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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352808/frontal-dysconnectivity-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-an-atlas-based-functional-connectivity-analysis
#1
Leah M Mattiaccio, Ioana L Coman, Carlie A Thompson, Wanda P Fremont, Kevin M Antshel, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: In this study, we performed a functional connectivity analysis using the CONN toolbox to test for differential connectivity patterns between 54 individuals with 22q11DS and 30 healthy controls, between the ages of 17-25 years old...
January 20, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352390/a-spatial-registration-toolbox-for-structural-mr-imaging-of-the-aging-brain
#2
Marco Ganzetti, Quanying Liu, Dante Mantini
During aging the brain undergoes a series of structural changes, in size, shape as well as tissue composition. In particular, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement are often present in the brain of elderly individuals. This poses serious challenges in the spatial registration of structural MR images. In this study, we addressed this open issue by proposing an enhanced framework for MR registration and segmentation. Our solution was compared with other approaches based on the tools available in SPM12, a widely used software package...
January 19, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352127/structural-covariance-of-gray-matter-volume-in-hiv-vertically-infected-adolescents
#3
Jielan Li, Lei Gao, Zhi Wen, Jing Zhang, Panying Wang, Ning Tu, Hao Lei, Fuchun Lin, Xi'en Gui, Guangyao Wu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection significantly affect neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes. We investigated whether alterations of gray matter organization and structural covariance networks with vertical HIV infection adolescents exist, by using the GAT toolbox. MRI data were analysed from 25 HIV vertically infected adolescents and 33 HIV-exposed-uninfected control participants. The gray matter volume (GMV) was calculated, and structural brain networks were reconstructed from gray matter co-variance...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351678/endoscopic-transcranial-duraplasty-for-rhinoliquorrhea-a-cadaveric-study
#4
Andrea Bartoli, Jean H Fasel, Karl Schaller, Max Jägersberg
BACKGROUND: Repair of the anterior skull base for cerebrospinal fluid leak requires either endoscopic endonasal approach or open transcranial approach. OBJECTIVE: To present a less invasive surgical procedure for sealing of the entire anterior fossa floor for traumatic rhinoliquorrhea. METHODS: Cadaver study in 3 head specimens. Endoscopic placement of a furled bovine pericardial patch bilaterally along the sphenoid ridge and planum in guidewire technique...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351559/characterisation-of-ictal-and-interictal-states-of-epilepsy-a-system-dynamic-approach-of-principal-dynamic-modes-analysis
#5
Zabit Hameed, Saqib Saleem, Jawad Mirza, Muhammad Salman Mustafa, Qamar-Ul-Islam
Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterised by the recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, called epileptic seizures. The present study attempts to derive new diagnostic indices which may delineate between ictal and interictal states of epilepsy. To achieve this, the nonlinear modeling approach of global principal dynamic modes (PDMs) is adopted to examine the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal lobes with the occipital brain segment using an ensemble of paediatric EEGs having the presence of epileptic seizure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351381/frontal-assessment-battery-fab-performance-following-traumatic-brain-injury-hospitalized-in-an-acute-care-setting
#6
Natalia Rojas, Maude Laguë-Beauvais, Arielle Belisle, Julie Lamoureux, Ghusn AlSideiri, Judith Marcoux, Mohammed Maleki, Abdulrahman Y Alturki, Sonia Anchouche, Hanan Alquraini, Mitra Feyz, Elaine de Guise
The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) has been shown to be useful in several clinical settings. The aim of the present study was to examine the performance of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the FAB and to predict their acute outcome. The FAB was administered to 89 patients with mild (27 = uncomplicated and 39 = complicated) and moderate (n = 23) TBI during hospitalization in an acute care setting. The length of stay in days (LOS), Glasgow Outcome Scale-Revised score (GOSE) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) score were collected...
January 19, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348321/lower-limbic-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-availability-in-alcohol-dependence
#7
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo L Crunelle, Bart de Laat, Jef Verbeek, Stephanie Deman, Hugo Neels, Guy Bormans, Hendrik Peuskens, Koen Van Laere
Animal studies suggest an important role for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, but direct human evidence is lacking. The goal of this study was to investigate cerebral mGlu5 availability in alcohol-dependent patients versus controls using 18F-FPEB positron emission tomography. Methods: Dynamic 90 minute 18F-FPEB scans combined with arterial blood sampling were acquired in 16 recently abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 32 age-matched controls...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343456/eeg-dynamics-and-neural-generators-in-implicit-navigational-image-processing-in-adults-with-adhd
#8
A Leroy, G Petit, D Zarka, A M Cebolla, E Palmero-Soler, J Strul, B Dan, P Verbanck, G Cheron
In contrast to childhood ADHD that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, most adults with ADHD predominantly exhibit inattention. We used a new oddball paradigm using implicit navigational images and analysed EEG dynamics with swLORETA inverse modelling of the evoked potential generators to study cortical processing in adults with ADHD and age-matched controls. In passive observation, we demonstrated that P350 amplitude, alpha-beta oscillation event-related synchronization (ERS) anticipation, and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) were significantly smaller in ADHD...
January 14, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339535/functional-changes-of-ampa-responses-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#9
Venkat Swaroop Achuta, Tommi Möykkynen, Ulla-Kaisa Peteri, Giorgio Turconi, Claudio Rivera, Kari Keinänen, Maija L Castrén
Altered neuronal network formation and function involving dysregulated excitatory and inhibitory circuits are associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined functional maturation of the excitatory transmission system in FXS by investigating the response of FXS patient-derived neural progenitor cells to the glutamate analog (AMPA). Neural progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines generated from boys with FXS had augmented intracellular Ca2+ responses to AMPA and kainate that were mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) lacking the GluA2 subunit...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337133/cathodal-tdcs-of-the-bilateral-anterior-temporal-lobes-facilitates-semantically-driven-verbal-fluency
#10
Richard J Binney, Bonnie M Zuckerman, Hilary N Waller, Jinyi Hung, Sameer A Ashaie, Jamie Reilly
In a verbal fluency task, a person is required to produce as many exemplars of a given category (e.g., 'animals', or words starting with 'f') as possible within a fixed duration. Successful verbal fluency performance relies both on the depth of search within semantic/phonological neighborhoods ('clustering') and the ability to flexibly disengage between exhausted clusters ('switching'). Convergent evidence from functional imaging and neuropsychology suggests that cluster-switch behaviors engage dissociable brain regions...
January 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336036/the-incidence-and-significance-of-periictal-apnea-in-epileptic-seizures
#11
Nuria Lacuey, Bilal Zonjy, Johnson P Hampson, M R Sandhya Rani, Anita Zaremba, Rup K Sainju, Brian K Gehlbach, Stephan Schuele, Daniel Friedman, Orrin Devinsky, Maromi Nei, Ronald M Harper, Luke Allen, Beate Diehl, John J Millichap, Lisa Bateman, Mark A Granner, Deidre N Dragon, George B Richerson, Samden D Lhatoo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate periictal central apnea as a seizure semiological feature, its localizing value, and possible relationship with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) pathomechanisms. METHODS: We prospectively studied polygraphic physiological responses, including inductance plethysmography, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), electrocardiography, and video electroencephalography (VEEG) in 473 patients in a multicenter study of SUDEP...
January 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335880/the-long-term-effect-of-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-given-to-preterm-infants-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-on-neurometabolites-in-early-childhood
#12
Charles Gasparovic, Arvind Caprihan, Ronald A Yeo, John Phillips, Jean R Lowe, Richard Campbell, Robin K Ohls
BACKGROUND: Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are neuroprotective in cell and animal models of preterm birth. Prematurity has been shown to alter neurometabolite levels in children in studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that ESA treatment in premature infants would tend to normalize neurometabolites by 4-6 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children in a longitudinal study of neurodevelopment underwent MRI and 1H-MRS at approximately 4 years and 6 years of age...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335082/-a-comparative-analysis-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-with-or-without-abnormal-findings-on-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Jian-Zhao Zhang, Qian Chen, Ping Zheng, Li-Na Xie, Xiao-Li Yi, Hai-Tao Ren, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis with normal or abnormal cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings via a comparative analysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The clinical features and prognosis were compared between the children with normal and abnormal cranial MRI findings. RESULTS: In the 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, the most common initial symptoms were seizures (61%) and involuntary movement (61%), followed by language disorder (54%), mental and behavioral abnormalities (52%), and disturbance of consciousness (30%)...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332467/is-hippocampal-avoidance-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-risky-for-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-hippocampal-metastasis-rate-and-associated-risk-factors
#14
Esra Korkmaz Kirakli, Ozgur Oztekin
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy is performed to prevent neural stem cell injury causing neurocognitive dysfunction. Nevertheless, the estimated risk of metastases in hippocampal avoidance area in small-cell lung cancer is unknown. The current study aimed to characterize the metastatic distribution within the brain relative to the hippocampus, estimate the incidence of hippocampal metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer, and identify clinical and radiographic variables that may be associated with the risk of hippocampal avoidance area metastasis...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332091/the-association-among-default-mode-network-functional-connectivity-mentalization-and-psychopathology-in-a-nonclinical-sample-an-eloreta-study
#15
Benedetto Farina, Giacomo Della Marca, Giulia Maestoso, Noemi Amoroso, Enrico Maria Valenti, Giuseppe Alessio Carbone, Chiara Massullo, Anna Contardi, Claudio Imperatori
AIMS: We investigated default mode network (DMN) electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity differences between individuals with self-reported high mentalization capability and low psychopathological symptoms, versus participants with mentalization impairments and high psychopathological symptoms. METHODS: Forty-nine students (35 women) with a mean age of 22.92 ± 2.53 years were administered the Mentalization Questionnaire (MZQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised...
January 13, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331317/resting-state-quantitative-eeg-characteristics-of-insomniac-patients-with-depression
#16
Yunna Kwan, Chorom Baek, Sunhye Chung, Tae Hui Kim, Sungwon Choi
Insomnia is known to show hyperarousal in the central nervous system. However, depression that often coexists with insomnia exhibits hypo-activity in the frontal lobe, which is very different from insomnia. In the present study, we examined wake resting state EEG of insomniac patients with depression to investigate whether they could be conceptualized as spectrum of insomnia or significantly different from insomnia. We compared the absolute power values of EEG spectra of three groups: 15 insomniacs with comorbid depression (CD), age- and sex-matched 15 comorbid-free insomniacs (CFI), and 15 good sleep controls (GSC)...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329742/frontal-activity-measured-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-patients-taking-different-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Soichi Kono, Itaru Miura, Sachie Oshima, Masayuki Hikita, Akira Wada, Rieko Suzuki, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Hirooki Yabe
Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) in the frontal lobe during a verbal fluency task in 20 patients with schizophrenia (10 patients each receiving olanzapine [OLZ] and risperidone [RIS]) and 10 healthy controls. We found that [oxy-Hb] levels in the prefrontal region were higher in the patients receiving OLZ than in those receiving RIS. These results suggest that antipsychotic drugs have different effects on cerebral hemodynamic patterns, which may reflect frontal lobe function...
December 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325982/multiple-cerebral-infarct-with-cerebral-vasculitis-in-a-young-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#18
Maeng Real Park, Mun Ki Min, Ji Ho Ryu, Dae Sub Lee, Kang Ho Lee
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and debilitating disorder, characterized by inflammation of the colonic mucosa. UC can be considered a systemic disorder but UC-related manifestations in the central nervous system (CNS) are quite rare. A 29-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with repeated generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) type seizures. Based on brain CT, brain metastasis or hemorrhagic infarct was suspected. Diffusion-weighted image of brain MRI showed high signal in the left thalamus and heterogenous enhancement in the right parietal and left frontal lobes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324911/psychological-consideration-in-patients-with-cerebral-gliomas-candidates-for-intra-operative-radiation-therapy-based-on-tumor-location
#19
Tohid Emami Meybodi, Masoumeh Najafi, Ali Keipourfard, Amir Nikouei, Afsoun Seddighi
OBJECTIVE: Intra-operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) is gaining popularity as an adjuvant option to surgical resection, in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for increasing survival rate, which a highly aggressive cerebral tumor with poor prognosis. Τhe authors plan to investigate the effects of IORT combined with surgical resection on the psychological status of these patients based on tumor location. SUBJECT AND METHODS: From December 2013 to February 2017, we have enrolled 109 patients with high grade cerebral gliomas, documented by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321655/evaluation-of-brain-activity-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#20
Tatsuo Fujiwara, Soichi Kono, Kyoko Katakura, Kazumichi Abe, Atsushi Takahashi, Naohiko Gunji, Aki Yokokawa, Kazumasa Kawashima, Rieko Suzuki, Akira Wada, Itaru Miura, Hirooki Yabe, Hiromasa Ohira
Depression is implicated as a risk factor for the recurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are useful tools for evaluation of brain activity and a depressive state, respectively. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between brain activity or depressive symptoms and IBD using NIRS and BDNF. This study included 36 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, 32 Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and 17 healthy controls (HC)...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
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