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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803592/brain-alterations-potentially-associated-with-aggression-and-terrorism
#1
Bernhard Bogerts, Maria Schöne, Stephanie Breitschuh
A large proportion of the persons who join terrorist groups as well as lone-acting terrorists have a history of violent behavior or mental disorder that predated their becoming terrorists. This suggests that brain alterations found to occur in violent perpetrators may also be present in a significant percentage of terrorists. After a short delineation of phylogenetically old neuronal networks that are important for the generation of aggressive behavior in inconspicuous brains, this review summarizes structural and functional brain-imaging studies in violent offenders published over the last 10 years...
August 14, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802937/apathy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Javier Pagonabarraga, Jaime Kulisevsky
The normal maintenance of human motivation depends on the integrity of subcortical structures that link the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex with the limbic system. Apathy is highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease and causes major impact on the quality of life of patients and caregivers, comparable to depression or cognitive impairment. The clinical differentiation of apathy from the emotional symptoms of depression, and from difficulties in planning or organizing mental programs as a consequence of executive dysfunction, may guide a rationale for individualized treatment approach of apathetic symptoms, which is presently lacking...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744214/impairments-of-speech-comprehension-in-patients-with-tinnitus-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Daniela Ivansic, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Boris Müller, Gerd F Volk, Gerlind Schneider, Christian Dobel
Tinnitus describes the subjective perception of a sound despite the absence of external stimulation. Being a sensory symptom the majority of studies focusses on the auditory pathway. In the recent years, a series of studies suggested a crucial involvement of the limbic system in the manifestation and development of chronic tinnitus. Regarding cognitive symptoms, several reviews addressed the presence of cognitive impairments in tinnitus as well and concluded that attention and memory processes are affected...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736888/alterations-in-cortical-thickness-in-nonmedicated-premature-ejaculation-patients-a-morphometric-mri-study
#4
Fan Guo, Yi-Bin Xi, Ming Gao, Lin Liu, Ning-Bo Fei, Wei Qin, Chen Li, Long-Biao Cui, Fei Yan, Lei Yu, Jian-Lin Yuan, Hong Yin
PURPOSE: Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure related to PE. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of nonmedicated PE patients in terms of brain morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted with 32 medication-naïve adult men with clinical diagnosed PE and matched 31 healthy controls. All participants received diagnostic interviews and 3...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728677/dynamically-timed-stimulation-of-corticolimbic-circuitry-activates-a-stress-compensatory-pathway
#5
David Carlson, Lisa K David, Neil M Gallagher, Mai-Anh T Vu, Matthew Shirley, Rainbo Hultman, Joyce Wang, Caley Burrus, Colleen A McClung, Sunil Kumar, Lawrence Carin, Stephen D Mague, Kafui Dzirasa
BACKGROUND: The prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in regulating emotional behaviors, and dysfunction of prefrontal cortex-dependent networks has been broadly implicated in mediating stress-induced behavioral disorders including major depressive disorder. METHODS: Here we acquired multicircuit in vivo activity from eight cortical and limbic brain regions as mice were subjected to the tail suspension test (TST) and an open field test. We used a linear decoder to determine whether cellular responses across each of the cortical and limbic areas signal movement during the TST and open field test...
June 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689261/investigation-of-cognitive-circuits-using-steady-state-cerebral-blood-volume-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-following-electrical-injury
#6
Chang-Hyun Park, Cheong Hoon Seo, Myung Hun Jung, So Young Joo, Soyeon Jang, Ho Young Lee, Suk Hoon Ohn
PURPOSE: We utilized cerebral blood volume (CBV) magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate changes in cognitive networks in patients experiencing cognitive dysfunction following electrical injury. METHODS: Cognitive function was assessed across various domains, including attention, verbal memory, executive function, and language. Depressive symptoms were also evaluated. CBV maps and DTI measures were obtained from 24 patients (age, 41...
July 8, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658047/a-magnetoencephalography-investigation-of-coherence-source-imaging-in-panic-disorder
#7
Nash N Boutros, Seung-Suk Kang, Kathleen M Gustafson, Zach Thomas, Kemal Sagduyu, Jocelyn Pearson, Susan M Bowyer
Limbic and frontal structures are largely implicated in panic disorder (PD). Decreased coherence imaging values, as determined by magnetoencephalography (MEG), are suggestive of decreased or inefficient communication among these structures. We have previously demonstrated that coherence source imaging (CSI) values could be similar or higher in some PD patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to replicate these finding in a larger sample. Nine strictly diagnosed PD patients and nine age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were examined...
September 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638927/-involvement-of-aquaporin-4-in-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory
#8
Xin Wu, Jian-Feng Gao
Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is the predominant water channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and primarily expressed in astrocytes. Astrocytes have been generally believed to play important roles in regulating synaptic plasticity and information processing. However, the role of AQP-4 in regulating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, cognitive function is only beginning to be investigated. It is well known that synaptic plasticity is the prime candidate for mediating of learning and memory. Long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity, and they share some but not all the properties and mechanisms...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588455/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-in-bipolar-disorder
#10
Anton J M Loonen, Ralph W Kupka, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model, the motivation for appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) re-entry circuits that include the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, control the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588453/refining-the-role-of-5-ht-in-postnatal-development-of-brain-circuits
#11
REVIEW
Anne Teissier, Mariano Soiza-Reilly, Patricia Gaspar
Changing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) brain levels during critical periods in development has long-lasting effects on brain function, particularly on later anxiety/depression-related behaviors in adulthood. A large part of the known developmental effects of 5-HT occur during critical periods of postnatal life, when activity-dependent mechanisms remodel neural circuits. This was first demonstrated for the maturation of sensory brain maps in the barrel cortex and the visual system. More recently this has been extended to the 5-HT raphe circuits themselves and to limbic circuits...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567288/gad-antibody-associated-limbic-encephalitis-in-a-young-woman-with-apeced
#12
Anna Kopczak, Adrian-Minh Schumacher, Sandra Nischwitz, Tania Kümpfel, Günter K Stalla, Matthias K Auer
The autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Immune deficiency, hypoparathyroidism and Addison's disease due to autoimmune dysfunction are the major clinical signs of APECED. We report on a 21-year-old female APECED patient with two inactivating mutations in the AIRE gene. She presented with sudden onset of periodic nausea. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed by means of the ACTH stimulation test...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558365/reward-anticipation-revisited-evidence-from-an-fmri-study-in-euthymic-bipolar-i-patients-and-healthy-first-degree-relatives
#13
Bianca Kollmann, Vanessa Scholz, Julia Linke, Peter Kirsch, Michèle Wessa
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic phases in bipolar disorder (BD) are hypothesized to result from a hypersensitive behavioral activation system (BAS) being sensitive to potential rewards. However, studies on the neuronal underpinnings of reward anticipation in BD are scarce with contradictory findings and possibly confounded by effects of dopaminergic medication, necessitating further research on dysfunctional motivation in BD. Moreover, its role as vulnerability marker for BD is unclear. METHODS: Functional imaging was conducted in 16 euthymic BD-I patients free from dopaminergic medication and 19 healthy first-degree relatives using a monetary incentive delay task and compared to parallelized control groups...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527694/voluntary-wheel-running-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-and-brain-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-mice
#14
Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Weiliang Huang, Chuying Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peiqian Hu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Huihui Cao, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2h/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470168/anxiety-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Michelle G Craske, Murray B Stein, Thalia C Eley, Mohammed R Milad, Andrew Holmes, Ronald M Rapee, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors...
May 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464508/limbic-grey-matter-changes-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Xingfeng Li, Yue Xing, Stefan T Schwarz, Dorothee P Auer
The purpose of this study was to investigate local and network-related changes of limbic grey matter in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and their inter-relation with non-motor symptom severity. We applied voxel-based morphometric methods in 538 T1 MRI images retrieved from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative website. Grey matter densities and cross-sectional estimates of age-related grey matter change were compared between subjects with early PD (n = 366) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 172) within a regression model, and associations of grey matter density with symptoms were investigated...
May 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415589/gabaergic-neurons-in-nucleus-accumbens-are-correlated-to-resilience-and-vulnerability-to-chronic-stress-for-major-depression
#17
Zhaoming Zhu, Guangyan Wang, Ke Ma, Shan Cui, Jin-Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depression, persistent low mood, is one of common psychiatric diseases. Chronic stressful life is believed to be a major risk factor that leads to dysfunctions of the limbic system. However, a large number of the individuals with experiencing chronic stress do not suffer from major depression, called as resilience. Endogenous mechanisms underlying neuronal invulnerability to chronic stress versus major depression are largely unknown. As GABAergic neurons are vulnerable to chronic stress and their impairments is associated with major depression, we have examined whether the invulnerability of GABAergic neurons in the limbic system is involved in resilience...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393712/therapeutic-role-of-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2a-sv2a-in-modulating-epileptogenesis
#18
Yukihiro Ohno, Kentaro Tokudome
Dysfunction of synaptic neurotransmitter release is closely involved in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a membrane protein specifically expressed in synaptic vesicles and it modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release in the brain. Since 1) SV2A-knockout mice exhibit severe convulsive seizures, 2) SV2A expression in the brain is reportedly altered in various epileptic disorders both in animal models (e.g., kindling and genetic models) and humans (e...
April 4, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#19
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
May 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#20
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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