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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223147/comparative-performance-study-of-six-commercial-molecular-assays-for-rapid-detection-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile
#1
Yossi Paitan, Tamar Miller Roll, Amos Adler
OBJECTIVES: Rapid and accurate detection of C. difficile in stool impacts patient treatment and containment efforts. Detection of C. difficile toxin genes using nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) is part of a multistep algorithm. Our objective was to directly compare the diagnostic accuracy and applicability of 6 commercial C. difficile NAAT assays. METHODS: In this study, 210 specimens were analysed in parallel by 6 commercial NAAT. Toxigenic culture was used as a reference method...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214222/necessity-to-critically-review-the-automatic-results-of-the-xpert-flu-assay
#2
Ilka Engelmann, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Mouna Lazrek, Anny Dewilde, Didier Hober
While using the Xpert Flu assay we became aware of false-negative results. The study aimed to analyze the causes of these false-negative results. One hundred fifty-nine respiratory specimens were tested in the Xpert Flu assay and in multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) for respiratory viruses. Discordant specimens were tested in the Influenza A/B r-gene assay. One hundred fifty-two (96%) and 151 (95%) specimens yielded concordant results for influenza A and B, respectively. Fifteen specimens tested negative in the Xpert Flu assay and positive in a multiplex RT-PCR...
February 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214065/-contribution-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-to-the-etiological-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-pleurisy
#3
N O Touré, M Wayzani, K Thiam, M F Cissé, F B Mbaye
INTRODUCTION: Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural liquid is poorly described. The aim of this study was to determine its usefulness for the etiological diagnosis of a tuberculous pleurisy. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study, with analytical design, including all the patients having a unilateral serofibrinous pleurisy, exudative, lymphocytic, and sterile. The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis was considered based on epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic arguments...
February 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197879/impact-of-xpert-mrsa-sa-blood-culture-pcr-assay-on-management-of-positive-blood-cultures-in-obstetric-patients-a-retrospective-audit
#4
A Page, S O'Rourke, M Brennan, L Clooney, D Le Blanc, J Griffin, M Eogan, R J Drew
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MRSA/SA blood culture assay (Cepheid, USA) is a rapid PCR test which can be used for positive blood cultures where Gram-positive cocci in clusters are seen. It can detect Staphylococcus aureus and also the mecA gene, which encodes for β-lactam resistance. The assay was introduced into the Rotunda Hospital for positive blood cultures to allow earlier detection of MRSA and methicillin susceptible S. aureus. AIM: To assess the impact of the Xpert MRSA/SA blood culture assay on the management of obstetric patients with a positive blood culture where Gram-positive cocci in clusters were seen...
February 14, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173763/risk-factors-for-poor-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-kyiv-oblast-ukraine
#5
Omowunmi Aibana, Mariya Bachmaha, Viatcheslav Krasiuk, Natasha Rybak, Timothy P Flanigan, Vasyl Petrenko, Megan B Murray
BACKGROUND: Ukraine is among ten countries with the highest burden of multidrug- resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Treatment success rates for MDR-TB in Ukraine remain below global success rates as reported by the World Health Organization. Few studies have evaluated predictors of poor MDR-TB outcomes in Ukraine. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients initiated on MDR-TB treatment in the Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine between January 01, 2012 and March 31st, 2015...
February 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091937/ocular-mycobacteriosis-dual-infection-of-m-tuberculosis-complex-with-m-fortuitum-and-m-bovis
#6
Kusum Sharma, Natasha Gautam, Megha Sharma, Mohit Dogra, Priya Bajgai, Basavaraj Tigari, Aman Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Surya Prakash Sharma, Ramandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: We report unfavorable outcome in a patient with subretinal granuloma caused by dual infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium bovis in an immunosuppressed, non-HIV patient. We did a systematic review of literature on dual infection due to M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum via MEDLINE and PUBMED and could not find any case reported of causing this kind of dual infection in the eye. RESULTS: A 38-year-old Indian male patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye for 3 months, diagnosed as tubercular choroidal granuloma with associated retinal angiomatosis proliferans (RAP) lesion...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073895/evaluation-of-genotypic-and-phenotypic-methods-to-detect-carbapenemase-production-in-gram-negative-bacilli
#7
Allison R McMullen, Melanie L Yarbrough, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, Carey-Ann D Burnham
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) are an urgent and expanding public health threat. Rapid and accurate identification of these organisms facilitates infection prevention efforts in healthcare facilities. The objective of our study was to evaluate methods to detect and identify CP-GNB. METHODS: We examined 189 carbapenem-resistant GNB (CR-GNB), including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii complex, using 3 different methods: 2 methods to screen isolates of GNB for carbapenemase production [the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) and 2 chromogenic agars] and a molecular method (Cepheid GeneXpert Carba-R) to identify the mechanism of carbapenem resistance and the associated resistance genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaOXA-48-like, and blaVIM)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057041/rifampicin-resistance-pattern-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-associated-factors-among-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients-referred-to-debre-markos-referral-hospital-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Tadesse Hailu, Haimanot Ayele, Dereje Abate
BACKGROUND: Prevailing data on rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis is essential for early management of MDR-TB. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated factors among presumptive TB cases in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to March 2015. Detection of M. tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin was performed using Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053586/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-pcr-methods-for-detection-of-carbapenemases-production-by-enterobacteriaceae
#9
Maryam AlTamimi, Ali AlSalamah, Manal AlKhulaifi, Hisham AlAjlan
Dissemination of carbapenem resistance via Enterobacteriaceae, particularly among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, is a major public health concern. Rapid methods for determining antimicrobial susceptibility are important to ensure adequate and appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and to limit the spread of these bacteria. In the current study, we compared the rapidity, sensitivity and specificity of traditional methods and molecular-based Xpert Carba-R PCR assay to identify sixty isolates, (26 E...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043534/nontubercular-mycobacteria-ntm-in-fistula-in-ano-a-new-finding-and-its-implications
#10
Pankaj Garg, Mohinder Kumar Garg, Narinder Agarwal
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontubercular mycobacteria (NTM) is not known to be associated with fistula-in-ano. METHODS: A total of 311 consecutive fistula-in-ano patients operated on over 2years were analyzed. The histopathology of fistula-in-ano tract lining was performed in all the cases and other tests [real-time polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR), Gene Xpert, mycobacterial culture] were completed in patients with a high index of suspicion of having mycobacterial disease...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043515/evaluation-of-rifampicin-resistance-and-81-bp-rifampicin-resistant-determinant-region-of-rpob-gene-mutations-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-detected-with-xpertmtb-rif-in-cross-river-state-nigeria
#11
Ernest A Ochang, Ubong A Udoh, Ubleni E Emanghe, Gerald O Tiku, Jonah B Offor, Micheal Odo, Emmanuel Nkombe, Oju E Owuna, Sunday M Obeten, Martin M Meremikwu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: World Health Organization tuberculosis (TB) indices from 2014 to 2016 showed that Nigeria had the 6th highest prevalence, 4th highest incidence, and the highest mortality rate globally. In efforts to improve TB care, the XpertMTB/Rif (GeneXpert) technology, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California, USA, which has revolutionized TB detection with concomitant rifampicin-resistance molecular detection, was introduced in Cross River State, South-South Nigeria, in 2014. The GeneXpert uses molecular beacons to detect five overlapping 81-bp regions in the rpoB gene known as the Rifampicin Resistant Determinant Region (RRDR)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011331/multi-drug-resistant-female-genital-tuberculosis-a-preliminary-report
#12
J B Sharma, Alka Kriplani, Eshani Sharma, Sangeeta Sharma, Sona Dharmendra, Sunesh Kumar, P Vanamail, S K Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of 6 patients presenting with tubo-ovarian mass or infertility with multi drug resistant (MDR) female genital tuberculosis (FGTB). STUDY DESIGN: It was an observational study in a tertiary referral centre, India on subjects with MDR FGTB on clinical examination and investigations. All patients were given category IV drugs using kanamycin (intramuscular), levofloxacin, pyrazinamide, cycloserine, ethionamide and ethambutol (or para aminosalicylic acid [PAS] for ethambutol resistant cases) for 6 months intensive phase followed by oral levofloxacin, cycloserine, ethionamide and ethambutol (or PAS for ethambutol resistant cases) for 18 months continuation phase...
December 12, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992521/evaluation-of-the-xpert-carba-r-cepheid-assay-using-contrived-bronchial-specimens-from-patients-with-suspicion-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-for-the-detection-of-prevalent-carbapenemases
#13
Almudena Burillo, Mercedes Marín, Emilia Cercenado, Guillermo Ruiz-Carrascoso, María Jesús Pérez-Granda, Jesús Oteo, Emilio Bouza
There is a critical need for rapid diagnostic methods for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in patients with a suspicion of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The Xpert Carba-R detects 5 targets for carbapenemase-producing organisms (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, and blaIMP-1). Our objective was to evaluate the performance of this assay directly on bronchial aspirates and to correlate the cycle number for a positive result (Ct) with the bacterial count. Bronchial aspirates from patients with a suspicion of VAP were spiked with a dilution of 1 of 4 MDR organisms carrying the resistance genes detected by the test prepared to a final concentration of 102-105 cfu/mL...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874159/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-and-rpo-b-gene-in-respiratory-and-non-respiratory-clinical-specimens-at-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#14
Ali M Somily, Mazin A Barry, Hanan A Habib, Fawzia E Alotaibi, Fahad A Al-Zamil, Mohammed A Khan, Mohammed S Sarwar, Nawab D Bakhash, Abdulkarim A Alrabiaah, Zahid A Shakoor, Abiola C Senok
To assess the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and resistance to rifampin (RIF), against smear microscopy and culture method for diagnosis of MTB infection. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 103 respiratory and 137 non-respiratory patient specimens suspected of tuberculosis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia performed between April 2014 and March 2015. Each sample underwent smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and GeneXpert MTB/RIF test...
December 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865380/highly-sensitive-sequence-specific-qpcr-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-in-respiratory-specimens
#15
Jennifer L Reed, Zachary J Walker, Debby Basu, Veronica Allen, Mark P Nicol, David M Kelso, Sally M McFall
Nucleic acid amplification tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) detection from sputum are highly sensitive and specific with smear microscopy positive specimens, but their sensitivity with smear-negative/culture-positive specimens is much lower; therefore, these tests cannot rule out a tuberculosis diagnosis. Co-extraction of PCR inhibitors may be a cause of decreased test sensitivity. Here the design and early validation of a MTB screening assay with sample preparation and qPCR methods designed to specifically address this diagnostic gap is reported...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832910/clinical-predictors-of-aminoglycoside-induced-ototoxicity-in-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-on-intensive-therapy
#16
Olusola Ayodele Sogebi, Bolanle Olufunlola Adefuye, Stephen Oluwatosin Adebola, Susan Modupe Oladeji, Taiwo Olugbemiga Adedeji
OBJECTIVE: The study objectives were to determine the incidence of aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in institutionalized patients on intensive phase of therapy for drug-resistant Tuberculosis (DR Tb) and also to assess clinical factors which could predict the ototoxicity. METHODS: The study was a prospective analytical study among consecutive DR Tb patients who were admitted for intensive phase of therapy (of 4 months) at the DR-Tb center over a 12-month period...
November 7, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829823/a-new-lab-developed-real-time-pcr-assay-for-direct-detection-of-c-difficle-from-stool-sample-without-dna-extraction
#17
Brandon Li
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Detection of C. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool EIA, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the C. difficile toxin genes tcdB. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having C. difficile-associated disease were prospectively collected...
September 2016: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580570/rapid-detection-and-typing-of-carbapenemase-producing-genes-from-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-collected-in-a-japanese-hospital-using-the-xpert-tm-carba-r-assay
#18
Yoshifumi Uwamino, Kayoko Sugita, Naoki Hasegawa, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Satoshi Iwata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566313/evaluation-of-a-novel-procedure-for-rapid-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-cpe-using-the-lightmix%C3%A2-modular-carbapenemase-kits
#19
Marina Oviaño, Isabel Torres, Maria González, Germán Bou
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the LightMix(®) modular carbapenemase kits for the rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and the application of these kits to the direct detection of colonized patients and bacteraemias. METHODS: The modular multiplex PCR kits targeting blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaOXA-48-like carbapenem resistance genes were evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity for carbapenemase resistance in a set of 118 labelled clinical isolates...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519406/rifampicin-resistance-mutations-in-the-81%C3%A2-bp-rrdr-of-rpob-gene-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-using-xpert-mtb-rif-in-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan-a-retrospective-study
#20
Irfan Ullah, Aamer Ali Shah, Anila Basit, Mazhar Ali, Afsar Khan, Ubaid Ullah, Muhammad Ihtesham, Sumaira Mehreen, Anita Mughal, Arshad Javaid
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem especially in developing countries. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay to simultaneously detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency of MDR-TB in patients suspected to have drug resistance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The frequency of probes for various rpoB gene mutations using Xpert MTB/RIF assay within 81 bp RRDR (Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region) was the secondary objective...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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