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frontal lobe dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811256/cognitive-estimation-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-and-posterior-lesions
#1
Lisa Cipolotti, Sarah E MacPherson, Sara Gharooni, Natasja van-Harskamp, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Parashkev Nachev
The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is a widely used test to investigate estimation abilities requiring complex processes such as reasoning, the development and application of appropriate strategies, response plausibility checking as well as general knowledge and numeracy (e.g., Shallice and Evans, 1978; MacPherson et al., 2014). Thus far, it remains unknown whether the CET is both sensitive and specific to frontal lobe dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques may not represent a useful methodology for answering this question since the complex processes involved are likely to be associated with a large network of brain regions, some of which are not functionally necessary to successfully carry out the CET...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776906/association-of-subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis-with-immediate-memory-and-other-cognitive-functions
#2
Lumine Matsumoto, Kazushi Suzuki, Yoshiko Mizuno, Yumiko Ohike, Atsuko Ozeki, Satoshi Ono, Mikio Takanashi, Daigo Sawaki, Toru Suzuki, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Shoji Tsuji, Atsushi Iwata
AIM: To clarify whether carotid atherosclerosis and its risk factors are associated with cognitive decline. METHODS: We evaluated 206 individuals who visited our center for health screening. We carried out physical examinations, blood tests, intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement by carotid ultrasonography, brain magnetic resonance imaging scanning and cognitive function assessments. A total of 30 individuals, who had significant cerebrovascular lesions detected in magnetic resonance imaging scans, were excluded...
August 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766701/rationale-for-an-adjunctive-therapy-with-fenofibrate-in-pharmacoresistant-nocturnal-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Monica Puligheddu, Miriam Melis, Giuliano Pillolla, Giulia Milioli, Liborio Parrino, Giovanni Mario Terzano, Sonia Aroni, Claudia Sagheddu, Francesco Marrosu, Marco Pistis, Anna Lisa Muntoni
OBJECTIVE: Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an idiopathic partial epilepsy with a family history in about 25% of cases, with autosomal dominant inheritance (autosomal dominant NFLE [ADNFLE]). Traditional antiepileptic drugs are effective in about 55% of patients, whereas the rest remains refractory. One of the key pathogenetic mechanisms is a gain of function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the mutated α4 or β2 subunits. Fenofibrate, a common lipid-regulating drug, is an agonist at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) that is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which negatively modulates the function of β2-containing nAChR...
August 2, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742631/vestibular-function-in-adults-with-epilepsy-of-unknown-etiology
#4
Sherifa A Hamed, Amal M Tohamy, Amira M Oseilly
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate vestibular function in adults with chronic epilepsy of unknown etiology in the inter-ictal period. BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a chronic medical disorder. Life-long therapy may be required in one-third of patients. Epilepsy is associated with comorbid somatic conditions which impairs patients' quality of life. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 28 with generalized tonic clonic (GTC) convulsions and 14 and 3 with temporal (TLE) and frontal lobe (FLE) epilepsies with secondary generalization (all were on regular carbamazepine therapy) and 40 healthy control subjects...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740088/functional-correlates-of-tsh-ft3-and-ft4-in-alzheimer-disease-a-f-18-fdg-pet-ct-study
#5
Agostino Chiaravalloti, Francesco Ursini, Alessandro Fiorentini, Gaetano Barbagallo, Alessandro Martorana, Giacomo Koch, Mario Tavolozza, Orazio Schillaci
The present study was aimed to investigate the relationships between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), freeT3 (fT3) and freeT4 (fT4) and brain glucose consumption as detectable by means of 2-deoxy-2-(F-18) fluoro-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in a selected population with Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated 87 subjects (37 males and 50 females, mean age 70 (±6) years old) with AD. All of them were subjected to TSH, fT3 and fT4 assay and to cerebrospinal fluid amyloid (Aβ1-42) and tau [phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) and total-tau (t-tau)] assay prior PET/CT examination...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736888/alterations-in-cortical-thickness-in-nonmedicated-premature-ejaculation-patients-a-morphometric-mri-study
#6
Fan Guo, Yi-Bin Xi, Ming Gao, Lin Liu, Ning-Bo Fei, Wei Qin, Chen Li, Long-Biao Cui, Fei Yan, Lei Yu, Jian-Lin Yuan, Hong Yin
PURPOSE: Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure related to PE. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of nonmedicated PE patients in terms of brain morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted with 32 medication-naïve adult men with clinical diagnosed PE and matched 31 healthy controls. All participants received diagnostic interviews and 3...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724204/gait-and-balance-impairment-after-acute-methanol-poisoning
#7
Kamila Peterová, Hana Brožová, Jiří Klempíř, Irena Lišková, Ondřej Bezdíček, Petr Ridzoň, Manuela Vaněčková, Sergej Zakharov, Daniela Pelclová, Michal Miovský, Evžen Růžička
Neurological sequelae including gait impairment were reported in survivors after methanol intoxication; however, no systematic study has been published so far. We aimed to analyse gait and balance impairment in a group of Czech methanol poisoning survivors. We examined 43 patients (age 46±13 years) 2-8 months after methanol poisoning and 43 healthy controls. Investigations contained a shortened version of Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), clinical tests of gait and balance including Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and gait analysis using GaitRite(®) system, neurological and neuropsychological examination, brain imaging, EMG and tests of alcohol consumption...
July 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716165/frontal-assessment-battery-in-parkinson-s-disease-validity-and-morphological-correlates
#8
Ondrej Bezdicek, Filip Růžička, Adela Fendrych Mazancova, Jan Roth, Pavel Dušek, Karsten Mueller, Evžen Růžička, Robert Jech
OBJECTIVES: Executive dysfunction is a common feature in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is a lack of brief validated instruments for executive dysfunction in PD. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) scores to age and education, to verify the utility of FAB in the evaluation of executive dysfunction in PD and to differentiate between controls (n=41), PD patients with normal cognition (PD-NC; n=41; Hoehn and Yahr stages 2-3) and PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n=32; Hoehn and Yahr stages 2-3)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702354/white-matter-integrity-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-relationship-with-intelligence-quotient-and-executive-function
#9
Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Kerstin Pannek, Júlia Ballester-Plané, Lee B Reid, Élida Vázquez, Ignacio Delgado, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Carme Junqué, Roslyn Boyd, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most disabling motor types of CP and has been classically associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalamus. Although cognitive dysfunction is common in CP, there is a paucity of published quantitative analyses investigating the relationship between white matter (WM) microstructure and cognition in this CP type. AIMS: This study aims (1) to compare brain WM microstructure between people with dyskinetic CP and healthy controls, (2) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to intelligence and (3) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to executive function in people with dyskinetic CP and (4) to identify brain regions where the correlations are different between controls and people with CP in IQ and executive functions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693073/-resting-state-fmri-study-of-emotional-network-in-patients-with-postconcussion-syndrome
#10
X Zhang, R B Qian, X M Fu, B Lin, D Zhang, C S Xia, X P Wei, C S Niu, Y H Wang
Objective: To discuss functional connectivity changes in the emotional network of patients with post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and their clinical significance by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: Twenty-seven patients with PCS were recruited from the Department of Neurosurgery of Anhui provincial hospital affiliated to Anhui medical university from October 2015 to April 2016, and 27 healthy subjects were recruited as the controls. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were used to evaluate the emotional state of two groups of subjects...
July 4, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645961/cognitive-screening-and-behavioural-observation-of-functional-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#11
Eva Norlin Bagge, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of a neuropsychological screening instrument and two observation scales of everyday behaviour to describe cognitive and functional capacity of patients with multiepisode schizophrenia and considerable care needs, who frequently refuse to participate in cognitive testing or performance-based functional measurement. SETTING: One psychiatric unit specialised in severe mental illness at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642732/autonomic-function-impairment-and-brain-perfusion-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Wei-Che Lin, Pei-Chin Chen, Chih-Cheng Huang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Hung-Chen Wang, Kun-Hsien Chou, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Yi-Wen Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu
INTRODUCTION: Autonomic disorders have been recognized as important Parkinson's disease (PD) components. Some vulnerable structures are related to the central autonomic network and have also been linked to autonomic function alterations. The aims of the study are to evaluate the severity of the autonomic dysfunction and the cortical hypoperfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. And then, possible relationships of significant between-group differences in perfusion pattern to clinical variables and autonomic functions were examined to determine the pharmaceutical effects of dopaminergic treatment on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638712/frontal-assessment-battery-and-frontal-atrophy-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Tatsuhiro Terada, Jun Miyata, Tomokazu Obi, Manabu Kubota, Miho Yoshizumi, Kinya Yamazaki, Kouichi Mizoguchi, Toshiya Murai
OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential utility of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) in assessing cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the association between the FAB score and regional gray matter volume, and ascertained whether the regional brain alterations related to cognitive impairments occur in relatively mild stage of ALS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four ALS patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of >23, a normal score on the Self-Rating Depression Scale, little or no disturbance in speech and handling utensils on the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS), and normal measures on respiratory tests (respiratory function test and arterial blood gas analysis), and two age-matched normal control groups (one for FAB assessment and the other for brain morphometry) underwent FAB testing and structural magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635875/-disturbances-of-gait-and-postural-stability-in-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#14
N N Vakhnina, V V Zakharov
Disturbances of gait and postural stability are characteristic of the chronic progressive vascular lesion of the brain observed in moderate to severe stages of cerebrovascular disease. Disconnections between the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum due to the damage of the white matter (vascular leukoencephalopathy) underlie disturbances of gait and postural stability (shorter stride length, wider gait). There are difficulties in starting with possible stoppings during the walking, waiting in front of small barriers as well as difficulties in concentration (e...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611694/acute-frontal-lobe-dysfunction-following-prefrontal-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#16
Guilhem Carle, Mehdi Touat, Nicolas Bruno, Damien Galanaud, Charles-Siegfried Peretti, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Richard Levy, Carole Azuar
The potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders has been thoroughly studied for the last two decades. Here, we report for the first time, the case of a 65-year-old woman suffering from treatment-resistant depression who developed an acute frontal lobe syndrome following eight sessions of low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while also treated with sertraline and mianserin. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such an unexpected acute frontal lobe dysfunction are discussed in relation to the therapeutic use of LF-rTMS in combination with pharmacotherapy in depressed patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579383/clinical-and-biological-phenotypes-of-frontotemporal-dementia-perspectives-for-disease-modifying-therapies
#17
S Gazzina, M A Manes, A Padovani, B Borroni
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition which encompasses a group of clinically, neuropathologically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by selective involvement of the frontal and temporal lobes. FTD is characterized by changes in behaviour and personality, frontal executive deficits and language dysfunction. Different phenotypes have been defined on the basis of presenting clinical symptoms, behavioural variants of FTD (bvFTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA), which includes nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (avPPA) and semantic variant PPA (svPPA)...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576546/d2-d3-dopamine-receptor-binding-with-f-18-fallypride-correlates-of-executive-function-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Nora S Vyas, Monte S Buchsbaum, Douglas S Lehrer, Brian M Merrill, Alex DeCastro, Nicholas A Doninger, Bradley T Christian, Jogeshwar Mukherjee
Converging evidence indicates that the prefrontal cortex is critically involved in executive control and that executive dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential has been reported in schizophrenia, and the correlations with neuropsychological test scores have been positive and negative for different tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between dopamine D2/D3 receptor levels with frontal and temporal neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575506/limbic-interference-during-social-action-planning-in-schizophrenia
#19
Katharina Stegmayer, Stephan Bohlhalter, Tim Vanbellingen, Andrea Federspiel, Roland Wiest, René M Müri, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
Schizophrenia is characterized by social interaction deficits contributing to poor functional outcome. Hand gesture use is particularly impaired, linked to frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal grey matter deficits. The functional neural correlates of impaired gesturing are currently unclear. We therefore investigated aberrant brain activity during impaired gesturing in schizophrenia. We included 22 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, and education level. We obtained functional magnetic resonance imaging data using an event-related paradigm to assess brain activation during gesture planning and execution...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567171/a-functional-mri-based-model-for-individual-memory-assessment-in-patients-eligible-for-anterior-temporal-lobe-resection
#20
Maria Strandberg, Peter Mannfolk, Lars Stenberg, Hanna Ljung, Ia Rorsman, Elna-Marie Larsson, Danielle van Westen, Kristina Källén
TITLE: A functional (f) MRI-based model for individual memory assessment in patients eligible for temporal lobe resection. AIM: To investigate if pre-operative fMRI memory paradigms, add predictive information with regard to post-surgical memory deficits. METHODS: Fourteen pharmacoresistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) patients accepted for Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection (ATLR) were included. A clinical risk assessment score (RAS 0-3) was constructed from structural MRI, neuropsychological testing and hemisphere dominance...
2017: Open Neuroimaging Journal
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