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limbic system dysfunction

Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M Hallett
Functional neurologic disorders are largely genuine and represent conversion disorders, where the dysfunction is unconscious, but there are some that are factitious, where the abnormality is feigned and conscious. Malingering, which can have the same manifestations, is similarly feigned, but not considered a genuine disease. There are no good methods for differentiating these three entities at the present time. Physiologic studies of functional weakness and sensory loss reveal normal functioning of primary motor and sensory cortex, but abnormalities of premotor cortex and association cortices...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Chan Hong Jeon
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation in cartilaginous structures including the ears, noses, peripheral joints, and tracheobronchial tree. It rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS) but diagnosis of CNS complication of RP is challenging because it can present with varying clinical features. Herein we report 3 cases of relapsing polychondritis involving CNS with distinct manifestations and clinical courses. The first patient presented with rhombencephalitis resulting in brain edema and death...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Yu Uneno, Akira Yokoyama, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Taro Funakoshi, Yoshinao Ozaki, Ikuo Aoyama, Kiichiro Baba, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Shuko Morita, Yukiko Mori, Masashi Kanai, Hisanori Kinoshita, Takeshi Inoue, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Riki Matsumoto, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are rare nervous system dysfunctions in cancer patients, which are primarily observed with small-cell lung cancer, gynecological cancer, and thymoma. We herein present an uncommon case of PNS in an anti-Hu antibody-positive patient with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-positive gastric cancer (GC), who developed limbic encephalitis and a worsening cognitive function. Trastuzumab-combined chemotherapy was initiated and appeared to be partially effective for controlling the neurological symptoms and tumor volume...
2016: Internal Medicine
G Brand, B Schaal
Research on sensorial interactions with psychiatric diseases and particularly with the depressive syndrome has mainly focused on visual or auditory processes and much less on olfaction. The depressive illness is one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in the community, with approximately one in five women and one in eight men experiencing a major depressive episode during their lifetime. Although genetic, epigenetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroimmunological changes can be detected during depression, the etiology of depression remains partly unclear...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
M Vázquez-Gómez, D Valent, C García-Contreras, L Arroyo, C Óvilo, B Isabel, A Bassols, A González-Bulnes
The current study aimed to determine, using a swine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whether short- and long-term neurological deficiencies and interactive dysfunctions of Low Birth-Weight (LBW) offspring might be related to altered pattern of neurotransmitters. Hence, we compared the quantities of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines), which were determined by HPLC, at brain structures related to the limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) in 14 LBW and 10 Normal Body-Weight (NBW) newborn piglets...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Alessandra Dodich, Chiara Cerami, Sandro Iannaccone, Alessandra Marcone, Pierpaolo Alongi, Chiara Crespi, Nicola Canessa, Francesca Andreetta, Andrea Falini, Stefano F Cappa, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND: Limbic encephalitis (LE) is characterized by an acute or subacute onset with memory impairments, confusional state, behavioral disorders, variably associated with seizures and dystonic movements. It is due to inflammatory processes that selectively affect the medial temporal lobe structures. Voltage-gate potassium channel (VGKC) autoantibodies are frequently observed. In this study, we assessed at the individual level FDG-PET brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychological profiles in three autoimmune LE cases seropositive for neuronal VGKC-complex autoantibodies...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
Carlos Campos, Susana Santos, Emily Gagen, Sérgio Machado, Susana Rocha, Matthew M Kurtz, Nuno Barbosa Rocha
Social cognitive impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia and social cognition training (SCT) is a promising tool to address these deficits. Neurobiological dysfunction in schizophrenia has been widely researched, but neuronal changes induced by SCT have been scarcely explored. This review aims to assess the neuroplastic effects of SCT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials testing the effects of SCT in functional and structural brain measurements of adult patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders...
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Zafer Keser, Khader M Hasan, Benson Mwangi, Refaat E Gabr, Joel L Steinberg, Jeffrey Wilken, Jerry S Wolinsky, Flavia M Nelson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Distinct injuries to various limbic white matter pathways have been reported to be associated with different aspects of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) offers a noninvasive method to map tissue microstructural organization. We utilized quantitative magnetic resonance imaging methods to analyze the main limbic system-white matter structures in MS patients with cognitive impairment (CI). METHODS: Ten cognitively nonimpaired MS (MSNI) patients and 36 patients with diagnosed CI (MSCI) underwent the minimal assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) battery...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Joseph Ongrádi, Dharam V Ablashi, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Balázs Stercz, Masao Ogata
The roseoloviruses, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, can cause severe encephalitis or encephalopathy. In immunocompetent children, primary HHV-6B infection is occasionally accompanied by diverse clinical forms of encephalitis. Roseolovirus coinfections with heterologous viruses and delayed primary HHV-7 infection in immunocompetent adults result in very severe neurological and generalized symptoms. Recovery from neurological sequelae is slow and sometimes incomplete. In immunocompromised patients with underlying hematological malignancies and transplantation, frequent single or simultaneous reactivation of roseoloviruses elicit severe, lethal organ dysfunctions, including damages in the limbic system, brain stem, and hippocampus...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Analucia A Alegria, Joaquim Radua, Katya Rubia
OBJECTIVE: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in conduct disorder and in oppositional defiant disorder have shown inconsistencies. The aim of this meta-analysis of fMRI studies in disruptive behavior disorders was to establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions and to address task- and subtype-related heterogeneity. METHOD: Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all whole-brain fMRI studies of youths with disruptive behavior disorder or conduct problems up to August 2015...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
K A Popugaev, A Yu Lubnin, M V Zabelin, A S Samoylov
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides homeostasis due to the innervation of the secretory glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Higher centers of the ANS (primarily the hypothalamus, some centers of the brain stem and limbic system) form a integrative network, which plays a key role in coordinating the functioning of the endocrine, immune system and other parts of the central nervous system. Intracranial centers of the ANS are responsible for the consciousness, behavioral, emotional, and other components of the higher nervous activity...
March 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
S Nigro, R Riccelli, L Passamonti, G Arabia, M Morelli, R Nisticò, F Novellino, M Salsone, G Barbagallo, A Quattrone
Parkinson disease (PD) can be considered as a brain multisystemic disease arising from dysfunction in several neural networks. The principal aim of this study was to assess whether large-scale structural topological network changes are detectable in PD patients who have not been exposed yet to dopaminergic therapy (de novo patients). Twenty-one drug-naïve PD patients and thirty healthy controls underwent a 3T structural MRI. Next, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and graph theoretic analyses to compute individual structural white-matter (WM) networks were combined...
July 28, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
G Ortega Suero, N Sola-Valls, D Escudero, A Saiz, F Graus
OBJECTIVE: Analyse the clinical profile, associated tumour types, and response to treatment of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes associated with antibodies against Ma proteins. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with antibodies against Ma proteins identified in a neuroimmunology laboratory of reference. RESULTS: Of the 32 patients identified, 20 showed reactivity against Ma2 only (anti-Ma2 antibodies), 11 against Ma1 and Ma2 (anti-Ma antibodies), and 1 with reactivity against Ma1 only (anti-Ma1 antibodies)...
July 23, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Elisabeth Hartl, Jan Rémi, Christian Vollmar, Joanna Goc, Anna Mira Loesch, Axel Rominger, Soheyl Noachtar
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the relevance of interictal temporal glucose hypometabolism in patients with extratemporal epilepsy (ETE) by analyzing its association with a seizure semiology suggestive for temporal seizure involvement and the presence of temporal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the database of our epilepsy monitoring unit for patients with ETE, in whom long-term EEG-video-monitoring and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) had been performed...
September 2016: Epilepsy Research
Orsolya Gyorfi, Helga Nagy, Magdolna Bokor, Szabolcs Keri
Dysfunctions in dopaminergic neurotransmission lead to motor symptoms and cognitive impairments associated with behavioural disturbances. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder which is primarily characterized by an abnormal basal ganglia activity. Recently, increased attention has been directed towards the hippocampus in the development of non-motor symptoms. Given the temporal progression of the disease, dopaminergic depletion firstly affects the dorsal striatum leaving the ventral striatum relatively intact...
June 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Agnes van Sonderen, Helena Ariño, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Frank Leypoldt, Peter Körtvélyessy, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Eric Lancaster, Paul W Wirtz, Marco W J Schreurs, Peter A E Sillevis Smitt, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau, Maarten J Titulaer
OBJECTIVE: To report a large cohort of patients with antibodies against contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2) and provide the clinical spectrum of this disorder. METHODS: Serum and CSF samples were assessed at 2 neuroimmunology centers in Barcelona and Rotterdam. Patients were included if Caspr2 antibodies were confirmed with 2 independent techniques, including brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assay. Clinical information was obtained by the authors or provided by treating physicians after patients' informed consent...
August 2, 2016: Neurology
M Hu, X Zong, J Zheng, J J Mann, Z Li, S P Pantazatos, Y Li, Y Liao, Y He, J Zhou, D Sang, H Zhao, J Tang, H Chen, L Lv, X Chen
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether the topological deficits of the white matter network documented in cross-sectional studies of chronic schizophrenia patients are due to chronic illness or to other factors such as antipsychotic treatment effects. To answer this question, we evaluated the white matter network in medication-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients (FESP) before and after a course of treatment. METHOD: We performed a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study in 42 drug-naive FESP at baseline and then after 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy, and compared them with 38 healthy volunteers...
September 2016: Psychological Medicine
John A Wolf, Paul F Koch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a heterogeneous disorder with many factors contributing to a spectrum of severity, leading to cognitive dysfunction that may last for many years after injury. Injury to axons in the white matter, which are preferentially vulnerable to biomechanical forces, is prevalent in many TBIs. Unlike focal injury to a discrete brain region, axonal injury is fundamentally an injury to the substrate by which networks of the brain communicate with one another. The brain is envisioned as a series of dynamic, interconnected networks that communicate via long axonal conduits termed the "connectome"...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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