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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889469/changes-in-neural-circuitry-associated-with-depression-at-pre-clinical-pre-motor-and-early-motor-phases-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Janina Borgonovo, Camilo Allende-Castro, Almudena Laliena, Néstor Guerrero, Hernán Silva, Miguel L Concha
Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed...
November 21, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869904/-neural-basis-of-social-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder
#2
Filippo Turchi, Giovanni Amodeo, Ettore Favaretto, Stefania Righini, Eugenia Mellina, Carmelo La Mela, Andrea Fagiolini
AIM: This article review studies social and interpersonal functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and reports on the neurobiological underpinnings of the dysfunctions in emotion recognition, i.e. one of the main domains of social cognition. METHODS: A bibliographical research of controlled studies from 1967 to 2015 was completed in PubMed and PsycINFO using the keywords: "fMRI", "emotion comprehension", "emotion perception", "affect comprehension", "affect perception", "facial expression", "prosody", "theory of mind", "mentalizing", "attributional style", "social perception", "empathy" and "bipolar disorder" or "unipolar depression"...
September 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859650/profile-of-cognitive-impairment-and-underlying-pathology-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#3
Shunsuke Koga, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A van Gerpen, William P Cheshire, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to elucidate any potential association between α-synuclein pathology and cognitive impairment and to determine the profile of cognitive impairment in multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients. To do this, we analyzed the clinical and pathologic features in autopsy-confirmed MSA patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records, including neuropsychological test data, in 102 patients with autopsy-confirmed MSA in the Mayo Clinic brain bank...
November 15, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835662/marijuana-use-is-associated-with-behavioral-approach-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents-and-emerging-adults
#4
Natasha E Wright, Danny Scerpella, Krista M Lisdahl
BACKGROUND: Repeated CB1 binding due to THC results in downregulation of the endocannabinoid system in cortex and limbic regions, perhaps disrupting frontolimbic functioning. This is particularly a concern in young adults who are still undergoing neurodevelopment in frontal and limbic regions. Such disruptions may be linked to increased depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive dysfunction, and decreased behavioral approach. OBJECTIVES: Here we examine the influence of young adult marijuana use on anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral approach, and executive dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812532/prefrontal-cortex-gabaergic-deficits-and-circuit-dysfunction-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-chronic-stress-and-depression
#5
Sriparna Ghosal, Brendan Hare, Ronald S Duman
Psychiatric diseases, notably major depression, are associated with imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and related limbic brain circuitry. In many cases these illnesses are precipitated or exacerbated by chronic stress, which also alters excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems. Notably, exposure to repeated uncontrollable stress causes persistent changes in the synaptic integrity and function of the principal glutamatergic excitatory neurons in the PFC, characterized by neuronal atrophy and loss of synaptic connections...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765861/brain-fdg-pet-metabolic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-long-lasting-macrophagic-myofasciitis
#6
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719879/imaging-studies-of-functional-neurologic-disorders
#7
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719876/neurophysiologic-studies-of-functional-neurologic-disorders
#8
M Hallett
Functional neurologic disorders are largely genuine and represent conversion disorders, where the dysfunction is unconscious, but there are some that are factitious, where the abnormality is feigned and conscious. Malingering, which can have the same manifestations, is similarly feigned, but not considered a genuine disease. There are no good methods for differentiating these three entities at the present time. Physiologic studies of functional weakness and sensory loss reveal normal functioning of primary motor and sensory cortex, but abnormalities of premotor cortex and association cortices...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709866/relapsing-polychondritis-with-central-nervous-system-involvement-experience-of-three-different-cases-in-a-single-center
#9
Chan Hong Jeon
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation in cartilaginous structures including the ears, noses, peripheral joints, and tracheobronchial tree. It rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS) but diagnosis of CNS complication of RP is challenging because it can present with varying clinical features. Herein we report 3 cases of relapsing polychondritis involving CNS with distinct manifestations and clinical courses. The first patient presented with rhombencephalitis resulting in brain edema and death...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629954/paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-in-a-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-gastric-cancer-patient-treated-with-trastuzumab-combined-chemotherapy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Yu Uneno, Akira Yokoyama, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Taro Funakoshi, Yoshinao Ozaki, Ikuo Aoyama, Kiichiro Baba, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Shuko Morita, Yukiko Mori, Masashi Kanai, Hisanori Kinoshita, Takeshi Inoue, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Riki Matsumoto, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are rare nervous system dysfunctions in cancer patients, which are primarily observed with small-cell lung cancer, gynecological cancer, and thymoma. We herein present an uncommon case of PNS in an anti-Hu antibody-positive patient with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-positive gastric cancer (GC), who developed limbic encephalitis and a worsening cognitive function. Trastuzumab-combined chemotherapy was initiated and appeared to be partially effective for controlling the neurological symptoms and tumor volume...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623124/-olfaction-in-depressive-disorders-issues-and-perspectives
#11
G Brand, B Schaal
Research on sensorial interactions with psychiatric diseases and particularly with the depressive syndrome has mainly focused on visual or auditory processes and much less on olfaction. The depressive illness is one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in the community, with approximately one in five women and one in eight men experiencing a major depressive episode during their lifetime. Although genetic, epigenetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroimmunological changes can be detected during depression, the etiology of depression remains partly unclear...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616302/sex-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-modify-brain-neurotransmitters-profile-of-newborn-piglets
#12
M Vázquez-Gómez, D Valent, C García-Contreras, L Arroyo, C Óvilo, B Isabel, A Bassols, A González-Bulnes
The current study aimed to determine, using a swine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whether short- and long-term neurological deficiencies and interactive dysfunctions of Low Birth-Weight (LBW) offspring might be related to altered pattern of neurotransmitters. Hence, we compared the quantities of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines), which were determined by HPLC, at brain structures related to the limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) in 14 LBW and 10 Normal Body-Weight (NBW) newborn piglets...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566001/neuropsychological-and-fdg-pet-profiles-in-vgkc-autoimmune-limbic-encephalitis
#13
Alessandra Dodich, Chiara Cerami, Sandro Iannaccone, Alessandra Marcone, Pierpaolo Alongi, Chiara Crespi, Nicola Canessa, Francesca Andreetta, Andrea Falini, Stefano F Cappa, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND: Limbic encephalitis (LE) is characterized by an acute or subacute onset with memory impairments, confusional state, behavioral disorders, variably associated with seizures and dystonic movements. It is due to inflammatory processes that selectively affect the medial temporal lobe structures. Voltage-gate potassium channel (VGKC) autoantibodies are frequently observed. In this study, we assessed at the individual level FDG-PET brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychological profiles in three autoimmune LE cases seropositive for neuronal VGKC-complex autoantibodies...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541742/neuroplastic-changes-following-social-cognition-training-in-schizophrenia-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#14
Carlos Campos, Susana Santos, Emily Gagen, Sérgio Machado, Susana Rocha, Matthew M Kurtz, Nuno Barbosa Rocha
Social cognitive impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia and social cognition training (SCT) is a promising tool to address these deficits. Neurobiological dysfunction in schizophrenia has been widely researched, but neuronal changes induced by SCT have been scarcely explored. This review aims to assess the neuroplastic effects of SCT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials testing the effects of SCT in functional and structural brain measurements of adult patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders...
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541485/limbic-pathway-correlates-of-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Zafer Keser, Khader M Hasan, Benson Mwangi, Refaat E Gabr, Joel L Steinberg, Jeffrey Wilken, Jerry S Wolinsky, Flavia M Nelson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Distinct injuries to various limbic white matter pathways have been reported to be associated with different aspects of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) offers a noninvasive method to map tissue microstructural organization. We utilized quantitative magnetic resonance imaging methods to analyze the main limbic system-white matter structures in MS patients with cognitive impairment (CI). METHODS: Ten cognitively nonimpaired MS (MSNI) patients and 36 patients with diagnosed CI (MSCI) underwent the minimal assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) battery...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538995/roseolovirus-associated-encephalitis-in-immunocompetent-and-immunocompromised-individuals
#16
Joseph Ongrádi, Dharam V Ablashi, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Balázs Stercz, Masao Ogata
The roseoloviruses, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, can cause severe encephalitis or encephalopathy. In immunocompetent children, primary HHV-6B infection is occasionally accompanied by diverse clinical forms of encephalitis. Roseolovirus coinfections with heterologous viruses and delayed primary HHV-7 infection in immunocompetent adults result in very severe neurological and generalized symptoms. Recovery from neurological sequelae is slow and sometimes incomplete. In immunocompromised patients with underlying hematological malignancies and transplantation, frequent single or simultaneous reactivation of roseoloviruses elicit severe, lethal organ dysfunctions, including damages in the limbic system, brain stem, and hippocampus...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523497/meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies-of-disruptive-behavior-disorders
#17
Analucia A Alegria, Joaquim Radua, Katya Rubia
OBJECTIVE: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in conduct disorder and in oppositional defiant disorder have shown inconsistencies. The aim of this meta-analysis of fMRI studies in disruptive behavior disorders was to establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions and to address task- and subtype-related heterogeneity. METHOD: Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all whole-brain fMRI studies of youths with disruptive behavior disorder or conduct problems up to August 2015...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468506/-autonomic-nervous-system-and-its-imbalance-in-neuro-intensive-care-unit
#18
K A Popugaev, A Yu Lubnin, M V Zabelin, A S Samoylov
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides homeostasis due to the innervation of the secretory glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Higher centers of the ANS (primarily the hypothalamus, some centers of the brain stem and limbic system) form a integrative network, which plays a key role in coordinating the functioning of the endocrine, immune system and other parts of the central nervous system. Intracranial centers of the ANS are responsible for the consciousness, behavioral, emotional, and other components of the higher nervous activity...
March 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466157/characterizing-structural-neural-networks-in-de-novo-parkinson-disease-patients-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#19
S Nigro, R Riccelli, L Passamonti, G Arabia, M Morelli, R Nisticò, F Novellino, M Salsone, G Barbagallo, A Quattrone
Parkinson disease (PD) can be considered as a brain multisystemic disease arising from dysfunction in several neural networks. The principal aim of this study was to assess whether large-scale structural topological network changes are detectable in PD patients who have not been exposed yet to dopaminergic therapy (de novo patients). Twenty-one drug-naïve PD patients and thirty healthy controls underwent a 3T structural MRI. Next, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and graph theoretic analyses to compute individual structural white-matter (WM) networks were combined...
December 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460184/anti-a-and-anti-ma2-associated-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes
#20
G Ortega Suero, N Sola-Valls, D Escudero, A Saiz, F Graus
OBJECTIVE: Analyse the clinical profile, associated tumour types, and response to treatment of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes associated with antibodies against Ma proteins. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with antibodies against Ma proteins identified in a neuroimmunology laboratory of reference. RESULTS: Of the 32 patients identified, 20 showed reactivity against Ma2 only (anti-Ma2 antibodies), 11 against Ma1 and Ma2 (anti-Ma antibodies), and 1 with reactivity against Ma1 only (anti-Ma1 antibodies)...
July 23, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
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