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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347131/preclinical-in-vivo-cancer-straightway-to-patients
#1
Marion de Jong, Stephen Mather, Theodosia Maina
Detection of useful cellular targets has strongly stimulated personalized tumor-targeted imaging and therapy approaches, also involving synthesis and evaluation of nuclear imaging probes with potential for clinical applications. Reviews of preclinical and translational studies concerning such probes, including radiolabeled antibodies, nanobodies, affibodies, peptides, small molecule inhibitors, and nanoparticles, are presented in this issue. As most tracers described in these articles have been developed for the field of cancer imaging and radionuclide therapy, the current article on preclinical studies will focus on cancer research as well...
June 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346848/cardiovascular-protective-effects-and-clinical-applications-of-resveratrol
#2
Sanghyun Cho, Kyung Namkoong, Minji Shin, Jueun Park, Eunyeong Yang, Jinsoo Ihm, Vu Thi Thu, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Jin Han
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phenol that is generated by plant species following injury or attack by bacterial and fungal pathogens. This compound was first described as the French Paradox in 1992. Later in 2003, resveratrol was reported to activate sirtuins in yeast cells. Recent experimental studies have found that resveratrol offers a variety of benefits that include both anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to the ability to reverse obesity, attenuate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, protect heart and endothelial function, and increase the life span...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346606/evidence-based-redesign-of-the-comlex-usa-series
#3
John R Gimpel, Dorothy Horber, Jeanne M Sandella, Janice A Knebl, John E Thornburg
To ensure that the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) reflects the evolving practice of osteopathic medicine, the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners has developed new content and format specifications for an enhanced, competency-based examination program to be implemented with COMLEX-USA Level 3 in 2018. This article summarizes the evidence-based design processes that served as the foundation for blueprint development and the evidence supporting its validity...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346601/single-accreditation-system-update-gaining-momentum
#4
Boyd R Buser, James Swartwout, Terri Lischka, Maura Biszewski, Kathy DeVine
In July 2014, the American Osteopathic Association House of Delegates endorsed the establishment of a new, single graduate medical education accreditation system in collaboration with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. Since that time, the osteopathic medical community has made substantial headway in the transition to the new system. This article provides an update on the transition.
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346436/detailed-comparison-of-retroviral-vectors-and-promoter-configurations-for-stable-and-high-transgene-expression-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
D Hoffmann, J W Schott, F K Geis, L Lange, F-J Müller, D Lenz, D Zychlinski, D Steinemann, M Morgan, T Moritz, A Schambach
Correction of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) upon gene delivery through retroviral vectors offers new treatment perspectives for monogenetic diseases. Gene-modified iPSC clones can be screened for safe integration sites and differentiated into transplantable cells of interest. However, the current bottleneck is epigenetic vector silencing. In order to identify the most suitable retroviral expression system in iPSC, we systematically compared vectors from different retroviral genera, different promoters and their combination with ubiquitous chromatin opening elements (UCOE), and several envelope pseudotypes...
March 27, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346336/enzymatic-processes-in-marine-biotechnology
#6
REVIEW
Antonio Trincone
In previous review articles the attention of the biocatalytically oriented scientific community towards the marine environment as a source of biocatalysts focused on the habitat-related properties of marine enzymes. Updates have already appeared in the literature, including marine examples of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases ready for food and pharmaceutical applications. Here a new approach for searching the literature and presenting a more refined analysis is adopted with respect to previous surveys, centering the attention on the enzymatic process rather than on a single novel activity...
March 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346329/cardiac-computed-tomography-radiomics-a-comprehensive-review-on-radiomic-techniques
#7
Márton Kolossváry, Miklós Kellermayer, Béla Merkely, Pál Maurovich-Horvat
Radiologic images are vast three-dimensional data sets in which each voxel of the underlying volume represents distinct physical measurements of a tissue-dependent characteristic. Advances in technology allow radiologists to image pathologies with unforeseen detail, thereby further increasing the amount of information to be processed. Even though the imaging modalities have advanced greatly, our interpretation of the images has remained essentially unchanged for decades. We have arrived in the era of precision medicine where even slight differences in disease manifestation are seen as potential target points for new intervention strategies...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346209/accuracy-considerations-in-sterile-compounding
#8
Michael J Akers
Published information about the accuracy of filling and closing operations of sterile products is limited and guidelines on the topic are very general. This article highlights the basic principles in sterile-product filling of syringes and vials. Also covered in this article are descriptions of some of the available devices for filling containers, a brief discussion of the advances in vial and syringe filling, a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of sterile product filling methods, and a discussion on possible problems encountered during filling operations...
March 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346208/basics-of-compounding-3d-printing-pharmacy-applications-part-1
#9
Loyd V Allen
Three-dimensional printing quickly became a standard tool in the automotive, aerospace, and consumer goods industries and, recently, has begun gaining traction in pharmaceutical manufacturing. 3D printing has steadily grown, introducing a new element into dosage form development, and has received a boost with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the 3D-printed orodispersible tablet, Spritam (levetiracetam). This part 1 of a 3-part article introduces 3D printing and its application to pharmacy...
March 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346197/basics-of-compounding-with-dilutions-and-concentrates
#10
Loyd V Allen
Pharmacists use various sources for obtaining the active pharmaceutical ingredient for compounding medications. In many cases, it is the pure drug (United States Pharmacopeia, National Formulary, or similar grade); in some cases, it can be a commercial dosage form; and, in some cases, it may be a dilution or concentrate. If the drug is not present at full strength, then adjustments may be necessary to obtain the required quantity of drug. Also, in many cases, it is necessary to use a dilution or a concentrate of a drug due to safety and quality reasons...
January 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346121/can-memories-of-traumatic-experiences-or-addiction-be-erased-or-modified-a-critical-review-of-research-on-the-disruption-of-memory-reconsolidation-and-its-applications
#11
Michael Treanor, Lily A Brown, Jesse Rissman, Michelle G Craske
Recent research suggests that the mere act of retrieving a memory can temporarily make that memory vulnerable to disruption. This process of "reconsolidation" will typically restabilize the neural representation of the memory and foster its long-term storage. However, the process of reconsolidating the memory takes time to complete, and during this limited time window, the original memory may be modified either by the presentation of new information or with pharmacological agents. Such findings have prompted rising interest in using disruption during reconsolidation as a clinical intervention for anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance use disorders...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346114/status-based-identity
#12
Mesmin Destin, Michelle Rheinschmidt-Same, Jennifer A Richeson
Psychological research on socioeconomic status (SES) has grown significantly over the past decade. In this article, we build upon and integrate existing approaches to direct greater attention toward investigating the subjective meaning and value that people attach to understanding their own SES as an identity. We use the term status-based identity to organize relevant research and examine how people understand and make meaning of their SES from moment to moment in real time. Drawing from multiple areas of research on identity, we suggest that even temporary shifts in how people construe their status-based identities predict changes in thought, affect, motivation, and behavior...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346018/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-infected-children-who-require-a-rifamycin-containing-regimen-for-tuberculosis
#13
Helena Rabie, Eric H Decloedt, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Mark F Cotton, Lisa Frigati, Marc Lallemant, Anneke Hesseling, H Simon Schaaf
In high prevalence settings, tuberculosis and HIV dual infection and co-treatment is frequent. Rifamycins, especially rifampicin, in combination with isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide are key components of short-course antituberculosis therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed available data, for which articles were identified by a Pubmed search, on rifamycin-antiretroviral interactions in HIV-infected children. Rifamycins have potent inducing effects on phase I and II drug metabolising enzymes and transporters...
March 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345976/evaluating-the-performance-of-a-new-carboxymethyl-cellulose-dressing-in-the-community-setting
#14
Jackie Stephen-Haynes, Rosie Callaghan, Claire Stephens
This article describes a single-centre, non-comparative evaluation set out to assess the clinical performance and patient acceptability of a new carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) wound dressing. Twenty patients in a community setting, aged between 34-97 years, were recruited. The progression of various types of wounds with different levels of exudate was documented over 4 weeks. No adherence to the wound bed or painful removal was reported in 18 patients, and the peri-wound skin was the same or had improved in all patients...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345261/antibodies-from-plants-for-bionanomaterials
#15
REVIEW
Gueven Edgue, Richard M Twyman, Veronique Beiss, Rainer Fischer, Markus Sack
Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as 'green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of antibodies, ranging from laboratory-scale expression to industrial-scale manufacturing...
March 27, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345252/amplification-of-fsh-signaling-by-cftr-and-nuclear-soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-in-the-ovary
#16
Hui Chen, Hsiao Chang Chan
cAMP/PKA pathway is one of the most important signaling pathways widely distributed in most eukaryotic cells. The activation of the canonical cAMP/PKA pathway depends on transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC). Recently, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), which is activated by HCO3(-) or Ca(2+) , emerges to provide an alternative way to activate cAMP/PKA pathway with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated Cl(-) / HCO3(-) -conducting anion channel, as a key player. This review summarizes new progress in the investigation of the CFTR/HCO3(-) -dependent sAC signaling and its essential role in various reproductive processes, particularly in ovarian functions...
March 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345241/the-new-swedish-report-on-shaken-baby-syndrome-is-misleading
#17
Kerstin Hellgren, Ann Hellström, Anna-Lena Hård, Lena Jacobson, Ulrika Lidén, Stefan Löfgren, Kristina Teär Fahnehjelm, Jan Ygge
In this issue of Acta Paediatrica, Professor Alex Levin, Director of the Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Service at Wills Eye Hospital, (PA, USA), expresses relevant concerns (1) about a report produced by the Swedish Agency for Technology Assessment of Health and Social Services (SBU) (2) and summarized in a paper by Lynøe et al (3). He also provides necessary input on the importance of the morphology and distribution of retinal hemorrhages in diagnosing different causes of retinal bleedings. SBU undertakes independent assessments of methods used in health, medical, dental and social services and services provided to persons with certain functional disabilities...
March 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345194/decay-of-the-glycolytic-pathway-and-adaptation-to-intranuclear-parasitism-within-enterocytozoonidae-microsporidia
#18
Dominic Wiredu Boakye, Pattana Jaroenlak, Anuphap Prachumwat, Tom A Williams, Kelly S Bateman, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Konrad H Paszkiewicz, Karen A Moore, Grant D Stentiford, Bryony A P Williams
Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are the fundamental pathways of ATP generation in eukaryotes. Yet in microsporidia, endoparasitic fungi living at the limits of cellular streamlining, oxidative phosphorylation has been lost: energy is obtained directly from the host or, during the dispersive spore stage, via glycolysis. It was therefore surprising when the first genome from the Enterocytozoonidae - a major family of human and animal-infecting microsporidians - appeared to have lost glycolysis. Here we sequence and analyse genomes from four additional members of this family, shedding new light on their unusual biology...
March 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345184/spatial-molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-and-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-blandm-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-from-farmed-piglets-of-india
#19
B S Pruthvishree, O R Vinodh Kumar, D K Sinha, Y P S Malik, Z Dubal, P A Desingu, M Shivakumar, Narayanan Krishnaswamy, B R Singh
AIM: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten government organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 673 fecal samples both from non- diarhhoeic (n=501) and diarrhoeic (n=172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Wherein, 112 confirmed E. coli isolates were further subjected for genotypic confirmation of carbapenem resistance and virulence factors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345131/effect-of-botulinum-toxin-on-inducibility-and-maintenance-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-ovine-myocardial-tissue
#20
Alireza Nazeri, Anand V Ganapathy, Ali Massumi, Mehran Massumi, Egemen Tuzun, Raymond Stainback, Ana-Maria Segura, Macarthur A Elayda, Mehdi Razavi
BACKGROUND: Aberrant vagal stimulation may promote the generation and propagation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Researchers have suggested that botulinum toxin (BTX), a neurotoxin that decreases neural vagal stimulation, may decrease the incidence of postoperative AF. The exact electrophysiologic mechanism underlying the observations and histopathologic alterations associated with BTX are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the electrophysiologic, functional, and histopathologic effects of BTX on fibrillation induction in ovine atria...
March 27, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
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