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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527986/the-temporal-and-spatial-brain-dynamics-of-automatic-emotion-regulation-in-children
#1
Charline Urbain, Julie Sato, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Mechanisms for automatic emotion regulation (AER) are essential during childhood as they offset the impact of unwanted or negative emotional responses without drawing on limited attentional resources. Despite the importance of AER in improving the efficiency and flexibility of self-regulation, few research studies have investigated the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. To fill this gap, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate AER-related brain processes in 25 children (∼10 years old) who performed a go/no-go task that included an incidental exposure to faces containing socio-emotional cues...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527091/raven-coloured-progressive-matrices-in-migraine-without-aura-patients
#2
Giovanna Viticchi, Lorenzo Falsetti, Marco Bartolini, Laura Buratti, Lara Pistelli, Leandro Provinciali, Mauro Silvestrini
Conflicting results emerged from studies investigating cognitive performances in migraine patients. Based on clinical and neuroradiological aspects, the possible involvement of executive functions has been especially taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a population of subjects affected by migraine without aura (MwoA), frontal lobe cognitive functions. We enrolled all the consecutive patients affected by MwoA referred to our headache centre for a first evaluation. Each patient underwent a neuropsychological evaluation including Raven coloured progressive matrices (CPM)...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523225/a-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-of-eye-movements-and-visual-word-reading
#3
Wei Zhou, Hua Shu
INTRODUCTION: The pattern of eye movements during reading is substantially correlated with linguistic factors. While there have been a large number of studies on the neural mechanisms of eye movements and word reading separately, a limited number of studies have compared the activation patterns of these two processes and discussed the associations of their corresponding brain regions within the framework of naturalistic reading. METHODS: This study conducted a meta-analysis of the existing functional magnetic resonance imaging literature on prosaccades and visual word reading using the activation likelihood estimation algorithm...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523217/relation-between-patterns-of-intrinsic-network-connectivity-cognitive-functioning-and-symptom-presentation-in-trauma-exposed-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B Hall, Paul A Frewen, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated resting fMRI connectivity within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive (CEN) networks in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity in trauma-exposed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Group independent component analysis was conducted among patients with MDD (n = 21), examining DMN, SN, and CEN connectivity in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522662/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-value-changes-and-clinical-correlation-in-90-cases-of-cytomegalovirus-infected-fetuses-with-unremarkable-fetal-mri-results
#5
D Kotovich, J S B Guedalia, C Hoffmann, G Sze, A Eisenkraft, G Yaniv
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus is the leading intrauterine infection. Fetal MR imaging is an accepted tool for fetal brain evaluation, yet it still lacks the ability to accurately predict the extent of the neurodevelopmental impairment, especially in fetal MR imaging scans with unremarkable findings. Our hypothesis was that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection causes diffusional changes in fetal brains and that those changes may correlate with the severity of neurodevelopmental deficiencies...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521971/comparison-of-early-sequential-hypothermia-and-delayed-hypothermia-on-neurological-function-after-resuscitation-in-a-swine-model
#6
Wei Yuan, Jun-Yuan Wu, Yong-Zhen Zhao, Jie Li, Jie-Bin Li, Zhen-Hua Li, Chun-Sheng Li
BACKGROUND: We utilized a porcine cardiac arrest model to compare early sequential hypothermia (ESH) with delayed hypothermia (DH) and no hypothermia (NH) to investigate the different effects on cerebral function after resuscitation. METHODS: After return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), resuscitated 24 pigs divided into three groups. The ESH group implemented early sequential hypothermia immediately, and the DH group implemented delayed hypothermia at 1 h after ROSC...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521451/dosimetric-comparison-of-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-and-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-plans-for-the-treatment-of-glioma-using-flattening-filter-free-and-flattening-filter-modes
#7
Dandan Xu, Fei Jia, Guowen Li, Hongfei Li
In the present study, the dose verification between 6X and 6X flattening filter-free (FFF) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of different radiotherapy plans were evaluated. All four plans achieved comparable heterogeneity and conformity indices. For frontal tumor, VMAT demonstrated more improved sparing of the brainstem compared with the IMRT (P=0.045); while in the model of FFF, the Dmax of eye lens was significantly reduced by 16-21% (P<0...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521241/cognitive-avoidance-and-aversive-cues-related-to-tobacco-in-male-smokers
#8
Ji Sun Hong, Sun Mi Kim, Hye Yeon Jung, Kyoung Doo Kang, Kyung Joon Min, Doug Hyun Han
BACKGROUND: Treatment using aversive conditioning has been suggested for smoking cessation. The efficacy of this method is thought to be associated with cognitive avoidance. We compare differences in avoidance traits and patterns of associated brain activation in response to cues that induce cravings versus aversion between smokers and non-smokers. METHODS: Fifteen smokers and fifteen non-smokers completed cue reactivity tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain responses to craving-inducing cues (Cr) and aversion-inducing cues (Av)...
May 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520803/multiple-modality-biomarker-prediction-of-cognitive-impairment-in-prospectively-followed-de-novo-parkinson-disease
#9
Chelsea Caspell-Garcia, Tanya Simuni, Duygu Tosun-Turgut, I-Wei Wu, Yu Zhang, Mike Nalls, Andrew Singleton, Leslie A Shaw, Ju-Hee Kang, John Q Trojanowski, Andrew Siderowf, Christopher Coffey, Shirley Lasch, Dag Aarsland, David Burn, Lana M Chahine, Alberto J Espay, Eric D Foster, Keith A Hawkins, Irene Litvan, Irene Richard, Daniel Weintraub
OBJECTIVES: To assess the neurobiological substrate of initial cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) to inform patient management, clinical trial design, and development of treatments. METHODS: We longitudinally assessed, up to 3 years, 423 newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic PD, untreated at baseline, from 33 international movement disorder centers. Study outcomes were four determinations of cognitive impairment or decline, and biomarker predictors were baseline dopamine transporter (DAT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; volume and thickness), diffusion tensor imaging (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; amyloid beta [Aβ], tau and alpha synuclein), and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PD cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520633/insular-cortex-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy
#10
Marec von Lehe, Yaroslav Parpaley
Focal epilepsy originating from the insular cortex is rare. One reason is the small amount of cortical tissue compared with other lobes of the brain. However, the incidence of insular epilepsy might be underestimated because of diagnostic difficulties. The semiology and the surface EEG are often not meaningful or even misleading, and elaborated imaging might be necessary. The close connections of the insular cortex with other potentially epileptogenic areas, such as the temporal lobe or frontal/central cortex, is increasingly recognized as possible reason for failure of epilepsy surgery for temporal or extratemporal seizures...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520631/operculo-insular-epilepsy-scalp-and-intracranial-electroencephalographic-findings
#11
Ariel Levy, Thi Phuoc Yen Tran, Olivier Boucher, Alain Bouthillier, Dang Khoa Nguyen
PURPOSE: Operculo-insular seizures are heterogeneous and may resemble seizures originating from the temporal, frontal, or parietal lobe. Although surface and invasive EEG recordings are often necessary to detect operculo-insular seizures, electrophysiological features of operculo-insular epilepsies remain poorly characterized. This study describes the EEG findings of patients with operculo-insular epilepsy. METHODS: We reviewed electrophysiological data of all patients (n = 9) with operculo-insular seizures revealed by intracranial EEG and for whom operculo-insular epilepsy was confirmed by good seizure outcome after resective or radiosurgery at our center between 2005 and 2013...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516077/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-in-patient-with-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#12
Sang-Bok Lee, Tae-Gyu Lee
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is an opportunistic infection found in immunocompromised patients and TE related cerebral mass lesion is often reported in acquired immunodeficiency acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, incidence of TE related AIDS in Korea is still rare and is unfamiliar to neurosurgeons. Differential diagnosis is needed to rule out other brain lesions. A 39-year-old man visited the emergency room with rapid progressive left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a ring-enhanced mass lesion in his right frontal lobe...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516076/primary-central-nervous-system-vasculitis-mimicking-a-cortical-brain-tumor-a-case-report
#13
Joo-Seok Lee, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Seul-Kee Kim
We report a case of primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) mimicking a cortical brain tumor. A 25-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of headache and transient right hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cortical-involving lesion on the left frontal lobe. The 6-cm sized lesion showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The lesion had continual linear enhancement on the subcortical white matter and leptomeninges...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515563/secondary-eating-disorder-a-reality-case-report-of-post-brain-injury-sequelae
#14
Aparna Das, Deeksha Elwadhi, Manushree Gupta
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to changes in eating behavior patterns. This report describes the case of a patient with alcohol dependence presenting with behavioral changes and eating disorder following frontal lobe trauma. A 42-year-old male, premorbidly well-adjusted presented with alcohol use in dependent pattern for years. He sustained a subdural hematoma in the frontal lobe following a road traffic accident 10 years back. Post-TBI, the patient, started having low frustration tolerance, aggressive outbursts, disinhibition, difficulty in persisting with tasks, apathy, amotivation, and craving for food with inability to control intake on the sight of food...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509077/relationships-between-cognitive-impairment-on-adas-cog-and-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-using-spect-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Michio Takahashi, Yasunori Oda, Toshiyuki Okubo, Yukihiko Shirayama
The aim of this study was to examine brain hypoperfusion and its relationship with cognitive dysfunction in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty patients with late-onset AD and not receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and brain perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography, and analyzed classified gyrus level segments with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and the stereotactic extraction estimation method level 3...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507595/differential-therapeutic-effects-of-atomoxetine-and-methylphenidate-in-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-measured-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#16
Yoko Nakanishi, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Naoko Kishimoto, Kosuke Okazaki, Toshifumi Kishimoto
BACKGROUND: The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and the nonstimulant atomoxetine (ATX) are the most commonly-prescribed pharmacological treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the drug-specific mechanism of action on brain function in ADHD patients is not well known. This study examined differences in prefrontal hemodynamic activity between MPH and ATX in children with ADHD as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using the Stroop color-word task...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506483/cortical-and-subcortical-functional-neuroanatomy-for-low-grade-glioma-surgery
#17
REVIEW
L Chenin, M Lefranc, S Velut, P Foulon, E Havet, J Peltier
Knowledge of the encephalon anatomy is crucial for neurosurgical practice, especially the main cortical functional structures and their connections. General organisation of the encephalon is presented with frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, limbic and insular lobes and their Brodmann correspondence. Secondly, subcortical anatomy will be presented with main white matter fasciculi in three separated categories: association, commissural and projection fibers. Main association fibers are inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503455/lesion-characteristics-of-chronic-dysphagia-in-patients-with-supratentorial-stroke
#18
Sol Jang, Hea Eun Yang, Hee Seung Yang, Dae Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between brain lesion location and type of chronic dysphagia in patients with supratentorial stroke. METHODS: Data from 82 chronic stroke patients who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing studies at >6 months after an initial stroke event were retrospectively analyzed. Delayed oral transit time, delayed pharyngeal transit time, and the presence of aspiration were extracted. A voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis was used to correlate types of dysphagia with specific brain lesions...
April 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503139/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-brain-rhythms-and-entropy-during-self-paced-finger-movement-using-the-epoc-helmet
#19
Florian C A A Bodranghien, Margot Langlois Mahe, Serge Clément, Mario U Manto
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the cerebellum is emerging as a novel non-invasive tool to modulate the activity of the cerebellar circuitry. In a single blinded study, we applied anodal tDCS (atDCS) of the cerebellum to assess its effects on brain entropy and brain rhythms during self-paced sequential finger movements in a group of healthy volunteers. Although wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) systems cannot compete with traditional clinical/laboratory set-ups in terms of accuracy and channel density, they have now reached a sufficient maturity to envision daily life applications...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503077/an-unusual-association-of-headache-epilepsy-and-late-onset-kleist-s-pseudodepression-syndrome-in-frontal-lobe-cavernoma-of-the-cerebral-left-hemisphere
#20
Domenico Chirchiglia, Attilio Della Torre, Domenico Murrone, Pasquale Chirchiglia, Rosa Marotta
Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
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