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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918911/cortical-amygdala-volumetric-ratios-predict-onset-of-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#1
David Berhanu, Leah M Mattiaccio, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Frank A Middleton, Wendy R Kates
Dysfunction of cortical circuitry involving prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and mesial temporal lobe has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that comports a 25-fold increased risk of developing psychosis. Morphological changes in the neuroanatomy of this syndrome may represent a biological risk factor for the development of psychosis. The present study explored ratios between cortical volumes and the amygdala. We also explored relationships between these ratios and the eventual development of psychosis in youth with 22q11DS...
November 25, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765861/brain-fdg-pet-metabolic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-long-lasting-macrophagic-myofasciitis
#2
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761397/interhemispheric-connectivity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#3
Klaus Kopitzki, Andreas Oldag, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Judith Machts, Maria Veit, Jörn Kaufmann, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Katja Kollewe, Susanne Petri, Bahram Mohammadi, Reinhard Dengler, Andreas R Kupsch, Stefan Vielhaber
PURPOSE: Aim of the present study was to investigate potential impairment of non-motor areas in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In particular, we evaluated whether homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of non-motor associated cortical areas correlates with clinical parameters and disease-specific degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) in ALS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Interhemispheric homotopic rs-FC was assessed in 31 patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) for 8 cortical sites, from prefrontal to occipital cortex, using NIRS...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723821/abnormal-intrinsic-functional-hubs-in-severe-male-obstructive-sleep-apnea-evidence-from-a-voxel-wise-degree-centrality-analysis
#4
Haijun Li, Lan Li, Yi Shao, Honghan Gong, Wei Zhang, Xianjun Zeng, Chenglong Ye, Si Nie, Liting Chen, Dechang Peng
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. METHODS: Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714551/cerebral-perfusion-alterations-in-type-2-diabetes-and-its-relation-to-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#5
Ying Cui, Xia Liang, Hong Gu, Yuzheng Hu, Zhen Zhao, Xiang-Yu Yang, Cheng Qian, Yihong Yang, Gao-Jun Teng
To explore the effect of T2DM on cerebral perfusion, and the relationship between cerebral perfusion changes and cognitive impairment as well as diabetic variables, by using a whole-brain arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI technique. This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was performed between November 2012 and October 2013. All subjects provided informed consent. Forty T2DM patients and 41 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls were included. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was obtained by pulsed ASL perfusion imaging at 3 T MRI...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623495/impaired-picture-arrangement-subscores-wais-iii-associated-with-decreased-place-orientation-and-frontal-occipital-blood-flow-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-social-judgment-dysfunction-the-osaki-tajiri-project
#6
Yuka Kato, Kenichi Meguro, Masahiro Nakatsuka, Kei Nakamura, Masahiro Tsuboi, Satoshi Yamaguchi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing "judgment" : the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536237/the-alterations-of-cortical-volume-thickness-surface-and-density-in-the-intermediate-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-han-population-of-mainland-china
#7
Xia Deng, Meihong Zhou, Chunyan Tang, Jie Zhang, Lei Zhu, Zunchun Xie, Honghan Gong, Xiangzuo Xiao, Renshi Xu
Many symptoms of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) can't be completely explained by the lesion of simple typical extrapyramidal circuit between striatum and substantia nigra. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of cortical volume, thickness, surface, and density in the intermediate sPD from the Han population of Mainland China in order to find the new pathological brain regions associated with the complex clinical manifestations of sPD. The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI) in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530801/-research-advances-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-children
#8
Jing Liu, Jiong Qin
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity affecting the posterior brain, i.e. occipital and parietal lobes. The syndrome are characterized by headaches, altered mental status, seizures, and visual disturbances. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, endothelial dysfunction may be a key factor. The basic disease may play a crucial role in the incidence of PRES. In most cases, PRES resolves spontaneously and patients show both clinical and radiological improvements...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388467/cortical-functional-activity-in-patients-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#9
Yiming Wang, Fangxian Chai, Hongming Zhang, Xingde Liu, Pingxia Xie, Lei Zheng, Lixia Yang, Lingjiang Li, Deyu Fang
BACKGROUND: The neurological correlates of Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are not well known, however there is evidence of cortical dysregulation in patients with GAD. The aim of the study was to examine cortical functional activity in different cerebral regions in patients with GAD using electroencephalogram (EEG) nonlinear analysis to evaluate its contribution of anxiety severity. METHODS: The cohorts consisted of 64 patients diagnosed with GAD as classified by the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association-IV-TR...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386925/fatal-ischemic-stroke-following-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-sting-in-a-patient-with-essential-thrombocythemia
#10
Fábio Bucaretchi, Eduardo M De Capitani, Carla B Fernandes, Thiago M Santos, Igor A G Zamilute, Stephen Hyslop
CONTEXT: Stroke following scorpion stings is rare. We report a fatal envenomation involving multiple, extensive brain infarcts in a patient with a previous diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET) who was stung by Tityus serrulatus (T. serrulatus). CASE DETAILS: A 44-year-old woman with a diagnosis of low-risk ET (platelets <1,000,000/mm(3), age <60 years and no history of thrombosis; positive JAK2V617F mutation) was admitted to a local ED 1 h after being stung by T...
July 8, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345010/effects-of-hypotension-and-or-hypocapnia-during-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-perfusion-and-metabolites-in-the-developing-brain-of-piglets-a-blinded-randomized-study
#11
Simone K Ringer, Stefanie Ohlerth, Inés Carrera, Jacqueline Mauch, Nelly Spielmann, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Markus Weiss
BACKGROUND: Hypotension (HT) and/or hypocapnia (HC) are frequent complications occurring during pediatric anesthesia and may cause cerebral injury in the developing brain. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of HT and/or HC on perfusion and metabolism in the developing brain. METHODS: Twenty-eight piglets were randomly allocated to four groups: control (C), HT, HC, and hypotension and hyocapnia (HTC). Anesthesia was induced and maintained using sevoflurane...
September 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303609/neurofeedback-a-comprehensive-review-on-system-design-methodology-and-clinical-applications
#12
Hengameh Marzbani, Hamid Reza Marateb, Marjan Mansourian
Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2) Different EEG electrode placements i...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252647/in-alzheimer-s-disease-6-month-treatment-with-glp-1-analog-prevents-decline-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#13
Michael Gejl, Albert Gjedde, Lærke Egefjord, Arne Møller, Søren B Hansen, Kim Vang, Anders Rodell, Hans Brændgaard, Hanne Gottrup, Anna Schacht, Niels Møller, Birgitte Brock, Jørgen Rungby
In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [(11)C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [(18)F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197989/regional-frontal-perfusion-deficits-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-with-cognitive-decline
#14
R Vitorino, S-P Hojjat, C G Cantrell, A Feinstein, L Zhang, L Lee, P O'Connor, T J Carroll, R I Aviv
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cortical dysfunction, quantifiable by cerebral perfusion techniques, is prevalent in patients with MS, contributing to cognitive impairment. We sought to localize perfusion distribution differences in patients with relapsing-remitting MS with and without cognitive impairment and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with relapsing-remitting MS (20 cognitively impaired, 19 nonimpaired) and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a neurocognitive battery and MR imaging...
May 19, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178661/chronic-pain-disrupts-the-reward-circuitry-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Daniela Seixas, Jacqueline Palace, Irene Tracey
Pain commonly affects multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and has the potential to become chronic and burden an already damaged central nervous system. Imaging studies are providing insights into brain restructuring associated with chronic pain and different chronic pain conditions seem to evoke distinct plasticity patterns. Our objective was to study the structural and functional brain changes of chronic neuropathic pain of MS. Employing structural and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared MS patients with chronic central pain with MS patients without pain matched with respect to age, gender, subtype and duration of MS and disability...
August 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165581/dengue-fever-with-diffuse-cerebral-hemorrhages-subdural-hematoma-and-cranial-diabetes-insipidus
#16
Nayomi Shermila Jayasinghe, Eranga Thalagala, Milanka Wattegama, Kanapathipillai Thirumavalavan
BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations in dengue fever occur in <1 % of the patients and known to be due to multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leakage. Occurrence of wide spread cerebral haemorrhages with subdural hematoma during the leakage phase without profound thrombocytopenia and occurrence of cranial diabetes insipidus are extremely rare and had not been reported in published literature earlier, thus we report the first case. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24 year old previously healthy lady was admitted on third day of fever with thrombocytopenia...
2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163810/neuroimaging-correlates-of-frontotemporal-dementia-associated-with-sqstm1-mutations
#17
Elkin Luis, Alexandra Ortiz, Luis Eudave, Sara Ortega-Cubero, Barbara Borroni, Julie van der Zee, Stefano Gazzina, Paola Caroppo, Elisa Rubino, Federico D'Agata, Isabelle Le Ber, Isabel Santana, Gil Cunha, Maria R Almeida, Claire Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Didier Hannequin, David Wallon, Innocenzo Rainero, Daniela Galimberti, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Maria A Pastor, Pau Pastor
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a progressive dementia characterized by focal atrophy of frontal and/or temporal lobes caused by mutations in the gene coding for sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), among other genes. Rare SQSTM1 gene mutations have been associated with Paget's disease of bone, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and, more recently, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether a characteristic pattern of grey and white matter loss is associated with SQSTM1 dysfunction...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27067126/reduced-amplitude-of-low-frequency-brain-oscillations-in-the-psychosis-risk-syndrome-and-early-illness-schizophrenia
#18
Susanna L Fryer, Brian J Roach, Katherine Wiley, Rachel L Loewy, Judy M Ford, Daniel H Mathalon
Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal are gaining interest as potential biomarkers sensitive to neuropsychiatric pathology. Schizophrenia has been associated with alterations in intrinsic LFOs that covary with cognitive deficits and symptoms. However, the extent to which LFO dysfunction is present before schizophrenia illness onset remains unknown. Resting-state FMRI data were collected from clinical high-risk (CHR; n=45) youth, early illness schizophrenia (ESZ; n=74) patients, and healthy controls (HCs; n=85) aged 12-35 years...
August 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977802/altered-spontaneous-activity-in-patients-with-persistent-somatoform-pain-disorder-revealed-by-regional-homogeneity
#19
Tianming Huang, Zhiyong Zhao, Chao Yan, Jing Lu, Xuzhou Li, Chaozheng Tang, Mingxia Fan, Yanli Luo
Persistent somatoform pain disorder (PSPD) is a mental disorder un-associated with any somatic injury and can cause severe somatosensory and emotional impairments in patients. However, so far, the neuro-pathophysiological mechanism of the functional impairments in PSPD is still unclear. The present study assesses the difference in regional spontaneous activity between PSPD and healthy controls (HC) during a resting state, in order to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying PSPD. Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data were obtained from 13 PSPD patients and 23 age- and gender-matched HC subjects in this study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944169/fdg-pet-study-of-patients-with-leigh-syndrome
#20
Kauzhiro Haginoya, Tomohiro Kaneta, Noriko Togashi, Naomi Hino-Fukuyo, Tomoko Kobayashi, Mitsugu Uematsu, Taro Kitamura, Takehiko Inui, Yukimune Okubo, Yusuke Takezawa, Mai Anzai, Wakaba Endo, Noriko Miyake, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto, Shigeo Kure
We conducted a [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study in five patients (median age 11 (range 4-13) years) with Leigh syndrome to evaluate its usefulness for understanding the functional brain dysfunction in this disease and in future drug trials. Four patients were found to have reported mitochondrial DNA gene mutations. The brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high-intensity areas in the putamen bilaterally in five patients, caudate bilaterally in four, thalamus bilaterally in two, and brainstem in one...
March 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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