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Antimicrobial therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350901/gram-negative-bacterial-infections-research-priorities-accomplishments-and-future-directions-of-the-antibacterial-resistance-leadership-group
#1
Yohei Doi, Robert A Bonomo, David C Hooper, Keith S Kaye, James R Johnson, Cornelius J Clancy, Joshua T Thaden, Martin E Stryjewski, David van Duin
Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria is one of the most pressing challenges in the field of infectious diseases and is one of 4 key areas of unmet medical need identified by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). The mission of the Gram-Negative Committee is to advance our knowledge of these challenging infections and implement studies to improve patient outcomes. Studies have fallen primarily into 2 broad categories: prospective cohort studies and interventional trials...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350900/gram-positive-bacterial-infections-research-priorities-accomplishments-and-future-directions-of-the-antibacterial-resistance-leadership-group
#2
Sarah B Doernberg, Thomas P Lodise, Joshua T Thaden, Jose M Munita, Sara E Cosgrove, Cesar A Arias, Helen W Boucher, G Ralph Corey, Franklin D Lowy, Barbara Murray, Loren G Miller, Thomas L Holland
Antimicrobial resistance in gram-positive bacteria remains a challenge in infectious diseases. The mission of the Gram-Positive Committee of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is to advance knowledge in the prevention, management, and treatment of these challenging infections to improve patient outcomes. Our committee has prioritized projects involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) due to the scope of the medical threat posed by these pathogens...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350870/bacterial-clonal-diagnostics-as-a-tool-for-evidence-based-empiric-antibiotic-selection
#3
Veronika Tchesnokova, Hovhannes Avagyan, Elena Rechkina, Diana Chan, Mariya Muradova, Helen Ghirmai Haile, Matthew Radey, Scott Weissman, Kim Riddell, Delia Scholes, James R Johnson, Evgeni V Sokurenko
Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture) antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350745/the-irish-helicobacter-pylori-working-group-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-h-pylori-infection-in-adult-patients-in-ireland
#4
Sinead Smith, Breida Boyle, Denise Brennan, Martin Buckley, Paul Crotty, Maeve Doyle, Richard Farrell, Mary Hussey, David Kevans, Peter Malfertheiner, Francis Megraud, Sean Nugent, Anthony O'Connor, Colm O'Morain, Shiobhan Weston, Deirdre McNamara
BACKGROUND: Irish eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori are decreasing and there is an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These trends call into question current management strategies. OBJECTIVE: To establish an Irish Helicobacter pylori Working Group (IHPWG) to assess, revise and tailor current available recommendations. METHODS: Experts in the areas of gastroenterology and microbiology were invited to join the IHPWG...
May 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350437/bacteria-activated-theranostic-nanoprobes-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#5
Zhiwei Zhao, Rong Yan, Xuan Yi, Jingling Li, Jiaming Rao, Zhengqing Guo, Yanmei Yang, Weifeng Li, Yong-Qiang Li, Chunying Chen
Despite numerous advanced imaging and sterilization techniques available nowadays, the sensitive in vivo diagnosis and complete elimination of drug-resistant bacterial infections remain to be big challenge. Here we report a strategy to design activatable theranostic nanoprobes against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. This probe is based on silica nanoparticles coated with vancomycin-modified polyelectrolyte-cypate complexes (SiO2-Cy-Van), which is activated by an interesting phenomenon of bacteria-responsive dissociation of the polyelectrolyte from silica nanoparticles...
March 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343909/pneumonia
#6
REVIEW
Thomas A Hooven, Richard A Polin
Neonatal pneumonia may occur in isolation or as one component of a larger infectious process. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are all potential causes of neonatal pneumonia, and may be transmitted vertically from the mother or acquired from the postnatal environment. The patient's age at the time of disease onset may help narrow the differential diagnosis, as different pathogens are associated with congenital, early-onset, and late-onset pneumonia. Supportive care and rationally selected antimicrobial therapy are the mainstays of treatment for neonatal pneumonia...
March 23, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343752/efficacy-of-tedizolid-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-peptostreptococcus-anaerobius-in-thigh-mixed-infection-mouse-model
#7
Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo, Hideo Kato, Naoya Nishiyama, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Katsuhiko Matsuura, Mao Hagihara
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the antimicrobial activity of human simulated exposures of tedizolid 200 mg daily, and linezolid 600 mg every 12 h for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infection (cSSSI) caused by MRSA and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius in both the neutropenic mice thigh mixed-infection models. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Tedizolid phosphate and linezolid were used for all in vivo testing. A total of one MRSA and two P...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343444/a-pilot-study-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-post-discharge
#8
Justin M Jones, Nathan D Leedahl, Ashley Losing, Paul J Carson, David D Leedahl
PURPOSE: Lack of patient follow-up is a major concern during care transitions, and the role of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in assessing antimicrobial regimens after hospital discharge is not well described. We implemented an expanded ASP to include patients recently discharged from the hospital and measured its impact on inappropriate antimicrobial therapy 72 hours after inpatient culture data were finalized. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a 583-bed tertiary care center in the Upper Midwest of America...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343210/periodic-fever-aphthous-stomatitis-pharyngitis-and-cervical-adenitis-pfapa-syndrome-in-children
#9
Vira B Semianchuk
INTRODUCTION: Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome refers to a group of primary immunodeficiencies, namely autoinflammatory diseases. Most pediatricians and otolaryngologists do not suspect PFAPA syndrome when treating recurrent pharyngitis (according to Ukrainian classification - tonsillitis) and stomatitis. Therefore, patients with a given syndrome receive unnecessary treatment (antibiotic therapy or antiviral drugs) and the diagnosis is made late...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342095/-advances-in-diagnostic-microbiology-opportunities-and-limitations
#10
F P Maurer, M Hentschke, H Rohde
In the light of ever increasing problems related to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, rapid microbiological diagnostics are of growing importance. Timely pathogen detection and availability of susceptibility data are essential for optimal treatment, but are even more crucial for de-escalation of broad spectrum empiric therapies. Medical microbiology is, thus, an integral part of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Traditional microbiological techniques for species identification and susceptibility testing rely on bacterial growth and are, thus, characterized by inherent slowness...
March 24, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341485/modulation-of-gut-microbiota-contributes-to-curcumin-mediated-attenuation-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-rats
#11
Wenhuan Feng, Hongdong Wang, Pengzi Zhang, Caixia Gao, Junxian Tao, Zhijuan Ge, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND: Structural disruption of gut microbiota contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and modulating the gut microbiota represents a novel strategy for NAFLD prevention. Although previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin alleviates hepatic steatosis, its effect on the gut microbiota modulation has not been investigated. METHODS: Next generation sequencing and multivariate analysis were utilized to evaluate the structural changes of gut microbiota in a NAFLD rat model induced by high fat-diet (HFD) feeding...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341068/clinical-characteristics-of-pyogenic-flexor-tenosynovitis-in-pediatric-patients
#12
Christopher M Brusalis, Stephanie Thibaudeau, Robert B Carrigan, Ines C Lin, Benjamin Chang, Apurva S Shah
PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical presentation, common pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and treatment methods associated with pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis (PFT) in pediatric patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgical treatment for PFT at a large tertiary-care children's hospital between 2001 and 2015 were identified. Descriptive summary statistics were reported on patient demographics, presenting symptoms and clinical examination features, culture results, treatment strategies, and early complications...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336761/impact-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-initiative-on-time-to-administration-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-in-hospitalized-patients-with-bacteremia
#13
Tiffany E Bias, William R Vincent, Nathan Trustman, Leonard B Berkowitz, Veena Venugopalan
PURPOSE: The impact of an antimicrobial stewardship initiative on time to first antibiotic dose and clinical outcomes in bacteremic patients was evaluated. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study was conducted for adult inpatients who received antibiotics before and after implementation of a rapid administration of antimicrobials by an infectious diseases specialist (RAIDS) protocol. Patients admitted to an inpatient service from June to October 2011 (pre-RAIDS protocol) and from December 2011 to February 2012 (post-RAIDS protocol) were eligible for inclusion if (1) they were age 18 years or older, (2) their infection occurred two or more days after hospital admission, and (3) they had a blood culture growing an organism other than common skin contaminants (i...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336675/evolving-risk-factors-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-patterns-for-microbial-keratitis-at-a-large-county-hospital
#14
Haoxing Jin, Walter T Parker, Nathan W Law, Cameron L Clarke, Jordan D Gisseman, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Li Wang, Zaina N Al-Mohtaseb
Purpose: To identify the risk factors, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcomes of microbial keratitis in a large county hospital in Houston, Texas. Design: Case series. METHODS: Setting: A large county hospital in Houston, Texas. Study Population: Patients with known diagnosis of microbial keratitis from January 2011 to May 2015. Observation Procedure: Retrospective chart review. Main Outcomes: Epidemiology, risk factors, outcomes and antibiotic susceptibility of microbial keratitis...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335451/a-review-of-phage-therapy-against-bacterial-pathogens-of-aquatic-and-terrestrial-organisms
#15
REVIEW
Janis Doss, Kayla Culbertson, Delilah Hahn, Joanna Camacho, Nazir Barekzi
Since the discovery of bacteriophage in the early 1900s, there have been numerous attempts to exploit their innate ability to kill bacteria. The purpose of this report is to review current findings and new developments in phage therapy with an emphasis on bacterial diseases of marine organisms, humans, and plants. The body of evidence includes data from studies investigating bacteriophage in marine and land environments as modern antimicrobial agents against harmful bacteria. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the topic of phage therapy, the use of phage-derived protein therapy, and the hosts that bacteriophage are currently being used against, with an emphasis on the uses of bacteriophage against marine, human, animal and plant pathogens...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335307/zinc-oxide-nanorods-decorated-graphene-nanoplatelets-a-promising-antimicrobial-agent-against-the-cariogenic-bacterium-streptococcus-mutans
#16
Elena Zanni, Chandrakanth Reddy Chandraiahgari, Giovanni De Bellis, Maria Rita Montereali, Giovanna Armiento, Paolo Ballirano, Antonella Polimeni, Maria Sabrina Sarto, Daniela Uccelletti
Nanomaterials are revolutionizing the field of medicine to improve the quality of life due to the myriad of applications stemming from their unique properties, including the antimicrobial activity against pathogens. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties of a novel nanomaterial composed by zinc oxide nanorods-decorated graphene nanoplatelets (ZNGs) are investigated. ZNGs were produced by hydrothermal method and characterized through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques...
September 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334502/development-of-a-dried-blood-spot-hplc-pda-method-for-the-analysis-of-linezolid-and-ciprofloxacin-in-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-patients
#17
Vincenzo Ferrone, Maura Carlucci, Roberto Cotellese, Paolo Raimondi, Annadomenica Cichella, Lorenzo Di Marco, Salvatore Genovese, Giuseppe Carlucci
This study developed a HPLC method involving dried blood spotting as sampling method for the therapeutic drug monitoring of the antimicrobial combination therapy with linezolid and ciprofloxacin. DBS for standards, quality control samples, and patient samples were excised and then extracted using a mixture of methanol/water/formic acid 80:20:0.1 (v/v/v), respectively. Linezolid (LZD) and ciprofloxacin (CPR) were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography using a Kinetex EVO C18 (100 x 4.6 mm I.D...
March 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333678/evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-activity-of-green-propolis-extract-and-meadowsweet-extract-against-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteria-importance-in-would-care-compounding-preparations
#18
Nogueira Rodrigo José Lupatini, Panagiota Danopoulos, Rosita Swikidisa, Pinheiro Vanessa Alves
The use of natural products in compounded wound care formulas is an exciting avenue to pursue for compounding pharmacists since these natural products may contain compounds that promote healing on their own. The use of these natural extracts as an alternative therapy for wound care may also provide several benefits, such as decreased inflammation, infection, side effects, and treatment costs. Thus far, several studies have demonstrated antimicrobial activity for various natural product extracts, including green propolis and meadowsweet...
July 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333393/laser-generated-shockwaves-enhance-antibacterial-activity-against-biofilms-in-vitro
#19
William Yao, Edward C Kuan, Nathan C Francis, Maie A St John, Warren S Grundfest, Zachary D Taylor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bacterial biofilm formation within chronic wound beds, which provides an effective barrier against antibiotics, is a known cause of recalcitrant infections and a significant healthcare burden, often requiring repeated surgical debridements. Laser-generated shockwaves (LGS) is a novel, minimally invasive, and nonthermal modality for biofilm mechanical debridement which utilizes compressive stress waves, generated by photonic absorption in thin titanium films to mechanically disrupt the biofilm...
March 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333297/effect-of-adding-a-mobile-health-intervention-to-a-multimodal-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-across-three-teaching-hospitals-an-interrupted-time-series-study
#20
E Charani, M Gharbi, L S P Moore, E Castro-Sanchéz, W Lawson, M Gilchrist, A H Holmes
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of adding a mobile health (mHealth) decision support system for antibiotic prescribing to an established antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP). Methods: In August 2011, the antimicrobial prescribing policy was converted into a mobile application (app). A segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was used to assess the impact of the app on prescribing indicators, using data (2008-14) from a biannual point prevalence survey of medical and surgical wards...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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