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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638927/-involvement-of-aquaporin-4-in-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory
#1
Xin Wu, Jian-Feng Gao
Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is the predominant water channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and primarily expressed in astrocytes. Astrocytes have been generally believed to play important roles in regulating synaptic plasticity and information processing. However, the role of AQP-4 in regulating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, cognitive function is only beginning to be investigated. It is well known that synaptic plasticity is the prime candidate for mediating of learning and memory. Long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity, and they share some but not all the properties and mechanisms...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588455/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-in-bipolar-disorder
#3
Anton J M Loonen, Ralph W Kupka, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model, the motivation for appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) re-entry circuits that include the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, control the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588453/refining-the-role-of-5-ht-in-postnatal-development-of-brain-circuits
#4
REVIEW
Anne Teissier, Mariano Soiza-Reilly, Patricia Gaspar
Changing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) brain levels during critical periods in development has long-lasting effects on brain function, particularly on later anxiety/depression-related behaviors in adulthood. A large part of the known developmental effects of 5-HT occur during critical periods of postnatal life, when activity-dependent mechanisms remodel neural circuits. This was first demonstrated for the maturation of sensory brain maps in the barrel cortex and the visual system. More recently this has been extended to the 5-HT raphe circuits themselves and to limbic circuits...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567288/gad-antibody-associated-limbic-encephalitis-in-a-young-woman-with-apeced
#5
Anna Kopczak, Adrian-Minh Schumacher, Sandra Nischwitz, Tania Kümpfel, Günter K Stalla, Matthias K Auer
The autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Immune deficiency, hypoparathyroidism and Addison's disease due to autoimmune dysfunction are the major clinical signs of APECED. We report on a 21-year-old female APECED patient with two inactivating mutations in the AIRE gene. She presented with sudden onset of periodic nausea. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed by means of the ACTH stimulation test...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558365/reward-anticipation-revisited-evidence-from-an-fmri-study-in-euthymic-bipolar-i-patients-and-healthy-first-degree-relatives
#6
Bianca Kollmann, Vanessa Scholz, Julia Linke, Peter Kirsch, Michèle Wessa
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic phases in bipolar disorder (BD) are hypothesized to result from a hypersensitive behavioral activation system (BAS) being sensitive to potential rewards. However, studies on the neuronal underpinnings of reward anticipation in BD are scarce with contradictory findings and possibly confounded by effects of dopaminergic medication, necessitating further research on dysfunctional motivation in BD. Moreover, its role as vulnerability marker for BD is unclear. METHODS: Functional imaging was conducted in 16 euthymic BD-I patients free from dopaminergic medication and 19 healthy first-degree relatives using a monetary incentive delay task and compared to parallelized control groups...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527694/voluntary-wheel-running-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-and-brain-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-mice
#7
Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Weiliang Huang, Chuying Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peiqian Hu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Huihui Cao, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2h/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470168/anxiety-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Michelle G Craske, Murray B Stein, Thalia C Eley, Mohammed R Milad, Andrew Holmes, Ronald M Rapee, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors...
May 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464508/limbic-grey-matter-changes-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Xingfeng Li, Yue Xing, Stefan T Schwarz, Dorothee P Auer
The purpose of this study was to investigate local and network-related changes of limbic grey matter in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and their inter-relation with non-motor symptom severity. We applied voxel-based morphometric methods in 538 T1 MRI images retrieved from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative website. Grey matter densities and cross-sectional estimates of age-related grey matter change were compared between subjects with early PD (n = 366) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 172) within a regression model, and associations of grey matter density with symptoms were investigated...
May 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415589/gabaergic-neurons-in-nucleus-accumbens-are-correlated-to-resilience-and-vulnerability-to-chronic-stress-for-major-depression
#10
Zhaoming Zhu, Guangyan Wang, Ke Ma, Shan Cui, Jin-Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depression, persistent low mood, is one of common psychiatric diseases. Chronic stressful life is believed to be a major risk factor that leads to dysfunctions of the limbic system. However, a large number of the individuals with experiencing chronic stress do not suffer from major depression, called as resilience. Endogenous mechanisms underlying neuronal invulnerability to chronic stress versus major depression are largely unknown. As GABAergic neurons are vulnerable to chronic stress and their impairments is associated with major depression, we have examined whether the invulnerability of GABAergic neurons in the limbic system is involved in resilience...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393712/therapeutic-role-of-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2a-sv2a-in-modulating-epileptogenesis
#11
Yukihiro Ohno, Kentaro Tokudome
Dysfunction of synaptic neurotransmitter release is closely involved in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a membrane protein specifically expressed in synaptic vesicles and it modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release in the brain. Since 1) SV2A-knockout mice exhibit severe convulsive seizures, 2) SV2A expression in the brain is reportedly altered in various epileptic disorders both in animal models (e.g., kindling and genetic models) and humans (e...
April 4, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#12
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
May 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#13
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987539/altered-network-efficiency-in-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Ming Ye, Peng Qing, Ke Zhang, Guangyuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with dysfunction between cognitive control and affective processing system. However, little is known about alterations of the nodal and edge efficiency in abnormal systems of MDD patients. We used two independent datasets and two different structural templates to investigate the alterations of the nodal and edge efficiency of whole-brain functional networks of MDD. METHOD: Forty-two MDD and forty-two age, education-matched controls were selected to investigate network efficiency abnormalities of the MDD patients' cortical and subcortical regions, as well as the disrupted functional connectivity between these regions, from the perspective of network topological architectures...
December 17, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984200/multi-system-state-shifts-and-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-chronic-morphine-during-abstinence
#15
Haichen Niu, Guanqun Zhang, Haiying Li, Qiang Zhang, Tongzhou Li, Sheng Ding, Lei Wang, Zhonghai Zhang, Yuehua Qiao, Min Hu
Chronic morphine administration induces neural plasticity followed by withdraw. And clinic observation indicates that obvious cognitive deficits are found during withdrawal. However, current neural substrates that regulate dysfunction in withdrawal are unknown. In our studies, chronic morphine administration was used to induce the spontaneous withdrawal model in rats. A series of cognitive abilities was tested to explore brain function. To further evaluate the neural substrates of dysfunction, Manganese-enhanced MRI(MEMRI) was used to map the dysfunctional regions in vivo...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929395/deficiency-in-the-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-ube2a-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-is-linked-to-deficits-in-a-natural-circular-mirna-7-sponge-circrna-cirs-7
#16
Yuhai Zhao, Peter N Alexandrov, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Our understanding of the highly specialized functions for small non-coding single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in the transcriptome of the human central nervous system (CNS) continues to evolve. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a recently discovered class of ssRNA enriched in the brain and retina, are extremely stable and intrinsically resilient to degradation by exonuclease. Conventional methods of ssRNA, microRNA (miRNA), or messenger RNA (mRNA) detection and quantitation requiring free ribonucleotide ends may have considerably underestimated the quantity and significance of CNS circRNA in the CNS...
December 5, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889469/changes-in-neural-circuitry-associated-with-depression-at-pre-clinical-pre-motor-and-early-motor-phases-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Janina Borgonovo, Camilo Allende-Castro, Almudena Laliena, Néstor Guerrero, Hernán Silva, Miguel L Concha
Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed...
February 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869904/-neural-basis-of-social-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder
#18
Filippo Turchi, Giovanni Amodeo, Ettore Favaretto, Stefania Righini, Eugenia Mellina, Carmelo La Mela, Andrea Fagiolini
AIM: This article review studies social and interpersonal functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and reports on the neurobiological underpinnings of the dysfunctions in emotion recognition, i.e. one of the main domains of social cognition. METHODS: A bibliographical research of controlled studies from 1967 to 2015 was completed in PubMed and PsycINFO using the keywords: "fMRI", "emotion comprehension", "emotion perception", "affect comprehension", "affect perception", "facial expression", "prosody", "theory of mind", "mentalizing", "attributional style", "social perception", "empathy" and "bipolar disorder" or "unipolar depression"...
September 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859650/profile-of-cognitive-impairment-and-underlying-pathology-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#19
Shunsuke Koga, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A van Gerpen, William P Cheshire, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to elucidate any potential association between α-synuclein pathology and cognitive impairment and to determine the profile of cognitive impairment in multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients. To do this, we analyzed the clinical and pathologic features in autopsy-confirmed MSA patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records, including neuropsychological test data, in 102 patients with autopsy-confirmed MSA in the Mayo Clinic brain bank...
March 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835662/marijuana-use-is-associated-with-behavioral-approach-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents-and-emerging-adults
#20
Natasha E Wright, Danny Scerpella, Krista M Lisdahl
BACKGROUND: Repeated CB1 binding due to THC results in downregulation of the endocannabinoid system in cortex and limbic regions, perhaps disrupting frontolimbic functioning. This is particularly a concern in young adults who are still undergoing neurodevelopment in frontal and limbic regions. Such disruptions may be linked to increased depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive dysfunction, and decreased behavioral approach. OBJECTIVES: Here we examine the influence of young adult marijuana use on anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral approach, and executive dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
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