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H M M T B Herath, S P Pahalagamage, Sunethra Senanayake
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of osmotic demyelination syndrome is not completely understood and usually occurs with severe and prolonged hyponatremia, particularly with rapid correction. It can occur even in normonatremic patients, especially who have risk factors like alcoholism, malnutrition and liver disease. Bilateral tongue fasciculations with denervation pattern in electromyogram is a manifestation of damage to the hypoglossal nucleus or hypoglossal nerves. Tongue fasciculations were reported rarely in some cases of osmotic demyelination syndrome, but the exact mechanism is not explained...
March 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
William B Prince, Richard M Cantor
A 3-year-old girl was brought to the emergency department 4 days after she was playing with a button battery and subsequently had a choking episode. The patient was seen immediately at a different emergency department and was discharged home after a normal chest x-ray finding and able to tolerate an oral challenge with liquids. She was later evaluated by her primary care physician and started on amoxicillin for possible pharyngitis. On examination in our emergency department, the patient had pooling of secretions and was unwilling to range her neck due to pain...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
E Alonso-Rodriguez, E Gómez, M Martín, J-M Muñoz, J Hernández-Godoy, M Burgueño
BACKGROUND: Macroglossia causes functional deficits such as airway obstruction, drooling, phonation difficulties, and leads to protrusion of dentoalveolar structures resulting in an anterior open bite and a prognathic mandibular appearance. Macroglossia is present in the majority of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and surgical treatment may be indicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted including BWS patients who underwent surgical tongue reduction between 2000 and 2015 at the Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid...
February 24, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
Sialorrhea is a common distress associated with certain neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacological agents used for treating sialorrhea by network meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials comparing active drugs with either placebo or other active drugs. Total drooling scores was the primary outcome measure. Inverse variance heterogeneity model was used for both direct and mixed treatment comparison analysis. Twenty one studies were included in the systematic review and 15 in the meta-analysis...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Michaela E Johnson, Andrea Stringer, Larisa Bobrovskaya
While people are often aware of the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), few know of the many non-motor symptoms, which patients report have a greater impact on their quality of life. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor symptoms, which can occur at any stage of PD, even years prior to diagnosis, and can affect all sections along the GI tract causing a range of symptoms including drooling, gastroparesis and constipation. We have investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD- rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, is capable of reproducing the GI dysfunction seen clinically...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Mehmet Akif Cakmak, Hakan Cinal, Ensar Zafer Barin, Muhammed Sedat Sakat, Harun Karaduman, Onder Tan
Free flaps based on static slings principles cannot provide esthetic and functional outcomes at a desired level in total or close to total lip loss. Therefore, dynamic methods have become a current issue in recent years and especially the idea of functional gracilis free muscle flap has been suggested. In this study, we present a case of a successful total lower lip repair with this flap.In a 78-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma involving the entire lower lip, bilateral modified radical neck dissection and full-thickness total resection with 1 cm surgical margin so as to include both commissures of the tumor were performed and then a free gracilis muscle flap was transferred from the same side...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Jacqueline A Augustine, Kayla N Nunemacher, Kevin S Heffernan
INTRODUCTION: Aerobic exercise has a favorable effect on systemic vascular function, reducing both central (large elastic artery) and peripheral (smaller muscular artery) stiffness. The effects of resistance exercise (RE) on arterial stiffness are more complex. Acute RE increases central artery stiffness while decreasing peripheral stiffness. To date, the majority of studies have been performed in predominantly male participants. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of acute RE on central and peripheral arterial stiffnesses in women, a secondary purpose was to explore the influence of cyclic changes in estrogen status across the menstrual cycle on the arterial response to acute RE...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
K van Hulst, L van den Engel-Hoek, A C H Geurts, P H Jongerius, J J W van der Burg, T Feuth, F J A van den Hoogen, C E Erasmus
OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a parent questionnaire to quantify drooling severity and frequency in young children (the Drooling Infants and Preschoolers Scale - the DRIPS). To investigate development of saliva control in typically developing young children in the age of 0-4 years. To construct sex-specific reference charts presenting percentile curves for drooling plotted for age to monitor the development of saliva control in infancy and preschool age. STUDY DESIGN: The DRIPS was developed consisting of 20 items to identify severity and frequency of drooling during meaningful daily activities...
February 12, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Forsan Jahshan, Eyal Sela, Eli Layous, Einat Levy, Niddal Assadi, Etgar Shilo, Nour Ibrahim, Dor Maayan, Ohad Ronen
OBJECTIVES: To establish clinical criteria for performing computed tomography scan for suspected upper digestive tract fishbone. METHODS: This is a prospective study of all adult patients referred to the otolaryngology emergency department at our medical center for suspected fishbone in the upper digestive tract after no fishbone was seen on physical examination. The patients were divided into two groups: 1) The first was a high clinical suspicion group, which included patients with at least one of the following criteria: drooling, accumulation of saliva in the sinus piriformis, fever, referral 24 hours after the ingestion with worsening/continuing symptoms, and readmission...
February 15, 2018: Laryngoscope
V R Rekha, S Sunil, R Rathy
Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic, inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membrane, scalp and nails that frequently involves the oral mucosa. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or repair the resulting damage. It has been suggested that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of LP. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the role of oxidative parameters in the pathogenesis of oral LP, estimate the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and uric acid (UA) in saliva of oral LP patients and to compare the levels of SOD, MDA, GP and UA in oral LP patients with healthy controls...
September 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Domenico A Restivo, Mariangela Panebianco, Antonino Casabona, Sara Lanza, Rosario Marchese-Ragona, Francesco Patti, Stefano Masiero, Antonio Biondi, Angelo Quartarone
Background: Sialorrhoea and drooling are disabling manifestations of different neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) injection on hypersalivation in 90 patients with neurological diseases of different aetiologies, and to define the minimum number of injected salivary glands to reduce sialorrhoea. Determining the minimum number of glands that need to be engaged in order to have a significant reduction in drooling may be very useful for establishing the minimum total dosage of BoNT/A that may be considered effective in the treatment of hypersalivation...
January 27, 2018: Toxins
Sung-Jun Kim, Geun-Young Park, Yong-Min Choi, Dong-Gyun Sohn, Sae-Rom Kang, Sun Im
In the elderly, myasthenia gravis (MG) can present with bulbar symptoms, which can be clinically difficult to diagnose from other neurological comorbid conditions. We describe a case of a 75-year-old man who had been previously diagnosed with dysphagia associated with medullary infarction but exhibited aggravation of the dysphagia later on due to a superimposed development of bulbar MG. After recovering from his initial swallowing difficulties, the patient suddenly developed ptosis, drooling, and generalized weakness with aggravated dysphagia...
December 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Mwlod Ghareeb, Reginald Y Gohh, Fatemeh Akhlaghi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the association between tacrolimus concentration in oral fluids and in whole blood and to investigate the various factors that influence this relationship. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-six adult kidney transplant recipients were included in the study. Study A (ten patients) included the collection of several paired oral fluid samples by passive drool over a 12-h post-dose period. Study B (36 patients) included the collection of oral fluids pre-dose and at 2 h after the tacrolimus dose under three conditions: un-stimulated, after stimulation with a tart candy, and after mouth rinsing...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
C J Mao, Y T Xiong, F Wang, Y P Yang, W Yuan, C Zhu, J Chen, C F Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between motor subtypes and drooling, and other risk factors associated with drooling in a large cohort of Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: A total of 586 PD patients were enrolled in this study. Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn & Yahr stage (H & Y stage) scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-24 item (HRSD), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were applied to all subjects...
January 9, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Rana Alouda, Maram Alshehri, Shoog Alnaghmoosh, Maryam Shafique, May Wathiq Al-Khudhairy
Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of this study were to determine if an association exists between mothers work status and her children's incidence of bruxism and habits related to bruxism. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through data collection of a questionnaire answered by 561 mothers' about their working status and their child's habits and behaviors. The survey consisted of 5 parts with a total of 34 questions: mother's information, child's behavior, child's sleeping pattern, mother's knowledge about bruxism, and child's medical history...
November 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Haifa Al Hashmi, Mawlood Kowash, Amar Hassan, Manal Al Halabi
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Materials and Methods: Eighty-four CP and 125 healthy children were recruited from special needs centers and private/public schools in Dubai. A dental examination for decayed-missing-filled teeth in primary dentition (dmft)/Decayed-Missing-Filled teeth in permanent dentition (DMFT) indices, simplified oral hygiene index, calculus index (CI), and oral debris index was conducted...
November 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Silvia Marinone, Wanda Gaynor, James Johnston, Murali Mahadevan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of Castillo Morales Appliance Therapy (CMAT) in reducing the severity and frequency of problematic drooling in children. METHODS: A de-identified extraction of all hospital morbidity records belonging to patients with drooling who underwent treatment with CMAT was performed between June 22, 2000 and April 12, 2016. Data were obtained from Starship Children's Hospital clinical records department. Demographic, diagnostic, and procedural data were included...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Roeltje R Maas, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Sema Kalkan Ucar, Bader Alhaddad, Moeenaldeen AlSayed, Mohammed A Al-Owain, Hamad I Al-Zaidan, Shanti Balasubramaniam, Ivo Barić, Dalal K Bubshait, Alberto Burlina, John Christodoulou, Wendy K Chung, Roberto Colombo, Niklas Darin, Peter Freisinger, Maria Teresa Garcia Silva, Stephanie Grunewald, Tobias B Haack, Peter M van Hasselt, Omar Hikmat, Friederike Hörster, Pirjo Isohanni, Khushnooda Ramzan, Reka Kovacs-Nagy, Zita Krumina, Elena Martin-Hernandez, Johannes A Mayr, Patricia McClean, Linda De Meirleir, Karin Naess, Lock H Ngu, Magdalena Pajdowska, Shamima Rahman, Gillian Riordan, Lisa Riley, Benjamin Roeben, Frank Rutsch, Rene Santer, Manuel Schiff, Martine Seders, Silvia Sequeira, Wolfgang Sperl, Christian Staufner, Matthis Synofzik, Robert W Taylor, Joanna Trubicka, Konstantinos Tsiakas, Ozlem Unal, Evangeline Wassmer, Yehani Wedatilake, Toni Wolff, Holger Prokisch, Eva Morava, Ewa Pronicka, Ron A Wevers, Arjan P de Brouwer, Saskia B Wortmann
OBJECTIVE: 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria, dystonia-deafness, hepatopathy, encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome (MEGDHEL) syndrome is caused by biallelic variants in SERAC1. METHODS: This multicenter study addressed the course of disease for each organ system. Metabolic, neuroradiological, and genetic findings are reported. RESULTS: Sixty-seven individuals (39 previously unreported) from 59 families were included (age range = 5 days-33.4 years, median age = 9 years)...
December 2017: Annals of Neurology
Jeremy R Parr, Emma Todhunter, Lindsay Pennington, Deborah Stocken, Jill Cadwgan, Anne E O'Hare, Catherine Tuffrey, Jane Williams, Mike Cole, Allan F Colver
OBJECTIVE: Investigate whether hyoscine patch or glycopyrronium liquid is more effective and acceptable to treat drooling in children with neurodisability. DESIGN: Multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Recruitment through neurodisability teams; treatment by parents. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety children with neurodisability who had never received medication for drooling (55 boys, 35 girls; median age 4 years)...
November 30, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Iran Mendonça da Silva, Jorge Contreras Bernal, Pedro Ferreira Gonçalves Bisneto, Antônio Magela Tavares, Valéria Mourão de Moura, Claudio S Monteiro-Junior, Rima Raad, Paulo Sergio Bernarde, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Micrurus snakes, commonly known as coral snakes, are responsible for 0.4% of the snakebites envenomings in Brazil. In this report, we describe a case of envenoming by Micrurus averyi, the black-headed coral snake, recorded in the western Brazilian Amazon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case perpetrated by this species. The major complaint of the patient was an intense local pain and paresthesia. Examination of the bite site revealed edema extending from the left foot up the left leg that was accompanied by erythema involving the foot and distal third of the leg...
January 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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