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Fang-Fang He, Yi Gong, Zhen-Qiong Li, Liang Wu, Hua-Jun Jiang, Hua Su, Chun Zhang, Yu-Mei Wang
Transcytosis is an important intracellular transport process by which multicellular organisms selectively move cargoes from apical to basolateral membranes without disrupting cellular homeostasis. In kidney, macromolecular components in the serum, such as albumin, low-density lipoprotein and immunoglobulins, pass through the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) and proximal tubular cells (PTCs) by transcytosis. Protein transcytosis plays a vital role in the pathology of albuminuria, which causes progressive destruction of the GFB structure and function...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Steven Davey, Jamin Halberstadt, Elliot Bell, Sunny Collings
BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a problem of emotion regulation and for this reason alone may relate to suicidality. This article investigates the evidence for a direct relationship. It explores the possibility of an additional role for interoception in future research. METHODS: A scoping review of peer-reviewed journal articles examining alexithymia and suicidality was undertaken, followed by a critical assessment of the overall state of the evidence base in relation to interoception...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Cynthia Richards, Dan V Iosifescu, Rajnish Mago, Elias Sarkis, Brooke Geibel, Matthew Dauphin, Roger S McIntyre, Richard Weisler, Olga Brawman-Mintzer, Joan Gu, Manisha Madhoo
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Psychostimulant augmentation is considered a potential treatment strategy for individuals with major depressive disorder who do not adequately respond to antidepressant monotherapy. The primary objective of this 12-month open-label extension study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) as augmentation therapy to an antidepressant in adults with major depressive disorder. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Eligible adults who completed 1 of 3 short-term antecedent LDX augmentation of antidepressant monotherapy studies were treated with dose-optimized LDX (20-70 mg) for up to 52 weeks while continuing on the index antidepressant (escitalopram, sertraline, venlafaxine extended-release, or duloxetine) assigned during the antecedent short-term studies...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lauren Rockliffe, Amanda J Chorley, Laura A V Marlow, Alice S Forster
In this article, we discuss the challenges faced in recruiting "hard-to-reach" groups for interview studies, specifically those who do not access preventative healthcare services. We do this by reflecting on the varying success of different recruitment methods we have used in two recent studies; one investigating ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake and another exploring difference in cervical screening non-participation. Engaging new community groups to help with recruitment proved particularly difficult, as did recruiting online...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
David Bleich, David H Wagner
Context: Immunotherapy trials to prevent type 1 diabetes have been unsuccessful for more than fifteen years. Understanding pitfalls and knowledge gaps in the immunology of type 1 diabetes should lead us in new directions that will yield better trial outcomes. A proposal is made for precision medicine trial design in future type 1 diabetes studies. Evidence Acquisition: High quality peer-reviewed basic science and clinical research trials for type 1 diabetes were used in this Perspectives article...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hao Li, Ming-Hui Chen, Joseph G Ibrahim, Sungduk Kim, Arvind K Shah, Jianxin Lin, Andrew M Tershakovec
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been identified as a causative factor for atherosclerosis and related coronary heart disease, and as the main target for cholesterol- and lipid-lowering therapy. Statin drugs inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver and are typically the first line of therapy to lower elevated levels of LDL-C. On the other hand, a different drug, Ezetimibe, inhibits the absorption of cholesterol by the small intestine and provides a different mechanism of action. Many clinical trials have been carried out on safety and efficacy evaluation of cholesterol lowering drugs...
April 18, 2018: Biostatistics
Sarah M Greene, Susan Brandzel, Karen J Wernli
The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in Washington, DC, has catalyzed a meaningful shift in the composition of research project teams since its initial research funding cycle in 2011. Despite the influx of funding in the research community for patient-centered research, research on how to effectively engage patients and stakeholders in the research process is still relatively nascent. Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute (KPWHRI) in Seattle, WA, was an early recipient of PCORI research funding and, as of December 2017, has received 8 PCORI research awards totaling nearly $15 million...
June 6, 2018: Permanente Journal
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 15 in vol. 11, PMID: 29615845.].
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Alicia Duval, Beth A Lanning, Megan S Patterson
College students are a vulnerable population for dating violence (DV) because of the social environment in which they live and interact with other students. Campus climate surveys are considered best practice for gathering information about the severity and cause of college DV; however, there are still unanswered questions as to why DV remains an alarming public health concern among college students. The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine DV risk factors specific to college students with a special focus on methodological factors and gaps in the literature...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Stefan Stürmer, Anette Rohmann, Laura Froehlich, Jolanda van der Noll
This article uses an interactionist perspective to understand the role of media framings of critical events in catalyzing Western citizens' support for radical responses to Muslim immigration (e.g., armed self-defense). A multi-method series of three studies tested this perspective in the context of the 2015/2016 Cologne New Year's Eve sexual assaults on women. Study 1, a content analysis of 163 online newspaper articles, revealed that mass media attributed the assaults to the suspects' Muslim culture. Study 2, a correlational study ( N = 487) conducted at the peak of the media coverage, confirmed that the degree to which participants accepted the veracity of the culture-focused media representation strengthened the relation between their feelings of symbolic threat as a result of Muslim immigration and their approval of radical responses...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Lasse Laustsen, Michael Bang Petersen
The facial traits and appearance of political candidates have been found to predict election outcomes across countries with different electoral systems and institutions. Research over the last decade has provided two different versions of this overall conclusion. First and most thoroughly studied, candidates who from their mere faces are evaluated as more competent get more votes on Election Day. Second, recent research finds that the ideological leanings of candidates and the voters they cater to also matter: Right-wing and conservative candidates receive more votes if they look more dominant, while liberal candidates lose votes when looking dominant and masculine...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Martin A Schäfer, David Berger, Patrick T Rohner, Anders Kjaersgaard, Stephanie S Bauerfeind, Frédéric Guillaume, Charles W Fox, Wolf U Blanckenhorn
Geographic clines offer insights about putative targets and agents of natural selection as well as tempo and mode of adaptation. However, demographic processes can lead to clines that are indistinguishable from adaptive divergence. Using the widespread yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), we examine quantitative genetic differentiation (QST ) of wing shape across North America, Europe and Japan, and compare this differentiation with that of ten microsatellites (FST ). Morphometric analyses of 28 populations reared at three temperatures revealed significant thermal plasticity, sexual dimorphism and geographic differentiation in wing shape...
June 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Atsushi Kogetsu, Soichi Ogishima, Kazuto Kato
Genome and other data are already being used in areas including cancer and rare diseases. Data-sharing and secondary uses are likely to become much broader and far more extensive; thus, obtaining proper consent for these new uses of data is an important issue. Obtaining consent through online methods may be an option to overcome the problems associated with one-off, paper-based informed consent. When the process of obtaining consent takes place remotely, authentication must be assured. Patients may also choose to store some of their own information online, such as genetic information, and allow healthcare professionals to access this data...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Luis M de Pablos Torró, Lissette Retana Moreira, Antonio Osuna
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small lipid vesicles released by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells containing nucleic acids, proteins, and small metabolites essential for cellular communication. Depending on the targeted cell, EVs can act either locally or in distant tissues in a paracrine or endocrine cell signaling manner. Released EVs from virus-infected cells, bacteria, fungi, or parasites have been demonstrated to perform a pivotal role in a myriad of biochemical changes occurring in the host and pathogen, including the modulation the immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gerd Schmitz, Jeannine Bergmann, Alfred O Effenberg, Carmen Krewer, Tong-Hun Hwang, Friedemann Müller
Stroke often affects arm functions and thus impairs patients' daily activities. Recently, several studies have shown that additional movement acoustics can enhance motor perception and motor control. Therefore, a new method has been developed that allows providing auditory feedback about arm movement trajectories in real-time for motor rehabilitation after stroke. The present article describes the study protocol for a randomized, controlled, examiner, and patient blinded superiority trial (German Clinical Trials Register, www...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Feng-Lai Yuan, Qian-Yuan Wu, Zong-Ning Miao, Ming-Hui Xu, Rui-Sheng Xu, Dong-Lin Jiang, Jun-Xing Ye, Fei-Hu Chen, Ming-Dong Zhao, Hao-Jue Wang, Xia Li
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, play an important role in cellular communication during skeletal growth and homeostasis. Bioactive molecules carried by EVs are transported to neighboring and distant cells to trigger a series of signaling cascades influencing bone homeostasis. The bioactive activities of osteoclast-derived EVs include regulation of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast-osteoblast communication. As osteoclast-derived EVs have the potential to regulate osteoclasts and osteoblasts, their application in osteoporosis and other bone metabolic disorders is currently under investigation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Julia Sánchez-Gundín, Ana María Fernández-Carballido, Lidia Martínez-Valdivieso, Dolores Barreda-Hernández, Ana Isabel Torres-Suárez
Important developments in chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer over the last years are reviewed, with an emphasis on the most recently published data from clinical trials. The systematic review of current literature was conducted involving Pubmed Central® research and full articles were obtained and analyzed when appropriate. Fluorouracil still constitutes the backbone of metastatic colorectal cancer treatment; fluorouracil combination plus either irinotecan (FOLFIRI), oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or capecitabine (CAPOX or XELOX) are chemotherapy protocols established as treatments producing similar outcomes...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
P Zhan, K Dukik, D Li, J Sun, J B Stielow, B Gerrits van den Ende, B Brankovics, S B J Menken, H Mei, W Bao, G Lv, W Liu, G S de Hoog
Trichophyton rubrum and T. violaceum are prevalent agents of human dermatophyte infections, the former being found on glabrous skin and nail, while the latter is confined to the scalp. The two species are phenotypically different but are highly similar phylogenetically. The taxonomy of dermatophytes is currently being reconsidered on the basis of molecular phylogeny. Molecular species definitions do not always coincide with existing concepts which are guided by ecological and clinical principles. In this article, we aim to bring phylogenetic and ecological data together in an attempt to develop new species concepts for anthropophilic dermatophytes...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
Jaakko Suominen, Antti Silvast, Tuomas Harviainen
This article analyses users' olfactory recollections of computers, based on large-scale, online inquiry material collected between 2002 and 2003 and in 2013. It discusses how olfactory experiences and recollections can be classified based on narration and the causes of odors. Furthermore, it explores the changes of olfactory recollections over the course of ten years, and deals with age and gender in these recollections and in their representations. This project develops new paths and possibilities for studying the cultural history of technology and the collection of research material, as well as the exhibition of the history of computing by examining the historical, cultural, political, and economic dimensions of sensations and senses...
2018: Technology and Culture
Mario Daniels, John Krige
This article describes the place of the basic/applied science distinction in negotiations over the limits of secrecy between the U.S. "scientific" community and the American government. It combines an analysis of Vannevar Bush's key report to the President in 1945 with Congressional hearings in the late 1950s that were concerned about the increasingly vast scope of government controls over the circulation of knowledge. The concept of "basic research" was used as a political weapon to push back against the extended, uncoordinated, and frustrating constraints on the circulation of new research findings by the expanding apparatus of the National Security State...
2018: Technology and Culture
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