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limbic system dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150979/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-lesions-have-a-greater-impact-than-mammillothalamic-tract-lesions-on-the-extended-hippocampal-system
#1
Brook A L Perry, Stephanie A Mercer, Sophie C Barnett, Jungah Lee, John C Dalrymple-Alford
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), mammillary bodies and their interconnecting fiber tract, the mammillothalamic tract (MTT), are important components of an extended hippocampal circuit for episodic memory. In humans, damage to the MTT or ATN in many disorders is associated with severe anterograde amnesia and it is assumed that their influence on memory is functionally equivalent. The relative influence of these two structures on memory has not, however, been assessed explicitly. Here, a direct comparison found that only ATN lesions impaired spatial reference memory in rats...
November 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138510/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-characterized-by-differential-beta-oscillatory-signaling-of-the-limbic-cortico-basal-ganglia-loop
#2
Lukas Maurer, Hui Tang, Jens K Haumesser, Jennifer Altschüler, Andrea A Kühn, Joachim Spranger, Christoph van Riesen
The concept of brain circuit disorders has been proposed for a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, characterized by pathological disturbances of neuronal networks including changes in oscillatory signaling of re-entrant cortico-subcortical loops in the basal ganglia system. Parts of this circuitry play a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We therefore investigated whether high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity is associated with changes in oscillatory signaling in the limbic cortico-basal ganglia loop. We performed multi-site in-vivo electrophysiological recordings of local field potentials within this network under urethane anesthesia in adult rats after 4 weeks of HFD feeding compared to age-matched controls...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121642/limbic-system-damage-in-ms-mri-assessment-and-correlations-with-clinical-testing
#3
Jie Wen, Dmitriy A Yablonskiy, Amber Salter, Anne H Cross
Volume loss in some limbic region structures has been observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, in vivo evaluation of existing tissue cellular microstructure integrity has received less attention. The goal of studies reported here was to quantitatively assess loss of limbic system volumes and tissue integrity, and to evaluate associations of these measures with cognitive and physical dysfunction in MS patients. Thirty-one healthy controls (HC) and 80 MS patients, including 32 relapsing remitting (RRMS), 32 secondary progressive (SPMS) and 16 primary progressive (PPMS), participated in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093718/selective-limbic-blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-in-a-feline-model-of-limbic-encephalitis-with-lgi1-antibodies
#4
Anna R Tröscher, Andrea Klang, Maria French, Lucía Quemada-Garrido, Sibylle Maria Kneissl, Christian G Bien, Ákos Pákozdy, Jan Bauer
Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1) is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO), is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072022/-progress-on-the-relationship-between-the-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-system-function-by-acupuncture-and-central-nuclei
#5
Fan-You Bu, Feng Wei, Xue-Shuang Dai, Qi-Wen Tan, Bin Cheng
Acupuncture has a good curative effect in the treatment of gastrointestinal system diseases, such as functional dyspepsia, ulcerative colitis, and constipation. The central nuclei which are involved in the mechanism of acupuncture in regulating the gastrointestinal system have become a research hotspot in recent years. In the present paper, the authors summarized the effect of acupuncture and the central nervous system on gastrointestinal function regulation. It was found that the regulation of gastrointestinal function by acupuncture involved many brain regions such as the amygdala, paraventricular nucleus, locus coeruleus, raphe nucleus, and dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve...
August 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#6
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963037/disruption-of-the-ascending-arousal-system-and-cortical-attention-networks-in-post-stroke-delirium-and-spatial-neglect
#7
REVIEW
Olga Boukrina, A M Barrett
Delirium is an acute attention and cognitive dysfunction, adversely affecting functional outcomes and mortality. As many as half of hospitalized right brain stroke survivors may develop delirium. Further, about 50% of right stroke patients experience spatial neglect, impairing safety and recovery. In this review we explore the brain mechanisms, which may explain the high incidence of delirium and spatial neglect after right-brain stroke. We suggest that brain networks for spatial attention and arousal, composed of ascending projections from the midbrain nuclei and integrating dorsal and ventral cortical and limbic components, may underlie impairments in delirium and spatial neglect...
September 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949286/altered-intrinsic-functional-brain-architecture-in-female-patients-with-bulimia-nervosa
#8
Li Wang, Qing-Mei Kong, Ke Li, Xue-Ni Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Chao Chen, Ying Qian, Shi-Jie Feng, Ji-Tao Li, Yun'Ai Su, Christoph U Correll, Philip B Mitchell, Chao-Gan Yan, Da-Rong Zhang, Tian-Mei Si
BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa is a severe psychiatric syndrome with uncertain pathogenesis. Neural systems involved in sensorimotor and visual processing, reward and impulsive control may contribute to the binge eating and purging behaviours characterizing bulimia nervosa. However, little is known about the alterations of functional organization of whole brain networks in individuals with this disorder. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI and graph theory to characterize functional brain networks of unmedicated women with bulimia nervosa and healthy women...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943292/enhanced-fear-and-altered-neuronal-activation-in-forebrain-limbic-regions-of-cx3cr1-deficient-mice
#9
Inga Schubert, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Andrew Winter, Lauren Vollmer, Ian Lewkowich, Renu Sah
Mounting evidence supports immune dysfunction in psychiatric conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The association of immunomodulatory mechanisms with PTSD-relevant behavior and physiology is not well understood. Communication between neurons and microglia, resident immune cells of the central nervous system, is crucial for optimal regulation of behavior and physiology. In this regard, the fractalkine CX3CL1, secreted from neurons and its target, the microglial CX3CR1 receptor represent a primary neuron-microglia inter-regulatory system important for synaptic plasticity and function...
September 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900724/hypothalamic-dysfunction-is-related-to-sleep-impairment-and-csf-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Claudio Liguori, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Marzia Nuccetelli, Francesca Izzi, Giuseppe Sancesario, Andrea Cimini, Sergio Bernardini, Orazio Schillaci, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Placidi Fabio
Hypothalamus is a key brain region regulating several essential homeostatic functions, including the sleep-wake cycle. Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology affects nuclei controlling sleep-wake rhythm sited in this brain area. Since only post-mortem studies documented the relationship between hypothalamic atrophy and sleep-wake cycle impairment, we investigated in AD patients the possible hypothalamic in vivo alteration using 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET), and its correlations with sleep impairment and cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers (tau proteins and β-amyloid42)...
November 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900210/alterations-of-brain-functional-architecture-associated-with-psychopathic-traits-in-male-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder
#11
Weidan Pu, Qiang Luo, Yali Jiang, Yidian Gao, Qingsen Ming, Shuqiao Yao
Psychopathic traits of conduct disorder (CD) have a core callous-unemotional (CU) component and an impulsive-antisocial component. Previous task-driven fMRI studies have suggested that psychopathic traits are associated with dysfunction of several brain areas involved in different cognitive functions (e.g., empathy, reward, and response inhibition etc.), but the relationship between psychopathic traits and intrinsic brain functional architecture has not yet been explored in CD. Using a holistic brain-wide functional connectivity analysis, this study delineated the alterations in brain functional networks in patients with conduct disorder...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860940/limbic-encephalitis-a%C3%A2-report-of-four-cases
#12
Żanna Pastuszak, Adam Stępień, Kazimierz Tomczykiewicz, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Joanna Kordowska, Dariusz Galbarczyk, Jarosław Świstak
Usually limbic encephalitis (LE) is a paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome. LE symptoms can precede cancer even by a few years. Almost 50% of LE cases are connected with small cell lung carcinoma. Testis and breast cancers, granulomatous disease, thymoma, and teratomas are also often connected with LE. Other cases have infectious and autoimmunological aetiology. In LE limbic system dysfunction is observed, and it is accompanied by cerebellum and brain stem abnormalities as well as polyneuropathy. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is sometimes a part of larger syndrome in which brain stem and spinal cord are involved in an inflammatory process called paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859864/impaired-decision-making-under-risky-conditions-in-the-acute-phase-of-graves-thyroitoxicosis
#13
Fang Dai, Lili Yuan, Juan Fang, Qiu Zhang, Kai Wang
The patients with Graves' thyroitoxicosis often complain that they have neuropsychiatric symptoms and impaired cognitive function. Decision making is important and complex process involving the interaction and integration of a series of cognitive components. In the 31 newly diagnosed patients with Graves' thyroitoxicosis and 30 healthy controls, we used the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and The Game of Dice Task (GDT) to assess the emotion and decision making under risky conditions...
November 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843755/association-of-perforator-infarction-with-clinical-courses-and-outcomes-following-surgical-clipping-of-ruptured-anterior-communicating-artery-aneurysms
#14
Yu Yamamoto, Hitoshi Fukuda, Daisuke Yamada, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, Akira Handa, Benjamin Lo, Sen Yamagata
BACKGROUND: Perforator infarction is a procedure-related complication of surgical clipping of ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. Patients with perforator infarction may present with specific clinical features. The aim of this study was to elucidate incidence, risk factors, clinical course, and outcomes of perforator infarction following surgical clipping of ruptured ACoA aneurysms. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed of 104 patients from a single-center, observational cohort database who underwent surgical clipping for ruptured ACoA aneurysm...
November 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803592/brain-alterations-potentially-associated-with-aggression-and-terrorism
#15
Bernhard Bogerts, Maria Schöne, Stephanie Breitschuh
A large proportion of the persons who join terrorist groups as well as lone-acting terrorists have a history of violent behavior or mental disorder that predated their becoming terrorists. This suggests that brain alterations found to occur in violent perpetrators may also be present in a significant percentage of terrorists. After a short delineation of phylogenetically old neuronal networks that are important for the generation of aggressive behavior in inconspicuous brains, this review summarizes structural and functional brain-imaging studies in violent offenders published over the last 10 years...
August 14, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802937/apathy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Javier Pagonabarraga, Jaime Kulisevsky
The normal maintenance of human motivation depends on the integrity of subcortical structures that link the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex with the limbic system. Apathy is highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease and causes major impact on the quality of life of patients and caregivers, comparable to depression or cognitive impairment. The clinical differentiation of apathy from the emotional symptoms of depression, and from difficulties in planning or organizing mental programs as a consequence of executive dysfunction, may guide a rationale for individualized treatment approach of apathetic symptoms, which is presently lacking...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744214/impairments-of-speech-comprehension-in-patients-with-tinnitus-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Daniela Ivansic, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Boris Müller, Gerd F Volk, Gerlind Schneider, Christian Dobel
Tinnitus describes the subjective perception of a sound despite the absence of external stimulation. Being a sensory symptom the majority of studies focusses on the auditory pathway. In the recent years, a series of studies suggested a crucial involvement of the limbic system in the manifestation and development of chronic tinnitus. Regarding cognitive symptoms, several reviews addressed the presence of cognitive impairments in tinnitus as well and concluded that attention and memory processes are affected...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736888/alterations-in-cortical-thickness-in-nonmedicated-premature-ejaculation-patients-a-morphometric-mri-study
#18
Fan Guo, Yi-Bin Xi, Ming Gao, Lin Liu, Ning-Bo Fei, Wei Qin, Chen Li, Long-Biao Cui, Fei Yan, Lei Yu, Jian-Lin Yuan, Hong Yin
PURPOSE: Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure related to PE. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of nonmedicated PE patients in terms of brain morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted with 32 medication-naïve adult men with clinical diagnosed PE and matched 31 healthy controls. All participants received diagnostic interviews and 3...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728677/dynamically-timed-stimulation-of-corticolimbic-circuitry-activates-a-stress-compensatory-pathway
#19
David Carlson, Lisa K David, Neil M Gallagher, Mai-Anh T Vu, Matthew Shirley, Rainbo Hultman, Joyce Wang, Caley Burrus, Colleen A McClung, Sunil Kumar, Lawrence Carin, Stephen D Mague, Kafui Dzirasa
BACKGROUND: The prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in regulating emotional behaviors, and dysfunction of prefrontal cortex-dependent networks has been broadly implicated in mediating stress-induced behavioral disorders including major depressive disorder. METHODS: Here we acquired multicircuit in vivo activity from eight cortical and limbic brain regions as mice were subjected to the tail suspension test (TST) and an open field test. We used a linear decoder to determine whether cellular responses across each of the cortical and limbic areas signal movement during the TST and open field test...
June 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689261/investigation-of-cognitive-circuits-using-steady-state-cerebral-blood-volume-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-following-electrical-injury
#20
Chang-Hyun Park, Cheong Hoon Seo, Myung Hun Jung, So Young Joo, Soyeon Jang, Ho Young Lee, Suk Hoon Ohn
PURPOSE: We utilized cerebral blood volume (CBV) magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate changes in cognitive networks in patients experiencing cognitive dysfunction following electrical injury. METHODS: Cognitive function was assessed across various domains, including attention, verbal memory, executive function, and language. Depressive symptoms were also evaluated. CBV maps and DTI measures were obtained from 24 patients (age, 41...
July 8, 2017: Neuroradiology
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