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Gene xpert

Yoshifumi Uwamino, Kayoko Sugita, Naoki Hasegawa, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Satoshi Iwata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marina Oviaño, Isabel Torres, Maria González, Germán Bou
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the LightMix(®) modular carbapenemase kits for the rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and the application of these kits to the direct detection of colonized patients and bacteraemias. METHODS: The modular multiplex PCR kits targeting blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaOXA-48-like carbapenem resistance genes were evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity for carbapenemase resistance in a set of 118 labelled clinical isolates...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Irfan Ullah, Aamer Ali Shah, Anila Basit, Mazhar Ali, Afsar Khan, Ubaid Ullah, Muhammad Ihtesham, Sumaira Mehreen, Anita Mughal, Arshad Javaid
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem especially in developing countries. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay to simultaneously detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency of MDR-TB in patients suspected to have drug resistance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The frequency of probes for various rpoB gene mutations using Xpert MTB/RIF assay within 81 bp RRDR (Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region) was the secondary objective...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Andrea Cortegiani, Vincenzo Russotto, Giorgio Graziano, Daniela Geraci, Laura Saporito, Gianfranco Cocorullo, Santi Maurizio Raineri, Caterina Mammina, Antonino Giarratano
Early institution of effective antibiotic therapy and source control are pivotal to improve survival of abdominal septic patients. Xpert® Carba-R is a real time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection and differentiation of five genes (blaKPC, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaIMP-1, blaNDM) responsible for carbapenem resistance. We performed an observational study investigating the clinical usefulness and applicability of Xpert® Carba-R to detect carbapenem resistance in abdominal septic patients admitted to intensive care unit...
2016: PloS One
Marion Smith, Bram Diederen, Jelle Scharringa, Maurine Leversteijn-van Hall, Ad C Fluit, James Cohen Stuart
Rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is pivotal for adequate antibiotic therapy and infection control. The Cepheid Xpert Carba-R assay detects and identifies the most prevalent carbapenemases (KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM and OXA-48), using automated real-time PCR. The test performance of the Xpert Carba-R was evaluated with 129 well-characterized non-repeat Enterobacteriaceae isolates, suspected for carbapenemase production, i.e. with meropenem MICs >0.25 mg l-1. The isolate collection contained 100 carbapenemase-producing isolates (36 KPC-2 or KPC-3, 20 VIM-1, 4 KPC-2 plus VIM-1, 5 NDM-1, 2 IMP-1, 1 IMP-28, 1 IMP-1 plus VIM-1 and 31 OXA-48 like) and 29 negative control isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase and/or AmpC β-lactamases...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Monika Agrawal, Ashish Bajaj, Vinay Bhatia, Sarjana Dutt
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains one of the deadliest communicable diseases. There are number of tests available for the diagnosis of tuberculosis but conventional microscopy has low sensitivity and culture although gold standard, but takes longer time for positivity. On the other side, Nucleic acid amplification techniques due to its rapidity and sensitivity not only help in early diagnosis and management of tuberculosis especially in patients with high clinical suspicion like immunocompromised patients, history of contact with active tuberculosis patient etc...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Wipa Reechaipichitkul, Attawoot Phetsuriyawong, Prajuab Chaimanee, Pimjai Ananta
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Gene-Xpert MTB/RIF sputum test for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear negative results in Thailand, a country with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied 151 patients who presented to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand with a 2 week or more history of fever and/or cough and an abnormal chest radiograph between 2010 and 2014; these patients had at least 2 negative sputum AFB smear results...
May 2016: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Stephanie Bjerrum, Joseph Oliver-Commey, Ernest Kenu, Margaret Lartey, Mercy Jemima Newman, Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Doris Hilleman, Aase Bengaard Andersen, Isik Somuncu Johansen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and clinical importance of previously unrecognised tuberculosis (TB) and isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) among HIV-infected individuals in a teaching hospital in Ghana. METHODS: Intensified mycobacterial case finding was conducted among HIV-positive individuals before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and TB-related signs and symptoms, and participants were followed for six months to determine treatment and vital status...
September 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ramandeep Kaur, Neerja Jindal, Shilpa Arora, Shajla Kataria
BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/RIF assay has revolutionized the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by simultaneously detecting the bacteria and resistance to rifampicin (RIF), a surrogate marker for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in <2 h. The RIF resistance pattern in Malwa region of Punjab, India, is not documented. Here, we report the epidemiology of RIF-resistant TB and mutations in rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1612 specimens received between October 2013 and February 2015 were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF assay following manufacturer's instructions...
July 2016: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Tayfur Demiray, Mehmet Koroglu, Ahmet Ozbek, Mustafa Altindis
BACKGROUND: Severe cases of infections caused by Raoultella planticola are constantly being reported from all over the world with the increase in drug-resistance patterns. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics of R. planticola infections with patients' demographics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of the R. planticola isolates. METHODS: R. planticola isolates were retrospectively evaluated. VITEK 2(®) automated system was used for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
May 4, 2016: Infection
Ting Wang, Guo-Dong Feng, Yu Pang, Jia-Yun Liu, Yang Zhou, Yi-Ning Yang, Wen Dai, Lin Zhang, Qiao Li, Yu Gao, Ping Chen, Li-Ping Zhan, Ben J Marais, Yan-Lin Zhao, Gang Zhao
The clinical and mycobacterial features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases in China are not well described; especially in western provinces with poor tuberculosis control. We prospectively enrolled patients in whom TBM was considered in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, over a 2-year period (September 2010 to December 2012). Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), as well as genotyping of all positive cultures...
2016: Scientific Reports
A M Zhang, F Li, X H Liu, L Xia, S H Lu
OBJECTIVE: To detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampin resistance of the clinical specimens in children by Xpert MTB DNA and resistance to rifampicin(MTB/RIF) detection system, and evaluate the application value of this method in children with tuberculosis. METHOD: Data of 109 children cases of clinically suspected tuberculosis were collected (including 46 gastric lavage aspirate, 19 sputum, 10 fine needle aspiration biopsy, 4 pus, 14 cerebrospinal fluid, 11 Serous membrance fluid, 1 marrow, 3 stool, 1 urine specimens)between April 2014 and March 2015...
May 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
M Tato, P Ruiz-Garbajosa, M Traczewski, A Dodgson, A McEwan, R Humphries, J Hindler, J Veltman, H Wang, R Cantón
Rapid identification of patients who are colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) is included in multiple national guidelines for containment of these organisms. In a multisite study, we evaluated the performance of the Cepheid Xpert Carba-R assay, a qualitative diagnostic test that was designed for the rapid detection and differentiation of the blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, and blaIMP-1 genes from rectal swab specimens. A double rectal swab set was collected from 383 patients admitted at four institutions (2 in the United States, 1 in the United Kingdom, 1 in Spain)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Husseiny Sh Moussa, Faten Sayed Bayoumi, Ahmed Mohamed Ali Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Gene Xpert(GX) is a novel real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay which was endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and susceptibility to refampicin(RIF). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate GX for direct diagnosis of TB in stool samples from children with suspected pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). METHODS: Children older than one year and younger than 16 years with presumptive PTB were enrolled and classified to five clinical categories based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings: confirmed TB, probable TB, possible TB, Unlikely TB, and not TB...
2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Arfatur Rahman, Mahfuza Sahrin, Sadia Afrin, Keith Earley, Shahriar Ahmed, S M Mazidur Rahman, Sayera Banu
BACKGROUND: GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and Genotype MTBDRplus (DRplus) are two World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed probe based molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST) methods for rapid diagnosis of drug resistant tuberculosis. Both methods target the same 81 bp Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region (RRDR) of bacterial RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) for detection of Rifampicin (RIF) resistance associated mutations using DNA probes. So there is a correspondence of the probes of each other and expected similarity of probe binding...
2016: PloS One
Amanda E Semper, M Jana Broadhurst, Jade Richards, Geraldine M Foster, Andrew J H Simpson, Christopher H Logue, J Daniel Kelly, Ann Miller, Tim J G Brooks, Megan Murray, Nira R Pollock
BACKGROUND: Throughout the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa, field laboratory testing for EVD has relied on complex, multi-step real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays; an accurate sample-to-answer RT-PCR test would reduce time to results and potentially increase access to testing. We evaluated the performance of the Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola assay on clinical venipuncture whole blood (WB) and buccal swab (BS) specimens submitted to a field biocontainment laboratory in Sierra Leone for routine EVD testing by RT-PCR ("Trombley assay")...
March 2016: PLoS Medicine
Ozlem Genc, Evrim Aksu, Aynur Gulcan
In this study, we aimed to identify the molecular carbapenemase types of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates and to evaluate the performance of manually prepared and commercially available combination disc methods and the modified Hodge test. One hundred and forty carbapenemase producing isolates and 45 isolates as control group were included in our study. The Xpert CARBA-R test was used as the molecular method. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using combined discs, manually prepared with APBA (3-aminophenyl boronic acid), DPA (dipicolinic acid), EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), cloxacillin supplements and Mastdiscs Combi-D70C that includes four antibiotic discs with specific inhibitors and temocillin discs...
June 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Urvashi B Singh, Pooja Pandey, Girija Mehta, Anuj K Bhatnagar, Anant Mohan, Vinay Goyal, Vineet Ahuja, Ranjani Ramachandran, Kuldeep S Sachdeva, Jyotish C Samantaray
BACKGROUND: Newer molecular diagnostics have brought paradigm shift in early diagnosis of tuberculosis [TB]. WHO recommended use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF [Xpert] for Extra-pulmonary [EP] TB; critics have since questioned its efficiency. METHODS: The present study was designed to assess the performance of GeneXpert in 761 extra-pulmonary and 384 pulmonary specimens from patients clinically suspected of TB and compare with Phenotypic, Genotypic and Composite reference standards [CRS]...
2016: PloS One
Alberto L García-Basteiro, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Esperança Ussene, Paola Castillo, Dércio Chitsungo, Cristina Rodríguez, Lucília Lovane, Andrea Vergara, Elisa López-Varela, Inacio Mandomando, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Jaume Ordi, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat, Miguel J Martínez
The extent to which the Xpert MTB/RIF (Gene Xpert) contributes to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in samples other than sputum and cerebrospinal fluid remains uncertain. We aimed to assess the role of Xpert MTB/RIF for detecting M. tuberculosis in post-mortem tissues. We conducted a study among 30 complete diagnostic autopsies (CDA) performed at the Maputo Central Hospital (Mozambique). Lung tissues were screened for TB in all cases. In addition other tissues were tested when compatible lesions were identified in the histological exam...
2016: Scientific Reports
Oguz Karabay, Mustafa Altindis, Mehmet Koroglu, Onur Karatuna, Özlem Akkaya Aydemir, Ali Fuat Erdem
BACKGROUND: Recently, new carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae strains and non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli have been reported. The New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a major problem around the world. The purpose of this article is to address the NDM-1 Klebsiella pneumoniae epidemic detected in eight cases in our hospital. METHODS: Bacteria identified in this epidemic were from patients already admitted to the intensive care unit of the Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital during efforts toward establishment of infection surveillance and control program...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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