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Antimicrobial therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634558/plesiomonas-shigelloides-an-unusual-cause-of-septic-abortion
#1
Gilbert Cornut, Xavier Marchand-Senecal, Christiane Gaudreau, Jeremie Berdugo, Gilles Gariepy, Catherine Tremblay, Patrice Savard
Plesiomonas shigelloides, the only oxidase-positive Enterobacteriaceae, is an inhabitant of freshwater and estuary ecosystems. We report the first possible case of Plesiomonas shigelloides-induced septic abortion. This 24-year-old female was successfully treated by dilatation and curettage as well as antimicrobial therapy.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#2
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632788/high-throughput-identification-and-rational-design-of-synergistic-small-molecule-pairs-for-combating-and-bypassing-antibiotic-resistance
#3
Morgan A Wambaugh, Viplendra P S Shakya, Adam J Lewis, Matthew A Mulvey, Jessica C S Brown
Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#4
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631909/-characterization-of-microbial-flora-in-patients-suspected-of-having-urogenital-tuberculosis
#5
A G Cherednichenko, E V Kulchavenya
INTRODUCTION: In the structure of tuberculosis morbidity, urogenital tuberculosis (UGT) ranks second or third only to pulmonary tuberculosis. Every fourth patient has the stage of cavern formation at first presentation. Seventy five percent of nephrotuberculosis cases co-occur with nonspecific pyelonephritis, which excludes "sterile pyuria". We aimed to determine the microbial spectrum of urine and gonadal appendages in patients with suspected UGT and to investigate the susceptibility of the isolated microorganisms to the main antibacterial drugs...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631307/interventions-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-erysipelas-and-cellulitis
#6
REVIEW
Adam Dalal, Marina Eskin-Schwartz, Daniel Mimouni, Sujoy Ray, Walford Days, Emmilia Hodak, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Erysipelas and cellulitis (hereafter referred to as 'cellulitis') are common bacterial skin infections usually affecting the lower extremities. Despite their burden of morbidity, the evidence for different prevention strategies is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of antibiotic prophylaxis or other prophylactic interventions for the prevention of recurrent episodes of cellulitis in adults aged over 16. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to June 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630748/treatment-of-chronic-orthopaedic-infection
#7
Heinz Winkler
Chronic infections are one of the major challenges in orthopaedic surgery, both for surgeons and patients. They are characterised by obstinate persistency of the causing microorganisms and resulting long-term disablement of the patients, associated with remarkable costs for the health care system.Difficulties derive from the biofilm-mode of living of pathogens with resistances against immunological defence and antimicrobial substances, and osseous defects resulting from the disease itself and surgical interventions...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630440/looking-to-nature-for-a-new-concept-in-antimicrobial-treatments-isoflavonoids-from-cytisus-striatus-as-antibiotic-adjuvants-against-mrsa
#8
Ana Cristina Abreu, Aline Coqueiro, Andi R Sultan, Nicole Lemmens, Hye Kyong Kim, Robert Verpoorte, Willem J B van Wamel, Manuel Simões, Young Hae Choi
The spread of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has shortened the useful life of anti-staphylococcal drugs enormously. Two approaches can be followed to address this problem: screening various sources for new leads for antibiotics or finding ways to disable the resistance mechanisms to existing antibiotics. Plants are resistant to most microorganisms, but despite extensive efforts to identify metabolites that are responsible for this resistance, no substantial progress has been made...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630243/quad-fever-beware-of-non-infectious-fever-in-high-spinal-cord-injuries
#9
Jyoti Goyal, Rakesh Jha, Paramjeet Bhatia, Raj Kumar Mani
A case of cervical spinal cord injury and quadriparesis with prolonged fever is being described. Initially, the patient received treatment for well-documented catheter-related bloodstream infection. High spiking fever returned and persisted with no obvious evidence of infection. The usual non-infectious causes too were carefully excluded. QUAD fever or fever due to spinal cord injury itself was considered. The pathogenetic basis of QUAD fever is unclear but could be attributed to autonomic dysfunction and temperature dysregulation...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630241/multipathogenic-necrotising-supraglottitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#10
Jacob Joseph Ahmed, James Douglas Constable, Tawakir Kamani, Mriganka De
Supraglottitis is a potentially life-threatening condition. It is now uncommon due to the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccination and is more recently caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, H. influenzae non-type B, H. parainfluenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella multocida Very rarely, it can cause necrotising supraglottitis/epiglottitis, and this has been reported in immunocompromised individuals. We present a unique case of multipathogenic supraglottitis causing laryngeal fibrinoid necrosis in an immunocompetent patient...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630187/cumulative-effect-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-rapid-diagnostic-testing-bundle-on-early-streamlining-of-antimicrobial-therapy-in-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections
#11
P B Bookstaver, E B Nimmich, T J Smith, J A Justo, J Kohn, K L Hammer, C Troficanto, H A Albrecht, M N Al-Hasan
OBJECTIVES: The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) enhances antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) interventions in optimization of antimicrobial therapy. This quasi-experimental cohort study evaluates the combined impact of an ASP/RDT bundle on appropriateness of empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) and time to de-escalation of broad-spectrum agents (BSAA) in gram-negative bloodstream infections (GNBSI). METHODS: ASP/RDT bundle consisted of a system-wide GNBSI treatment guidelines, prospective stewardship monitoring, and sequential introduction of two RDTs, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) and FilmArray® Blood Culture Identification (BCID) panel...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629753/active-identification-of-patients-who-are-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonized-is-not-associated-with-longer-duration-of-vancomycin-therapy
#12
Carlos Acuna-Villaorduna, Westyn Branch-Elliman, Judith Strymish, Kalpana Gupta
BACKGROUND: Excessive prescribing of vancomycin among patients admitted to inpatient wards is a challenge for antimicrobial stewardship programs, especially in the setting of expanded screening programs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Studies examining factors associated with longer duration of vancomycin use are limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of universal MRSA admission screening on duration of vancomycin use at the VA Boston Healthcare System during the period from January 2013-November 2015...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628930/-rational-use-of-antibiotics-data-form-a-survey-from-2014-within-the-mrdo-network-compared-to-nationwide-data-from-2009
#13
Luba Lendowski, Peter Walger, Christoph Hoeser, Martin Exner, Claudia Roesing, Steffen Engelhart
Introduction To combat multi-resistant gram-negative bacteria as the cause of life-threatening infections, antibiotic stewardship activities are of great importance. Objective To detect weaknesses when prescribing antibiotics in hospitals and compare the situation between 2009 and 2014. Methods In 2014, a questionnaire was sent to all 380 physicians employed in 7 hospitals. Primary, secondary and tertiary care hospitals were included. Investigated were: demographic data, position, certified specialization, presence of antibiotic prescription rules and behavior to follow them...
June 19, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628637/survival-bacterial-clearance-and-thrombocytopenia-are-improved-in-polymicrobial-sepsis-by-targeting-nuclear-transport-shuttles
#14
Ruth Ann Veach, Yan Liu, Jozef Zienkiewicz, Lukasz S Wylezinski, Kelli L Boyd, James L Wynn, Jacek Hawiger
The rising tide of sepsis, a leading cause of death in the US and globally, is not adequately controlled by current antimicrobial therapies and supportive measures, thereby requiring new adjunctive treatments. Severe microvascular injury and multiple organ failure in sepsis are attributed to a "genomic storm" resulting from changes in microbial and host genomes encoding virulence factors and endogenous inflammatory mediators, respectively. This storm is mediated by stress-responsive transcription factors that are ferried to the nucleus by nuclear transport shuttles importins/karyopherins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628280/combination-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-for-acute-exacerbations-in-chronic-infection-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Valerie Waters, Felix Ratjen
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis is usually chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of individual drugs. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing assesses the efficacy of drug combinations including two or three antibiotics in vitro and can often demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy against bacterial isolates even when individual antibiotics have little or no effect. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment in people with cystic fibrosis with acute exacerbations...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628170/recent-advances-and-perspectives-in-the-design-and-development-of-polymyxins
#16
REVIEW
Francesc Rabanal, Yolanda Cajal
Covering: 1947-early 2017, particularly from 2005-early 2017The rise of bacterial pathogens with acquired resistance to almost all available antibiotics is becoming a serious public health issue. Polymyxins, antibiotics that were mostly abandoned a few decades ago because of toxicity concerns, are ultimately considered as a last-line therapy to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. This review surveys the progress in understanding polymyxin structure, and their chemistry, mechanisms of antibacterial activity and nephrotoxicity, biomarkers, synergy and combination with other antimicrobial agents and antibiofilm properties...
June 19, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627430/kinetic-of-eosinophil-count-during-bacterial-infection-revisiting-an-old-marker-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-antimicrobial-therapy
#17
B Davido, S Makhloufi, M Matt, R Calin, O Senard, C Perronne, A Dinh, J Salomon
INTRODUCTION: Eosinopenia has been in the centre of debates for decades as a criterion of sepsis. Depending on authors, different cut-off values are proposed. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study, from February to August 2016, of hospitalized adults suffering from bacterial infection with eosinopenia defined by an eosinophil count <100/mm(3). Patients were divided into 2 groups considering the first day of effective antimicrobial therapy. They were observed during 5days (D) in order to evaluate whether recovery from eosinopenia was predictive of an appropriate antibiotic regimen...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626539/resistance-to-colistin-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-a-4-0-strain
#18
REVIEW
Guido Granata, Nicola Petrosillo
The global rise of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria represents an increasing threat to patient safety. From the first observation of a carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria a global spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been observed. Treatment options for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae are actually limited to combination therapy with some aminoglycosides, tigecycline and to older antimicrobial agents. Unfortunately, the prevalence of colistin-resistant and tigecycline-resistant K...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626538/septic-thrombophlebitis-with-persistent-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-and-de-novo-resistance-to-vancomycin-and-daptomycin
#19
Yael Koton, Zafrir Or, Naiel Bisharat
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with significant risk of mortality, especially when it occurs while on appropriate antimicrobial therapy. We herein describe an unusual case of a patient with prosthetic aortic tissue valve, who suffered from central venous catheter related MRSA bacteremia with septic thrombus formation in the superior vena cava. MRSA bacteremia persisted despite removal of the catheter and appropriate antimicrobial therapy including vancomycin, rifampin, and daptomycin...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626456/bactericidal-effect-of-photodynamic-therapy-alone-or-in-combination-with-mupirocin-or-linezolid-on-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Vanesa Pérez-Laguna, Luna Pérez-Artiaga, Verónica Lampaya-Pérez, Isabel García-Luque, Sofía Ballesta, Santi Nonell, Manuel P Paz-Cristobal, Yolanda Gilaberte, Antonio Rezusta
Antibiotic treatments frequently fail due to the development of antibiotic resistance, underscoring the need for new treatment strategies. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) could constitute an alternative therapy. In bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, which is commonly implicated in cutaneous and mucosal infections, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of aPDT, using the photosensitizing agents rose bengal (RB) or methylene blue (MB), alone or combined with the antibiotics mupirocin (MU) or linezolid (LN)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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