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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336136/international-clinical-protocol-on-vestibular-disorders-dizziness
#1
Kostiantyn Trinus, Claus-Frenz Claussen
26-28 May at 43 Congress of Neurootological and Equilibriometric Society (Budapest, Hungary) International Clinical Protocol on Vestibular Disorders (Dizziness) being discussed and accepted as Consensus Document. Cochrane reports estimates that dizziness has prevalence of 22.9% in the last 12 months and an incidence of 3.1%. Only 1.8% of adults consulted a physician in the last 12 months. Cochrane reviews suggest that the evidence base for dizziness evaluation is weak, thus necessitates the creation of evidence-based document...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310446/resting-state-fmri-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#2
Wu Xing, Wei Shi, Yueshuang Leng, Xianting Sun, Tingting Guan, Weihua Liao, Xiaoyi Wang
Background The involvement of the central nervous system in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) remains controversial. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a relatively new method that can be applied to investigate the heterogeneity of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in pSS patients through regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. Purpose To collect data from pSS patients and healthy controls, and use ReHo analysis to elucidate the neurobiological mechanism of CNS involvement in pSS. Material and Methods Fourteen clinically diagnosed pSS patients and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286511/cerebral-impact-of-prenatal-irradiation-by-131i-an-experimental-model-of-clinical-neuroradioembryological-effects
#3
V V Talko, K M Loganovsky, I P Drozd, Ye V Tukalenko, T K Loganovska, S Yu Nechayev, S V Masiuk, Ye M Prokhorova
Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. OBJECTIVE: To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286496/evoked-bioelectrical-brain-activity-following-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation
#4
K Loganovsky, K Kuts
The article provides an overview of modern physiological evidence to support the hypothesis on cortico limbic sys tem dysfunction due to the hippocampal neurogenesis impairment as a basis of the brain interhemispheric asym metry and neurocognitive deficit after radiation exposure. The importance of the research of both evoked poten tials and fields as a highly sensitive and informative method is emphasized.Particular attention is paid to cerebral sensor systems dysfunction as a typical effect of ionizing radiation...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273230/exploring-the-neural-bases-of-primary-muscle-tension-dysphonia-a-case-study-using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Nelson Roy, Maria Dietrich, Michael Blomgren, Amanda Heller, Daniel R Houtz, James Lee
Primary muscle tension dysphonia (pMTD) is a voice disorder that occurs in the absence of laryngeal pathology. Dysregulated activity of the paralaryngeal muscles is considered the proximal cause; however, the central origin of this aberrant laryngeal muscle activation is unclear. The Trait Theory (Roy and Bless, 2000a,b) proposed that specific personality traits can predispose one to laryngeal motor inhibition and pMTD, and this inhibition is mediated by a hyperactive "behavioral inhibition system (BIS)" composed of limbic system structures (and associated prefrontal connections)...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249989/the-2d-4d-marker-and-different-forms-of-internet-use-disorder
#6
Marko Müller, Matthias Brand, Julia Mies, Bernd Lachmann, Rayna Yordanova Sariyska, Christian Montag
Internet use disorder (IUD) presents a growing problem worldwide. Among others, it manifests in loss of control over Internet usage and social problems due to problematic Internet use. Although IUD currently is not an official diagnosis in DSM-5 or ICD-10, mounting evidence suggests that IUD indeed could be categorized as a behavioral addiction. On a systemic neuroscientific level, IUD is well characterized and dysfunctions in the fronto-striatal-limbic loop have been observed in persons being afflicted with IUD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249951/diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-reveals-disrupted-white-matter-structural-connectivity-network-in-healthy-adults-with-insomnia-symptoms
#7
Feng-Mei Lu, Jing Dai, Tania A Couto, Chun-Hong Liu, Heng Chen, Shun-Li Lu, Li-Rong Tang, Chang-Le Tie, Hua-Fu Chen, Man-Xi He, Yu-Tao Xiang, Zhen Yuan
Neuroimaging studies have revealed that insomnia is characterized by aberrant neuronal connectivity in specific brain regions, but the topological disruptions in the white matter (WM) structural connectivity networks remain largely unknown in insomnia. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to construct the WM structural networks and graph theory analysis to detect alterations of the brain structural networks. The study participants comprised 30 healthy subjects with insomnia symptoms (IS) and 62 healthy subjects without IS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243370/neurological-nutritional-and-alcohol-consumption-factors-underlie-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-in-chronic-alcoholism
#8
Rosemary Fama, Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Cheshire Hardcastle, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr
Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Participants with ALC (n = 96) and a normal comparison group (n = 41) were examined on six cognitive and motor domains. Signs of historically determined subclinical Wernicke's encephalopathy were detected using the Caine et al...
December 15, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238983/brain-volume-changes-in-hyposmic-patients-before-and-after-olfactory-training
#9
Janine Gellrich, Pengfei Han, Cedric Manesse, Amelie Betz, Anne Junghanns, Claudia Raue, Valentin A Schriever, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Olfactory dysfunction is thought to be associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in olfactory-related brain areas. The aim of this study was to determine GM structural changes within olfactory-related regions of the brain in patients with smell loss due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) before and after olfactory rehabilitation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective intervention case-control study. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging structural brain images were collected from 30 patients with smell loss due to URTI and 31 controls...
December 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#10
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196808/propagation-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-from-the-olfactory-bulb-possible-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#11
REVIEW
María Graciela Cersosimo
Olfactory limbic structures, like the amygdala, the entorhinal, and the piriform cortices, are closely involved in cognitive processes. Thus, besides olfactory dysfunctions, it is conceivable that the compromise of these structures can lead to cognitive impairment. The olfactory bulb is affected by alpha-synuclein pathology in almost all cases of both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The clinical distinction between these disorders relies on the timing in the appearance of dementia in relationship to motor symptoms...
December 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154389/latent-autoimmune-diabetes-and-limbic-encephalitis-with-antibodies-against-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase
#12
Stoyan Popkirov, Seena Sebastian, Fatme Seval Ismail, Jörg Wellmer
Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are a hallmark of type 1 diabetes and its late-onset variant, latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA).(1) While cerebrovascular disease and dementia are common causes of cognitive dysfunction and neurological deficits in diabetic patients,(2,3) rare autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system such as stiff-person syndrom or limbic encephalits can also occur on the basis of shared GAD autoimmunity.(4,5).
November 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153447/abnormal-brain-activation-during-threatening-face-processing-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#13
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xiaoyan Jia, Yingjia Li, Xuebin Chang, Marie Vandekerckhove, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Impairment of face perception in schizophrenia is a core aspect of social cognitive dysfunction. This impairment is particularly marked in threatening face processing. Identifying reliable neural correlates of the impairment of threatening face processing is crucial for targeting more effective treatments. However, neuroimaging studies have not yet obtained robust conclusions. Through comprehensive literature search, twenty-one whole brain datasets were included in this meta-analysis. Using seed-based d-Mapping, in this voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed to: 1) establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions related to threating face processing in schizophrenia; 2) address task-type heterogeneity in this impairment; 3) explore the effect of potential demographic or clinical moderator variables on this impairment...
November 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150979/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-lesions-have-a-greater-impact-than-mammillothalamic-tract-lesions-on-the-extended-hippocampal-system
#14
Brook A L Perry, Stephanie A Mercer, Sophie C Barnett, Jungah Lee, John C Dalrymple-Alford
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), mammillary bodies and their interconnecting fiber tract, the mammillothalamic tract (MTT), are important components of an extended hippocampal circuit for episodic memory. In humans, damage to the MTT or ATN in many disorders is associated with severe anterograde amnesia and it is assumed that their influence on memory is functionally equivalent. The relative influence of these two structures on memory has not, however, been assessed explicitly. Here, a direct comparison found that only ATN lesions impaired spatial reference memory in rats...
November 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138510/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-characterized-by-differential-beta-oscillatory-signaling-of-the-limbic-cortico-basal-ganglia-loop
#15
Lukas Maurer, Hui Tang, Jens K Haumesser, Jennifer Altschüler, Andrea A Kühn, Joachim Spranger, Christoph van Riesen
The concept of brain circuit disorders has been proposed for a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, characterized by pathological disturbances of neuronal networks including changes in oscillatory signaling of re-entrant cortico-subcortical loops in the basal ganglia system. Parts of this circuitry play a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We therefore investigated whether high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity is associated with changes in oscillatory signaling in the limbic cortico-basal ganglia loop. We performed multi-site in-vivo electrophysiological recordings of local field potentials within this network under urethane anesthesia in adult rats after 4 weeks of HFD feeding compared to age-matched controls...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121642/limbic-system-damage-in-ms-mri-assessment-and-correlations-with-clinical-testing
#16
Jie Wen, Dmitriy A Yablonskiy, Amber Salter, Anne H Cross
Volume loss in some limbic region structures has been observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, in vivo evaluation of existing tissue cellular microstructure integrity has received less attention. The goal of studies reported here was to quantitatively assess loss of limbic system volumes and tissue integrity, and to evaluate associations of these measures with cognitive and physical dysfunction in MS patients. Thirty-one healthy controls (HC) and 80 MS patients, including 32 relapsing remitting (RRMS), 32 secondary progressive (SPMS) and 16 primary progressive (PPMS), participated in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093718/selective-limbic-blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-in-a-feline-model-of-limbic-encephalitis-with-lgi1-antibodies
#17
Anna R Tröscher, Andrea Klang, Maria French, Lucía Quemada-Garrido, Sibylle Maria Kneissl, Christian G Bien, Ákos Pákozdy, Jan Bauer
Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1) is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO), is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072022/-progress-on-the-relationship-between-the-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-system-function-by-acupuncture-and-central-nuclei
#18
Fan-You Bu, Feng Wei, Xue-Shuang Dai, Qi-Wen Tan, Bin Cheng
Acupuncture has a good curative effect in the treatment of gastrointestinal system diseases, such as functional dyspepsia, ulcerative colitis, and constipation. The central nuclei which are involved in the mechanism of acupuncture in regulating the gastrointestinal system have become a research hotspot in recent years. In the present paper, the authors summarized the effect of acupuncture and the central nervous system on gastrointestinal function regulation. It was found that the regulation of gastrointestinal function by acupuncture involved many brain regions such as the amygdala, paraventricular nucleus, locus coeruleus, raphe nucleus, and dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve...
August 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#19
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963037/disruption-of-the-ascending-arousal-system-and-cortical-attention-networks-in-post-stroke-delirium-and-spatial-neglect
#20
REVIEW
Olga Boukrina, A M Barrett
Delirium is an acute attention and cognitive dysfunction, adversely affecting functional outcomes and mortality. As many as half of hospitalized right brain stroke survivors may develop delirium. Further, about 50% of right stroke patients experience spatial neglect, impairing safety and recovery. In this review we explore the brain mechanisms, which may explain the high incidence of delirium and spatial neglect after right-brain stroke. We suggest that brain networks for spatial attention and arousal, composed of ascending projections from the midbrain nuclei and integrating dorsal and ventral cortical and limbic components, may underlie impairments in delirium and spatial neglect...
September 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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