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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646469/the-cathinones-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-elicit-different-behavioral-and-molecular-effects-following-acute-exposure
#1
Giuseppe Giannotti, Isabella Canazza, Lucia Caffino, Sabrine Bilel, Andrea Ossato, Fabio Fumagalli, Matteo Marti
Since the mid-to-late 2000s, synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among drug users due to their psychostimulant effects greater than those produced by cocaine and amphetamine. Among them, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (α-PVP) are ones of the most popular cathinones available in the clandestine market as "bath salts" or "fertilizers." Pre-clinical studies indicate that MDPV and α-PVP induced psychomotor stimulation, affected thermoregulation, and promoted reinforcing properties in rodents...
June 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646252/childhood-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-of-the-structural-neuroimaging-literature
#2
REVIEW
Alyssa S Ailion, Kyle Hortman, Tricia Z King
Due to medical advances, a large portion of children survive brain tumor diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is important to identify the neuroanatomical and neurocognitive outcomes associated with survivorship. This review summarizes the specific regional structural neuroimaging findings, the broad structural findings, as well as the corresponding neurocognitive domains affected in brain tumor populations. Across studies, damage is commonly reported near the cerebellum, brain stem, and subcortical regions, as well as the frontal lobes...
June 23, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645961/cognitive-screening-and-behavioural-observation-of-functional-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#3
Eva Norlin Bagge, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of a neuropsychological screening instrument and two observation scales of everyday behaviour to describe cognitive and functional capacity of patients with multiepisode schizophrenia and considerable care needs, who frequently refuse to participate in cognitive testing or performance-based functional measurement. SETTING: One psychiatric unit specialised in severe mental illness at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645869/real-time-changes-in-brain-activity-during-sacral-neuromodulation-for-overactive-bladder
#4
Bradley C Gill, Javier Pizarro Berdichevsky, Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Thaddeus S Brink, Brian K Marks, Adrienne Quirouet, Sandip P Vasavada, Stephen E Jones, Howard B Goldman
PURPOSE: To use functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) for identifying changes in brain activity during sacral neuromodulation(SNM) in women with overactive bladder(OAB) who were responsive to therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with non-neurogenic refractory OAB who responded to SNM, had a stable program for at least 3 months, with no subsequent OAB treatment were recruited. Enrolled patients completed pre-fMRI validated symptom and quality of life instruments...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645025/decreased-functional-connectivity-and-disrupted-neural-network-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-affective-disorders-a-resting-state-fnirs-study
#5
Huilin Zhu, Jie Xu, Jiangxue Li, Hongjun Peng, Tingting Cai, Xinge Li, Shijing Wu, Wei Cao, Sailing He
BACKGROUND: Affective disorders (AD) have been conceptualized as neural network-level diseases. In this study, we utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the spontaneous hemodynamic activities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the AD patients with or without medications. METHODS: 42 optical channels were applied to cover the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which constitute one of the most important affective networks of the brain...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644203/invasive-investigation-of-insular-cortex-epilepsy
#6
Philippe Ryvlin, Fabienne Picard
Invasive long-term EEG investigations of the insula have been performed since the mid-nineties in an expanding range of focal epilepsies suspected to involve the insular cortex. The various clinical forms of insular epilepsies were delineated during the last 2 decades, and include the following presentations: perisylvian epilepsy, temporal plus epilepsy, sleep hypermotor epilepsy, MRI-negative frontal and parietal lobe epilepsies, and insular lesions. In fact, a majority of complex stereoelectroencephalography procedures will include at least one electrode targeting the insula...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642732/autonomic-function-impairment-and-brain-perfusion-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Wei-Che Lin, Pei-Chin Chen, Chih-Cheng Huang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Hung-Chen Wang, Kun-Hsien Chou, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Yi-Wen Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu
INTRODUCTION: Autonomic disorders have been recognized as important Parkinson's disease (PD) components. Some vulnerable structures are related to the central autonomic network and have also been linked to autonomic function alterations. The aims of the study are to evaluate the severity of the autonomic dysfunction and the cortical hypoperfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. And then, possible relationships of significant between-group differences in perfusion pattern to clinical variables and autonomic functions were examined to determine the pharmaceutical effects of dopaminergic treatment on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641497/a-neuropsychiatric-analysis-of-the-cotard-delusion
#8
Aradhana Sahoo, Keith A Josephs
Cotard's syndrome, a condition in which the patient denies his or her own existence or the existence of body parts, is a rare illness that has been reported in association with several neuropsychiatric diagnoses. The majority of published literature on the topic is in the form of case reports, many of which are several years old. The authors evaluated associated diagnoses, neuroimaging, and treatments recorded in patients diagnosed with Cotard's syndrome at their institution. A search of the Mayo Clinic database for patients with mention of signs and symptoms associated with Cotard's in their records between 1996 and 2016 was conducted...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638712/frontal-assessment-battery-and-frontal-atrophy-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Tatsuhiro Terada, Jun Miyata, Tomokazu Obi, Manabu Kubota, Miho Yoshizumi, Kinya Yamazaki, Kouichi Mizoguchi, Toshiya Murai
OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential utility of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) in assessing cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the association between the FAB score and regional gray matter volume, and ascertained whether the regional brain alterations related to cognitive impairments occur in relatively mild stage of ALS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four ALS patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of >23, a normal score on the Self-Rating Depression Scale, little or no disturbance in speech and handling utensils on the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS), and normal measures on respiratory tests (respiratory function test and arterial blood gas analysis), and two age-matched normal control groups (one for FAB assessment and the other for brain morphometry) underwent FAB testing and structural magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638200/brain-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-concentration-of-the-prefrontal-lobe-in-unmedicated-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-research-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#10
Zongfeng Zhang, Qing Fan, Yanle Bai, Zhen Wang, Haiyin Zhang, Zeping Xiao
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a large number of neuroimaging studies found that the Cortico-Striato- Thalamo-Cortical circuit (CSTC), including the prefrontal lobe, a significant part of CSTC, has disturbance metabolically in patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). AIM: Explore the correlation between the neuro-metabolic features and clinical characteristics of OCD patients using magnetic resonance spectroscopy technology. METHODS: 88 patients with OCD who were not received medication and outpatient treatment for 8 weeks and 76 health controls were enrolled, there was no significant difference in gender, age or education level between the two groups...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637403/experiences-with-99mtc-hmpao-in-a-diagnostic-pathway-for-violent-patients-with-schizophrenic-spectrum-disorders
#11
Morten Jacobsen, Arvid Jensen, Guttorm Breivik Storvestre, Tone Marie Bergstrom, Diyar Nori Mohamad Rashi, Nielssen Bjorn, Wiktor Pal, Hymer Knut-Erik
Background and objective In a security ward we assessed the diagnostic contribution of single photon scintigraphy [SPECT] in our diagnostic pathway for patients with serious mental disease and a history of violence. Methods Twenty patients were examined between 2012 and 2015 and the findings compared to those in nine patients with the same diagnosis, but no history of violence. Results All violent patients had areas with reduced accumulation of 99mTc-HMPAO frontally and in the temporal lobe, in the non-violent group only two patients demonstrated these findings...
June 21, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636697/role-of-positive-parenting-in-the-association-between-neighborhood-social-disadvantage-and-brain-development-across-adolescence
#12
Sarah Whittle, Nandita Vijayakumar, Julian G Simmons, Meg Dennison, Orli Schwartz, Christos Pantelis, Lisa Sheeber, Michelle L Byrne, Nicholas B Allen
Importance: The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. Objective: To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635875/-disturbances-of-gait-and-postural-stability-in-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#13
N N Vakhnina, V V Zakharov
Disturbances of gait and postural stability are characteristic of the chronic progressive vascular lesion of the brain observed in moderate to severe stages of cerebrovascular disease. Disconnections between the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum due to the damage of the white matter (vascular leukoencephalopathy) underlie disturbances of gait and postural stability (shorter stride length, wider gait). There are difficulties in starting with possible stoppings during the walking, waiting in front of small barriers as well as difficulties in concentration (e...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634343/falling-direction-can-predict-the-mechanism-of-recurrent-falls-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Jinyoung Youn, Yasuyuki Okuma, Minho Hwang, Dongyeop Kim, Jin Whan Cho
Falls are a common and disabling symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). For prevention, it is important to understand the pathophysiology of falls in PD patients, but the predictors for the possible mechanisms underlying such falls have not been clearly elucidated. In this prospective observational study, we investigated the implications of falling direction to predict the mechanisms of recurrent falls in PD patients. We enrolled 62 recurrent fallers with PD and divided them into two groups according to the main falling directions: 45 PD fallers who fell forward (forward fallers), and 17 PD fallers who fell in the other directions (non-forward fallers)...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634311/-bevacizumab-related-hyperintense-lesions-on-diffusion-weighted-imaging-at-different-locations-in-a-patient-with-malignant-glioma
#15
Shinya Oshiro, Naoki Wakuta, Shinichi Kawai, Koichi Miki, Yutaka Shigemori
We report the case of a 60-year-old man who first presented with transient difficulty of word recall. Subsequent MRI revealed an invasive brain tumor in the left frontal lobe. The patient underwent open biopsy, and diffuse astrocytoma(WHO grade II)was diagnosed. However, the malignant potential of this tumor was not particularly low because of a few enhancement on preoperative evaluation, and radiation therapy was initially performed. Four months after ending irradiation, temozolomide treatment was introduced for tumor regrowth...
June 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633369/fine-subdivisions-of-the-semantic-network-supporting-social-and-sensory-motor-semantic-processing
#16
Nan Lin, Xiaoying Wang, Yangwen Xu, Xiaosha Wang, Huimin Hua, Ying Zhao, Xingshan Li
Neuroimaging studies have consistently indicated that semantic processing involves a brain network consisting of multimodal cortical regions distributed in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. However, little is known about how semantic information is organized and processed within the network. Some recent studies have indicated that sensory-motor semantic information modulates the activation of this network. Other studies have indicated that this network responds more to social semantic information than to other information...
June 15, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633363/development-initial-testing-and-challenges-of-an-ecologically-valid-reward-prediction-error-fmri-task-for-alcoholism
#17
Anita Cservenka, Kelly E Courtney, Dara G Ghahremani, Kent E Hutchison, Lara A Ray
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632358/increased-beta-power-in-the-bereaved-families-of-the-sewol-ferry-disaster-a-paradoxical-compensatory-phenomenon-a-two-channel-electroencephalography-study
#18
Kuk-In Jang, Miseon Shim, Sang Min Lee, Hyu Jung Huh, Seung Huh, Ji-Young Joo, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jeong-Ho Chae
AIM: The Sewol ferry capsizing accident in South Korea's southern coast had resulted in the death of 304 people, and serious bereavement problems of their families. Electroencephalography (EEG) beta frequency is associated with psychiatric symptoms such as insomnia. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frontal beta power, psychological symptoms, and insomnia in the bereaved families. METHODS: Eighty-four family members of the Sewol ferry victims (32 men and 52 women) were recruited and their EEG was compared with that of 25 (13 men and 12 women) healthy controls...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631645/primary-leptomeningeal-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-a-difficult-entity-to-diagnose
#19
Jyothy Sehgal, Murthy Murali Krishna Jagarlapudi, Murthy V R K Tenneti, Syed Ameer Basha, Sundaram Challa
A 25-year-old male presented with difficulty in walking, loss of vision, and seizures. A clinical possibility of craniospinal meningeal pathology was considered. On computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging, there was an enhancement of leptomeninges with few ring-enhancing lesions in both frontal lobes and right frontoparietal region. He was evaluated for low backache and occipital headache 2½ years earlier and was found to have communicating hydrocephalus on CT scan. He underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt and was followed up with CT scans...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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