, Mark A Mazer, Paul P Cook
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated the benefit of direct, daily collaboration between infectious disease (ID) and critical care practitioners (CCP) on guideline adherence and antibiotic use in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). In this post-intervention review, we sought to establish whether the effect on antibiotic use and guideline adherence was sustainable. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 87 patients, admitted to the 24-bed MICU, was done 3 (n = 45) and 6 months (n = 42) after the intervention...
July 19, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725562/pleural-empyema-and-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-due-to-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-healthy-spanish-traveler-in-japan
#20
Tetsuya Sakai, Daisuke Taniyama, Saeko Takahashi, Morio Nakamura, Takashi Takahashi
Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) causes invasive infections including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and local infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of an invasive GAS infection with pneumonia and pleural empyema (PE) followed by STSS (disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC] and acute renal insufficiency) in a healthy male adult. He received combined supportive therapies of PE drainage, anti-DIC agent, hemodialysis, and antimicrobials and eventually made a clinical recovery...
2017: IDCases
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