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H Moriah Sokolowski, Wim Fias, Ahmad Mousa, Daniel Ansari
In recent years, there has been substantial growth in neuroimaging studies investigating neural correlates of symbolic (e.g. Arabic numerals) and non-symbolic (e.g. dot arrays) number processing. However, it remains contested whether number is represented abstractly, or if number representations in the brain are format-dependent. In order to quantitatively evaluate available evidence, we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct quantitative meta-analyses using 57 neuroimaging papers. Consistent with the existence of abstract representation of number in the brain, conjunction analyses revealed overlapping activation for symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers in frontal and parietal lobes...
October 18, 2016: NeuroImage
Joan Yw Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Beate Diehl, Antonietta Coppola, Aliya Al-Hajri, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Salim Al Mughairy, Mohamed Tachrount, Michael Groves, Zuzanna Michalak, Kevin Mills, Andrew W McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
OBJECTIVE: This study reports on a novel brain pathology in young patients with Frontal Lobe Epilepsy that is distinct from Focal Cortical Dysplasia. METHODS: Surgical specimens from twenty young adults with frontal lobe epilepsy (mean age, 30 years) were investigated with histological/immunohistochemical markers for cortical laminar architecture, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation and inhibition, cellular autophagy, and synaptic vesicle-mediated trafficking as well as proteomics analysis...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Rui Gao, Guangjian Zhang, Xueqi Chen, Aimin Yang, Gwenn Smith, Dean F Wong, Yun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as α-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau), have long been associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this investigation, we reported the assessment of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) bindings measured with 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV133) that is being developed as a biomarker for PD...
2016: PloS One
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hsing-Hua Tsai, Chin-Pu Lin, Yi-Hui Lin, Chih-Chin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang
PURPOSE: Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition. METHODS: Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20)...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Karan Seegobin, Kamille Abdool, Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Haramnauth Dyaanand, Fidel Rampersad
We describe a case of Parry Romberg syndrome/en coupe de sabre in a woman whose disease started as seizures at age 8 but was diagnosed at the age 39. During these 31 years she got married, completed a first degree at university, had two successful pregnancies and has been gainfully employed. The features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, autoimmune abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, morphea en coup de sabre and brain imaging abnormalities were present. Areas of parietal lobe cerebral calcification were encountered on the computed tomographic scan and bilateral periventricular white matter changes on the magnetic resonance imaging with frontal, temporal and parietal lobe brain atrophy ipsilateral to the facial hemiatrophy...
September 30, 2016: Neurology International
Jeroen G V Habets, Albert F G Leentjens, Olaf E M G Schijns
Levetiracetam may induce serious behavioral disturbances, especially after surgical resection of frontal lobe low-grade glioma. Two patients, treated with levetiracetam, developed serious psychiatric complications postoperatively which completely resolved after switching to valproate. We aim to create awareness for this serious but reversible adverse effect of levetiracetam in this specific patient category.
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Xin Wang, Jing Wang, Haikang Zhao, Nan Li, Shunnan Ge, Lei Chen, Jiaming Li, Jiangpeng Jing, Mingming Su, Zhaohui Zheng, Jinan Zhang, Guodong Gao, Xuelian Wang
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) may lead to permanent neurological disability of patients and has impeded the extensive clinical application of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The present study was conducted to discuss the incidence, prevention, and treatment of symptomatic ICH after DBS surgery. METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2014, 396 patients underwent DBS with a total of 691 implanted leads. In all, 10 patients had symptomatic ICH...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Camila V Ventura, Maria Paula Fernandez, Ivan A Gonzalez, Delia M Rivera-Hernandez, Roberto Lopez-Alberola, Maria Peinado, Angelica A Floren, Patricia A Rodriguez, Basil K Williams, Gabriela de la Vega Muns, Ana J Rodriguez, Catherin Negron, Brenda Fallas, Audina M Berrocal
A 6-day-old female baby with known diagnosis of congenital Zika infection was referred for ophthalmologic examination. The mother (37 years old) was referred for a pruritic rash, conjunctival hyperemia, and malaise at 12 weeks of gestation while still living in Venezuela. Upon arrival to Miami, Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure was confirmed during prenatal screening. At birth, due to the known exposure, a complete congenital ZIKV workup was performed, including brain ultrasound and MRI, which disclosed calcifications in the frontal lobe...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
María Díez-Cirarda, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, Maria Ángeles Gómez-Beldarrain, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). Forty-four PD patients were randomly divided into REHACOP group (cognitive rehabilitation) and a control group (occupational therapy)...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
J Willis Kiessling, Dean A Hertzler, David E M Drucker, Heather S Spader
BACKGROUND: This case report illustrates the need to evaluate the possibility of multiple arterial sources when presented with a frontal epidural hematoma associated with facial trauma. CASE DESCRIPTION: Our patient presented after being struck in the face by a baseball. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed a large frontal epidural hematoma. Intraoperatively, bleeding from a frontal branch of the middle meningeal artery was encountered and cauterized, and the hematoma was removed...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
E Mark Mahone, Deana Crocetti, Laura Tochen, Tina Kline, Stewart H Mostofsky, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Complex motor stereotypies in children are repetitive rhythmic movements that have a predictable pattern and location, seem purposeful, but serve no obvious function, tend to be prolonged, and stop with distraction, e.g., arm or hand flapping, waving. They occur in both "primary" (otherwise typically developing) and secondary conditions. These movements are best defined as habitual behaviors and therefore pathophysiologically hypothesized to reside in premotor to posterior putamen circuits...
September 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Egesta Lopci, Laura Olivari, Lorenzo Bello, Pierina Navarria, Arturo Chiti
We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA). Her medical history included brain surgery for small vascular lesions and suspicion of cerebral malignancy. C methionine PET (C-METH PET) demonstrated a diffusely increased uptake on the right hemisphere. Contrast-enhanced MRI documented a massive lesion with a diffuse "nidus" appearance, involving the right cerebral hemisphere (sparing the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior frontal lobe), the brainstem, and the middle cerebellar peduncle...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Robert P Walters, Patti Kelly Harrison, Ransom W Campbell, David W Harrison
Hostile men have reliably displayed an exaggerated sympathetic stress response across multiple experimental settings, with cardiovascular reactivity for blood pressure and heart rate concurrent with lateralized right frontal lobe stress (Trajanoski et al., in Diabetes Care 19(12):1412-1415, 1996; see Heilman et al., in J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38(1):69-72, 1975). The current experiment examined frontal lobe regulatory control of glucose in high and low hostile men with concurrent left frontal lobe (Control Oral Word Association Test [verbal]) or right frontal lobe (Ruff Figural Fluency Test [nonverbal]) stress...
February 1, 2016: Brain Informatics
Paul S Foster, Valeria Drago, Brad J Ferguson, Patti Kelly Harrison, David W Harrison
The most frequently used measures of executive functioning are either sensitive to left frontal lobe functioning or bilateral frontal functioning. Relatively little is known about right frontal lobe contributions to executive functioning given the paucity of measures sensitive to right frontal functioning. The present investigation reports the development and initial validation of a new measure designed to be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, the Figure Trail Making Test (FTMT). The FTMT, the classic Trial Making Test, and the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) were administered to 42 right-handed men...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Joe Bathelt, Duncan Astle, Jessica Barnes, F Lucy Raymond, Kate Baker
Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Antti J Luikku, Anette Hall, Ossi Nerg, Anne M Koivisto, Mikko Hiltunen, Seppo Helisalmi, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Anna Sutela, Maria Kojoukhova, Jussi Mattila, Jyrki Lötjönen, Jaana Rummukainen, Irina Alafuzoff, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Anne M Remes, Hilkka Soininen, Ville Leinonen
OBJECTIVES: Optimal selection of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients for shunt surgery is challenging. Disease State Index (DSI) is a statistical method that merges multimodal data to assist clinical decision-making. It has previously been shown to be useful in predicting progression in mild cognitive impairment and differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia. In this study, we use the DSI method to predict shunt surgery response for patients with iNPH...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Sung-Pil Joo, Seung-Hoon Jung, Sung-Hyun Kim, Tae-Sun Kim
BACKGROUND: Preservation of the superficial Sylvian veins (SSV) is essential to prevent neurological deficits during Sylvian dissection. We describe an appropriate surgical approach for unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms to preserve these veins by using indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA). METHODS: Between August 2014 and August 2015, we performed microsurgical clipping for 37 unruptured MCA aneurysms in 36 patients. We classified all the cases into 3 types according to the location between the Sylvian fissure and the SSV...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
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