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frontal lobe dysfunction

Joan Yw Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Beate Diehl, Antonietta Coppola, Aliya Al-Hajri, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Salim Al Mughairy, Mohamed Tachrount, Michael Groves, Zuzanna Michalak, Kevin Mills, Andrew W McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
OBJECTIVE: This study reports on a novel brain pathology in young patients with Frontal Lobe Epilepsy that is distinct from Focal Cortical Dysplasia. METHODS: Surgical specimens from twenty young adults with frontal lobe epilepsy (mean age, 30 years) were investigated with histological/immunohistochemical markers for cortical laminar architecture, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation and inhibition, cellular autophagy, and synaptic vesicle-mediated trafficking as well as proteomics analysis...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Hsing-Hua Tsai, Chin-Pu Lin, Yi-Hui Lin, Chih-Chin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang
PURPOSE: Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition. METHODS: Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20)...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Xin Wang, Jing Wang, Haikang Zhao, Nan Li, Shunnan Ge, Lei Chen, Jiaming Li, Jiangpeng Jing, Mingming Su, Zhaohui Zheng, Jinan Zhang, Guodong Gao, Xuelian Wang
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) may lead to permanent neurological disability of patients and has impeded the extensive clinical application of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The present study was conducted to discuss the incidence, prevention, and treatment of symptomatic ICH after DBS surgery. METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2014, 396 patients underwent DBS with a total of 691 implanted leads. In all, 10 patients had symptomatic ICH...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Zhenghua Hou, Yuxiu Sui, Xiaopeng Song, Yonggui Yuan
The intuitive association between cognitive impairment and aberrant functional activity in the brain network has prompted interest in exploring the role of functional connectivity in late-onset depression (LOD). The relationship of altered voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and cognitive dysfunction in LOD is not yet well understood. This study was designed to examine the implicit relationship between the disruption of interhemispheric functional coordination and cognitive impairment in LOD. LOD patients (N = 31) and matched healthy controls (HCs; N = 37) underwent neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Minglong Liang, Xuntao Yin, Ping Wei, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Takayuki Komatsu, Tomohisa Nomura, Hiroki Takami, So Sakamoto, Keiko Mizuno, Hajime Sekii, Kotaro Hatta, Manabu Sugita
A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas...
2016: Internal Medicine
Haijun Li, Lan Li, Yi Shao, Honghan Gong, Wei Zhang, Xianjun Zeng, Chenglong Ye, Si Nie, Liting Chen, Dechang Peng
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. METHODS: Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
Knut A Hestad, Siri Weider, Kristian Bernhard Nilsen, Marit Sæbø Indredavik, Trond Sand
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in μV...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Junhui Chen, Lei Chen, Chunlei Zhang, Jianqing He, Peipei Li, Jingxu Zhou, Jun Zhu, Yuhai Wang
Angiographically occult cerebrovascular malformation (AOVM) is a type of complex cerebrovascular malformation that is not visible on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Vascular malformation coexisting with glioma is clinically rare, and glioma coexisting with AOVM is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report glioma coexisting with AOVM in the literature. The present study reports a rare case of glioma coexisting with AOVM in a 30-year-old male patient. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed calcification, hemorrhage and edema in the right frontal lobe...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Dazhi Cheng, Xiuxian Yan, Zhijie Gao, Keming Xu, Xinlin Zhou, Qian Chen
Although neuropsychological studies have demonstrated specific cognitive impairments in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the potential role of the frontal lobe in these cognitive deficits remains unclear. We therefore evaluated cognitive functions related to and unrelated to the functionality of the frontal lobe in childhood absence epilepsy patients and control subjects. Thirty-seven childhood absence epilepsy patients and 37 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were recruited and assessed using a computerized neuropsychological test battery...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Santiago Hem, Romina Albite, Monica Loresi, Jorge Rasmussen, Pablo Ajler, Claudio Yampolsky, Joseph D Chabot, Peter C Gerszten, Ezequiel Goldschmidt
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a known complication after intracranial surgery. Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in animal models. METHODS: In order to assess hippocampal changes after brain surgery, a frontal lobe corticectomy was performed in ten adult Wistar rats (group 4). Three different control groups (n = 10 each) included no treatment (G1), general anesthesia alone (G2), and craniectomy without dural opening (G3)...
November 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Alessandro Grecucci, Danilo Rubicondo, Roma Siugzdaite, Luca Surian, Remo Job
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their gray-matter concentrations...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yuka Kato, Kenichi Meguro, Masahiro Nakatsuka, Kei Nakamura, Masahiro Tsuboi, Satoshi Yamaguchi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing "judgment" : the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Angelina Paolozza, Sarah Treit, Christian Beaulieu, James N Reynolds
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause central nervous system dysfunction and widespread structural anomalies as detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study focused on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of white matter in a large sample of PAE participants that allowed us to examine correlations with behavioral outcomes. Participants were confirmed PAE (n = 69, mean age = 12.5 ± 3.2 years) or typically developing control children (n = 67, mean age = 12.1 ± 3.2 years) who underwent brain MRI, eye movement tasks, and psychometric tests...
September 13, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Samuele Cortese, F Xavier Castellanos, Claudia R Eickhoff, Giulia D'Acunto, Gabriele Masi, Peter T Fox, Angela R Laird, Simon B Eickhoff
BACKGROUND: Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed various ADHD-related dysfunctional brain regions, with heterogeneous findings across studies. Here, we used novel meta-analytic data-driven approaches to characterize the function and connectivity profile of ADHD-related dysfunctional regions consistently detected across studies. METHODS: We first conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 24 task-based fMRI studies in adults with ADHD...
June 24, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Karl-Anton Dorph-Petersen, David A Lewis
In this review, we seek to answer the following question: Do findings in the current literature support the idea that thalamo-cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia is due to structural abnormalities in the thalamus? We base our review on the existing literature of design-unbiased stereological studies of the postmortem thalamus from subjects with schizophrenia. Thus, all reported results are based upon the use of unbiased principles of sampling to determine volume and/or total cell numbers of thalamus or its constituent nuclei...
August 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
YuBao Jiang, YiMing Zhu, JiaoNan Wu, Nong Zhou, PanPan Hu, Kai Wang
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to investigate morality while also investigating frontal lobe function with the goal of studying the relationship between frontal lobe and morality in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. METHOD: A total of 23 right-handed patients with IGE and 25 right-handed healthy participants agreed to participate. Participants made judgments on a series of 50 hypothetical scenarios, which were adapted from a previously published set...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Erika Roddy, Katherine Sear, Erin Felton, Benita Tamrazi, Karen Gauvain, Joseph Torkildson, Benedict Del Buono, David Samuel, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Josephine Chen, Robert E Goldsby, Anuradha Banerjee, Janine M Lupo, Annette M Molinaro, Heather J Fullerton, Sabine Mueller
BACKGROUND: A specific form of small-vessel vasculopathy-cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)-has been linked to various types of dementia in adults. We assessed the incidence of CMBs and their association with neurocognitive function in pediatric brain tumor survivors. METHODS: In a multi-institutional cohort of 149 pediatric brain tumor patients who received cranial radiation therapy (CRT) between 1987 and 2014 at age <21 years and 16 patients who did not receive CRT, we determined the presence of CMBs on brain MRIs...
November 2016: Neuro-oncology
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