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Daniela Aversa, Alessandro Martini, Ezia Guatteo, Antonio Pisani, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Nicola Berretta
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: One of the hallmarks of ventral midbrain dopamine (DA)-releasing neurons is membrane hyperpolarization in response to somato-dendritic D2 receptors (D2 Rs) stimulation. At early postnatal age, under sustained DA, this inhibitory response is followed by a slow recovery, resulting in dopamine inhibition reversal (DIR). In the present investigation we aimed to get a better insight onto the cellular mechanisms underlying DIR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We performed single unit extracellular recordings with a multi-electrode array (MEA) device and conventional patch-clamp recordings on midbrain mouse slices...
June 22, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Aled Jones, Ben Hannigan, Michael Coffey, Alan Simpson
CONTEXT: In response to political and social factors over the last sixty years mental health systems internationally have endeavoured to transfer the delivery of care from hospitals into community settings. As a result, there has been increased emphasis on the need for better quality care planning and care coordination between hospital services, community services and patients and their informal carers. The aim of this systematic review of international research is to explore which interventions have proved more or less effective in promoting personalized, recovery oriented care planning and coordination for community mental health service users...
2018: PloS One
Serdar Tok, Nİhal Dal, Aylİn Zekioğlu, Fatİh Çatıkkaş, İlker Balıkçı, Erman Doğan
Tok, S, Dal, N, Zekioğlu, A, Çatıkkaş, F, Balıkçı, İ, and Doğan, E. Autonomic cardiac activity among novice archers during baseline, shooting and recovery. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether heart rate variability (HRV) of novice archers may vary during baseline, shooting, and recovery periods. In addition, we aimed to explore whether HRV may have different patterns between successful and less successful archers and man and woman archers. The sample consisted of 39 (12 woman) novice archers ranging in age from 21 to 27...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Daiki Kato, Takashi Suto, Hideaki Obata, Shigeru Saito
BACKGROUND: Although endogenous analgesia plays an important role in controlling pain states, chronic pain patients exhibit decreased endogenous analgesia compared to healthy individuals. In rats, noxious stimulus-induced analgesia (NSIA), which is an indicator of endogenous analgesia, diminished 6 weeks after spinal nerve ligation (SNL6W). A recent study in rats with deleted noradrenergic fibers demonstrated that the noradrenergic fibers were essential to NSIA. It has also been reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor increased spinal noradrenergic fibers...
June 20, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Johan Heiberg, Colin F Royse, Alistair G Royse, David T Andrews
BACKGROUND: Desflurane and propofol are cardioprotective, but relative efficacy is unclear. The aim was to compare myocardial protection of single, simultaneous, and serial administration of desflurane and propofol. METHODS: Sixty New Zealand White rabbits and 65 isolated Sprague Dawley rat hearts randomly received desflurane, propofol, simultaneous desflurane and propofol, or sequential desflurane then propofol. Rabbits were subdivided to receive either ischemia-reperfusion with temporary occlusion of the left anterior descending artery or a time-matched, nonischemic perfusion protocol, whereas rat hearts were perfused in a Langendorff model with global ischemia-reperfusion...
June 20, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
E Westhall, I Rosén, M Rundgren, J Bro-Jeppesen, J Kjaergaard, C Hassager, H Lindehammar, J Horn, S Ullén, N Nielsen, H Friberg, T Cronberg
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the temporal development of EEG and prognosis. METHODS: Prospective observational substudy of the Target Temperature Management trial. Six sites performed simplified continuous EEG-monitoring (cEEG) on comatose patients after cardiac arrest, blinded to treating physicians. We determined time-points of recovery of a normal-voltage continuous background activity and the appearance of an epileptiform EEG, defined as abundant epileptiform discharges, periodic/rhythmic discharges or electrographic seizure activity...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yutaka Mine, Toshihiko Momiyama, Takuro Hayashi, Takeshi Kawase
Although recent progress in the use of human iPS cell-derived midbrain dopaminergic progenitors is remarkable, alternatives are essential in the strategies of treatment of basal-ganglia-related diseases. Attention has been focused on neural stem cells (NSCs) as one of the possible candidates of donor material for neural transplantation, because of their multipotency and self-renewal characteristics. In the present study, miniature-swine (mini-swine) mesencephalic neuroepithelial stem cells (M-NESCs) of embryonic 17 and 18 days grafted in the parkinsonian rat striatum were assessed immunohistochemically, behaviourally and electrophysiologically to confirm their feasibility for the neural xenografting as a donor material...
June 19, 2018: Neuroscience
Nelma Cristina Silva Pacheco, Ana Paula Carli de Almeida, Kariny Cássia de Siqueira, Faena Moura de Lima, Silvia Regina de Lima Reis, Marcia Queiroz Latorraca, Luiz Fabrizio Stoppiglia
Nutritional recovery of early malnutrition with soybean diet reduces liver glycogen stores in the fed state and produces liver insulin resistance. We investigated whether nutritional recovery on a soybean flour diet alters hepatic gluconeogenesis in the adult offspring of rats deprived of protein during pregnancy and lactation. Male rats from mothers that were fed either 17% (C) or 6% (L) protein during pregnancy and lactation were maintained on a 17% casein (CC, n=16 and LC, n=17), 17% soybean flour (CS, n=10 and LS, n=10) or 6% casein (LL, n=10) diet after weaning...
June 22, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Justin DiSanti, Caroline Lisee, Karl Erickson, David Bell, Michael Shingles, Christopher Kuenze
Study Design Phenomenographic, cross-sectional. Background Adolescent athletes struggle to return to sport (RTS) following ACL reconstruction (ACLR) for a number of physical and psychosocial reasons. The ability to incorporate contextual evidence obtained directly from patients with the growing body of quantitative rehabilitation research may aid clinicians in taking an evidence-based approach to rehabilitation and return to sports within the adolescent population.. Objectives To assess perceived barriers to RTS as well as positive and negative factors influencing recovery among high school athletes with recent history of ACLR...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Pedro Paulo Gattai, Edgar Maquigussa, Antonio da Silva Novaes, Rosemara da Silva Ribeiro, Vanessa Araújo Varela, Milene Subtil Ormanji, Mirian Aparecida Boim
Acute kidney injury is mostly reversible, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a relevant role in the tissue repair. MicroRNA (miR)-26a is an endogenous modulator of HGF. The role of miR-26a in the kidney repair process was evaluated in Wistar rats submitted to an acute kidney injury model of rhabdomyolysis induced by glycerol (6 mL/kg). Animals were evaluated 3, 12, 48, 96, and 120 hours after glycerol injection. Serum creatinine (SCr) and gene expression of HGF, c-met, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and miR-26a were estimated...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Joung Hun Park, Chang Ho Kang, Ganesh M Nawkar, Eun Seon Lee, Seol Ki Paeng, Ho Byoung Chae, Yong Hun Chi, Woe Yeon Kim, Dae-Jin Yun, Sang Yeol Lee
Investigation of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) system in plants led to the identification of ERAD-mediating RING finger protein (EMR) as a plant-specific ERAD E3 ligase from Arabidopsis. EMR was significantly up-regulated under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. The EMR protein purified from bacteria displayed high E3 ligase activity, and tobacco leaf-produced EMR mediated mildew resistance locus O-12 (MLO12) degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Subcellular localization and coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that EMR forms a complex with ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 32 (UBC32) as a cytosolic interaction partner...
June 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Germán A Colareda, Alicia E Consolini
OBJECTIVES: Low-flow ischemia (LFI) is consequent to coronary disease and produces cardiac stunning during reperfusion (R). Energetic performance and mechanisms of Ca2+ handling during LFI/R are not known. Moreover, cardioprotection of the phytoestrogen genistein (Gen) remains to be demonstrated in LFI/R. The aim was to study the mechanisms of the stunning consequent to LFI/R and the effects of Gen on both sexes. METHODS: Rat ventricles were perfused inside a calorimeter to measure maximal pressure development (P) and total heat rate (Ht) before and during exposition to LFI/R...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Olivia G Calancie, Sarosh Khalid-Khan, Linda Booij, Douglas P Munoz
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a form of psychotherapy for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), has long been a controversial topic, hampered in part by a lack of understanding of the neural mechanisms that contribute to its remedial effect. Here, we review current theories describing EMDR's potential neurobiological mechanisms of action involving working memory, interhemispheric communication, de-arousal, and memory reconsolidation. We then discuss recent studies describing the temporal and spatial aspects of smooth pursuit and predictive saccades, which resemble those made during EMDR, and their neural correlates within the default mode network (DMN) and cerebellum...
June 21, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
E Y Zernii, V E Baksheev, E I Kabanova, V V Tiulina, M O Golovastova, O S Gancharova, M S Savchenko, L F Sotikova, A A Zamyatnin, P P Filippov, I I Senin
Changes in the biochemical composition of the tear film is a critical risk factor for the development of chronic perioperative dry eye syndrome, because increasing the duration of general anesthesia did not affect the dynamics of tear secretion recovery, but slowed down normalization of its structure and antioxidant activity in the post-anesthetic period.
June 21, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Trushil Shah, Shanshan Qin, Mona Vashi, Dan N Predescu, Niranjan Jeganathan, Cristina Bardita, Balaji Ganesh, Salvatore diBartolo, Louis F Fogg, Robert A Balk, Sanda A Predescu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endothelial cells' (ECs) injury and apoptotic death are necessary and sufficient for the pathogenesis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), regardless of epithelial damage. Interaction of dysfunctional ECs with circulatory extracellular vesicles (EVs) holds therapeutic promise in ARDS. However, the presence in the blood of long-term ARDS survivors of EVs with a distinct phenotype compared to the EVs of non-surviving patients is not reported. With a multidisciplinary translational approach, we studied EVs from the blood of 33 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS...
June 22, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Jie Tao, Feng Jiang, Cheng Liu, Zhirui Liu, Yudan Zhu, Jian Xu, Yiqin Ge, Kan Xu, Peihao Yin
Chan-su (toad venom) has been used as an analgesic agent in China from ancient to modern times. Bufalin, a non-peptide toxin extracted from toad venom, is considered as one of the analgesic components. The molecular mechanism underlying the anti-nociceptive effects of bufalin remains unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of bufalin on pain-related ion channels as well as animal models through patch clamping, calcium imaging and animal behavior observation. Using the whole-cell recording, bufalin caused remarkable suppressive effect on the peak currents of Nav channels (voltage gated sodium channels, VGSCs) of dorsal root ganglion neuroblastomas (ND7-23 cell) in a dose-dependent manner...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Sze Chuen Cesar Wong, Thomas Chi Chuen Au, Sammy Chung Sum Chan, Lawrence Po Wah Ng, Hin Fung Tsang
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a known causative factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Methods: HPV DNA genotyping was performed in menstrual blood (MB) collected in napkins from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV infection and sexually active apparently normal subjects. In the same patient cohort, MB TAP1 I333V and TAP1 D637G gene polymorphisms were examined. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of HPV DNA to detect CIN or HPV infection was 83% (223/268), 98% (131/134), 99% (223/226) and (74%) 131/176, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lu Wang, Nannan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Jingen Xia, Qingyuan Zhan, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and lung fibrosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. RNA sequencing is a powerful means for detecting vitally important protein-coding transcripts and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on a genome-wide scale, which may be helpful for reducing this knowledge gap. METHODS: Ninety C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either high tidal volume ventilation or sham operation, and then mice with ventilation were randomly allocated to periods of recovery for 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days...
June 22, 2018: Respiratory Research
Lu Hao, Cen Pan, Di Fang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Decheng Zhou, Peilong Liu, Yongqiang Liu, Ge Sun
Grazing is a major ecosystem disturbance in arid regions that are increasingly threatened by climate change. Understanding the long-term impacts of grazing on rangeland vegetation dynamics in a complex terrain in mountainous regions is important for quantifying dry land ecosystem services for integrated watershed management and climate change adaptation. However, data on the detailed long-term spatial distribution of grazing activities are rare, which prevents trend detection and environmental impact assessments of grazing...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dezhao Liu, Tavs Nyord, Li Rong, Anders Feilberg
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide are emitted from land spreading of manure slurry to the atmosphere and contribute to odour nuisance, particle formation and tropospheric ozone formation. Data on emissions is almost non-existing partly due to lack of suitable quantitative methods for measuring emissions in full scale. Here we present a method based on application of wind tunnels for simulation of air exchange combined with the use of online mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The focus was on odorous VOC but all relevant VOC were included...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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