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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743311/misidentification-of-s-aureus-by-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-mrsa-sa-bc-assay-due-to-deletions-in-the-spa-gene
#1
Gar-Hing Lee, Stanley Pang, Geoffrey W Coombs
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic bacterium with the capacity to cause a variety of clinical syndromes.….
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580818/tuberculosis-advances-and-challenges-in-development-of-new-diagnostics-and-biomarkers
#2
REVIEW
Gerhard Walzl, Ruth McNerney, Nelita du Plessis, Matthew Bates, Timothy D McHugh, Novel N Chegou, Alimuddin Zumla
Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis and detection of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis is essential for achieving global tuberculosis control. Despite the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as the first-line rapid tuberculosis diagnostic test, the gap between global estimates of incidence and new case notifications is 4·1 million people. More accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests are needed to improve case detection...
March 23, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541267/programmatic-impact-of-implementing-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-respiratory-specimens-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-suspected-patients-in-resource-limited-laboratory-settings-of-eastern-nepal
#3
Prakash Shrestha, Hemanta Khanal, Prasanna Dahal, Pranita Dongol
Background: In Nepal, introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert assay) as an initial confirmation test for tuberculosis (TB) has been considered to have impact as a significant decrease in number of clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases than previous years. This study aims to find out the distribution profile of suspected tuberculosis cases according to patients age, gender, treatment history and HIV status as well as to evaluate the utility of the Xpert assay over conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining method for the proper diagnosis of M...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510850/characteristics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-positive-patients-screened-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-at-a-tertiary-health-facility-in-lagos-nigeria
#4
Yetunde A Kuyinu, Babatunde A Odugbemi, Shukrat O Salisu-Olatunji, Funmilade O Adepoju, Olumuyiwa O Odusanya
BACKGROUND: Nigeria is one of the ten countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden globally and is experiencing an increasing incidence of drug resistance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance (DR-TB) among patients screened at the TB clinic of a tertiary institution in Lagos, South-West, Nigeria. METHODS: A review of records of 840 patients with suspected drug-resistant TB was carried out from Gene Xpert test clinic register at a tertiary health facility from November 2013 to April 2015...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487047/potential-application-of-digitally-linked-tuberculosis-diagnostics-for-real-time-surveillance-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-transmission-validation-and-analysis-of-test-results
#5
Kamela Charmaine Ng, Conor Joseph Meehan, Gabriela Torrea, Léonie Goeminne, Maren Diels, Leen Rigouts, Bouke Catherine de Jong, Emmanuel André
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the highest-mortality infectious disease in the world and the main cause of death related to antimicrobial resistance, yet its surveillance is still paper-based. Rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is an urgent public health crisis. The World Health Organization has, since 2010, endorsed a series of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that enable rapid detection of drug-resistant strains and produce large volumes of data. In parallel, most high-burden countries have adopted connectivity solutions that allow linking of diagnostics, real-time capture, and shared repository of these test results...
February 27, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340299/prospective-study-of-the-feasibility-of-point-of-care-testing-strategy-for-carbapenem-resistant-organism-detection
#6
Rahul Pannala, Bruce Baldwin, Vijay Aluru, Thomas E Grys, Jordan Holmes, Laurence J Miller, M Edwyn Harrison, Cuong C Nguyen, Fred C Tenover, David Persing, Douglas O Faigel
Background/aims:  In an investigator-initiated, prospective study, we evaluated the feasibility of a five-gene sequence point-of-care (POC) testing strategy (Xpert CARBA-R Assay, Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA), compared to reference laboratory PCR (48 - 72 hours turnaround time, two gene sequences), in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and in a hospital outbreak investigation. Methods:  After informed consent, patients undergoing ERCP (September 2015 - April 2016, n = 191) at Mayo Clinic and potential hospital contacts (n = 9) of an index carbapenem-resistant organism (CRO)-positive inpatient were included...
January 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332654/evaluation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tubercular-lymphadenitis-a-pilot-study
#7
Baijayantimala Mishra, Vinaykumar Hallur, Bijayini Behera, C Preetam, Priti Nanda Mishra, Jyotirmayee Turuk, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra
Tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLA) contributes to 30-40% of extrapulmonary TB cases in the immunocompetent individuals and 40-50% in people with HIV. Current diagnostic methods for TBLA like Gene-Xpert or PCR are costly and conventional methods like fine needle aspiration cytology, histopathology lack sensitivity and specificity. Culture which is considered as gold standard require high turnaround time. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been developed as a novel technique for nucleic acid amplification and has shown promising results in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225973/molecular-epidemiology-of-rifampicin-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-the-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-from-a-rural-setting-in-india
#8
Raghuprakash Reddy, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay can detect mutations in rpoB gene that confer rifampicin resistance (RR) using five overlapping probes (A, B, C, D, and E). In this study, we described our experience with the Xpert assay in a rural setting in India. During the study period, 3250 samples were processed. The result was unsuccessful in 5.7% of cases. For extrapulmonary specimens, the risk of unsuccessful result was higher in tissue biopsy and stool samples. Among samples positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis , rifampicin resistance was indeterminate in 1...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212699/rapid-microarray-based-detection-of-rifampin-isoniazid-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-use-of-a-single-cartridge
#9
Juliane Havlicek, Beatrice Dachsel, Peter Slickers, Sönke Andres, Patrick Beckert, Silke Feuerriegel, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, Ines Labugger
The rapid and robust identification of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains mediating multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotypes is crucial to combating the MDR tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Currently available molecular anti-TB drug susceptibility tests either are restricted to a single target or drug (i.e., the Xpert MTB/RIF test) or present a risk of cross-contamination due to the design limitations of the open platform (i.e., line probe assays). With a good understanding of the technical and commercial boundaries, we designed a test cartridge based on an oligonucleotide array into which dried reagents are introduced and which has the ability to identify MTBC strains resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, and the fluoroquinolones...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167292/clinical-evaluation-of-the-cepheid-xpert-tv-assay-for-detection-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-with-prospectively-collected-specimens-from-men-and-women
#10
Jane R Schwebke, C A Gaydos, T Davis, J Marrazzo, D Furgerson, S N Taylor, B Smith, L H Bachmann, R Ackerman, T Spurrell, D Ferris, C A Burnham, H Reno, J Lebed, D Eisenberg, P Kerndt, S Philip, J Jordan, N Quigley
Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). It has been associated with preterm birth and the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Recently, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been FDA cleared in the United States for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in specimens from both women and men. This study reports the results of a multicenter study recently conducted using the Xpert TV ( T. vaginalis ) assay to test specimens from both men and women. On-demand results were available in as little as 40 min for positive specimens...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109010/a-novel-isothermal-amplification-based-method-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#11
Dongxin Liu, Bing Zhao, Xichao Ou, Huiwen Zheng, Aijing Ma, Wencong He, Shengfen Wang, Yang Zhou, Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Ping Hou, Guangxue He, Yanlin Zhao
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to tuberculosis control and prevention. A series of diagnostic methods has been available for MTB detection; however, new rapid, simple and affordable methods are needed. In this study, a multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA)-based assay was developed to detect the IS6110 gene of the M. tuberculosis complex. Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB), a colorimetric indicator, was used to detect amplification products...
February 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050771/host-blood-rna-signatures-predict-the-outcome-of-tuberculosis-treatment
#12
Ethan G Thompson, Ying Du, Stephanus T Malherbe, Smitha Shankar, Jackie Braun, Joe Valvo, Katharina Ronacher, Gerard Tromp, David L Tabb, David Alland, Shubhada Shenai, Laura E Via, James Warwick, Alan Aderem, Thomas J Scriba, Jill Winter, Gerhard Walzl, Daniel E Zak
Biomarkers for tuberculosis treatment outcome will assist in guiding individualized treatment and evaluation of new therapies. To identify candidate biomarkers, RNA sequencing of whole blood from a well-characterized TB treatment cohort was performed. Application of a validated transcriptional correlate of risk for TB revealed symmetry in host gene expression during progression from latent TB infection to active TB disease and resolution of disease during treatment, including return to control levels after drug therapy...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966035/comparison-of-three-molecular-assays-for-detection-of-enteric-viruses-in-stool-samples
#13
Haciba Moudjahed, Claire Pinçon, Kazali Alidjinou, Anny Dewilde, Anne Goffard
Three molecular assays (FTD(®) Viral GE from Fast-track diagnostics, RIDA(®)GENE VSP1 from R-Biopharm, and Xpert Norovirus from Cepheid) were compared for virus detection in acute diarrhea samples. RIDA(®)GENE and FTD(®) Viral GE showed perfect/almost perfect agreement for Rotavirus, Sapovirus and Norovirus, substantial agreement for Adenovirus, and moderate agreement for Astrovirus.
September 29, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911354/drug-resistance-patterns-among-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#14
S K Sharma, J Chaubey, B K Singh, R Sharma, A Mittal, A Sharma
BACKGROUND: xtra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a growing public health concern, and data on drug resistance are limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens from 2468 clinically diagnosed EPTB patients received at the Intermediate Reference Laboratory (IRL) of a tertiary centre in India were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Xpert® MTB/RIF testing, liquid culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) using automated BACTEC MGIT™ 960™. Line-probe assay (LPA) was performed on all culture-positive isolates...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902596/evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-drug-susceptibility-test-for-tuberculosis
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Yingda L Xie, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Derek T Armstrong, Sandra L Hall, Laura E Via, Taeksun Song, Xing Yuan, Xiaoying Mo, Hong Zhu, Peng Xu, Qian Gao, Myungsun Lee, Jongseok Lee, Laura E Smith, Ray Y Chen, Joon Sung Joh, YoungSoo Cho, Xin Liu, Xianglin Ruan, Lili Liang, Nila Dharan, Sang-Nae Cho, Clifton E Barry, Jerrold J Ellner, Susan E Dorman, David Alland
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs are the backbone of treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and resistance to these drugs defines extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We assessed the accuracy of an automated, cartridge-based molecular assay for the detection, directly from sputum specimens, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and isoniazid. METHODS: We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study to compare the investigational assay against phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and DNA sequencing among adults in China and South Korea who had symptoms of tuberculosis...
September 14, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879159/molecular-characterisation-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-from-malawi
#16
Tarsizio Chikaonda, Irene Ketseoglou, Nelson Nguluwe, Robert Krysiak, Isaac Thengolose, Felix Nyakwawa, Nora E Rosenberg, Christopher Stanley, James Mpunga, Irving F Hoffman, Maria A Papathanasopoulos, Mina Hosseinipour, Lesley Scott, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Availability and access to the detection of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs remains a significant challenge in Malawi due to limited diagnostic services. The Xpert(®) MTB/RIF can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin in a single, rapid assay. Rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis has not been well studied in Malawi. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine mutations in the rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene of M...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856222/comparison-of-clinical-methods-for-detecting-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#17
Kirsten Kost, Jumi Yi, Beverly Rogers, Robert Jerris
We evaluated detection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) by routine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Xpert® Carba-R assay, hydrolysis of ertapenem and imipenem detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and hydrolysis by colorimetry using the EPI-CRE assay. Ninety-six Enterobacteriaceae isolates possessing carbapenemase genes and 29 carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were available for testing...
August 2017: Practical Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669674/verification-of-the-cepheid-xpert-carba-r-assay-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-genes-in-bacterial-isolates-cultured-on-alternative-solid-culture-media
#18
H Tanner
The Xpert Carba-R (Cepheid) is a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection and differentiation of five common carbapenemase genes. If used according to manufacturer's instructions, bacterial isolates tested must be cultured on blood or MacConkey agar. This study confirms that the assay performs well against a diverse panel of bacterial isolates with known carbapenemase genes. It also demonstrates that the assay performs well using three solid agar culture media that have not been recommended by the PCR assay's manufacturer: CLED (cystine-, lactose-, and electrolyte-deficient), ChromID CARBA-SMART, and a nutrient slope...
November 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621047/clinical-value-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-detecting-group-b-streptococcus-during-labor
#19
Dorothea Maria Koppes, Antonius Arnoldus Cornelis Maria Vriends, Michiel van Rijn, Antonine Dimphne van Heesewijk
AIM: To reduce the intrapartum use of antibiotics in women with prolonged rupture of the membranes (PROM) by restriction of antibiotics to women who are colonized with group B streptococci (GBS), as identified with the Cepheid Gene Xpert polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting GBS. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among full-term delivering women with PROM. Fifty-four women were enrolled, based on a power calculation with a significance level of 5% and a power of 95%...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583076/diagnostic-accuracy-of-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-naats-in-urine-for-genitourinary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Carlos Altez-Fernandez, Victor Ortiz, Majid Mirzazadeh, Luis Zegarra, Carlos Seas, Cesar Ugarte-Gil
BACKGROUND: Genitourinary tuberculosis is the third most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Diagnosis is difficult because of unspecific clinical manifestations and low accuracy of conventional tests. Unfortunately, the delayed diagnosis impacts the urinary tract severely. Nucleic acid amplification tests yield fast results, and among these, new technologies can also detect drug resistance. There is lack of consensus regarding the use of these tests in genitourinary tuberculosis; we therefore aimed to assess the accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of genitourinary tuberculosis and to evaluate the heterogeneity between studies...
June 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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