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frontal lobe dysfunction

Sungkean Kim, Ji Sun Kim, Min Jin Jin, Chang-Hwan Im, Seung-Hwan Lee
Background: Individuals who experience childhood trauma are vulnerable to various psychological and behavioral problems throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to investigate whether individuals with childhood trauma show altered frontal lobe activity during response inhibition tasks. Methods: In total, 157 healthy individuals were recruited and instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography recording. Source activities of N2 and P3 of Nogo event-related potentials (ERP) were analyzed...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yasutaka Kobayashi
A 67-year-old woman was hospitalized for rehabilitation from the after effects of a traumatic brain injury. In addition to memory impairment, attention disorder, and executive dysfunction, she experienced musical hallucinations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebral contusion in the bilateral temporal lobes and the left frontal lobe. Case reports of musical hallucinations caused by traumatic brain injury are extremely rare.
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Daniel Coluccia, Tabitha Roth, Serge Marbacher, Javier Fandino
BACKGROUND: Resection of left hemispheric tumors (LH) is often complicated by the risks of causing language dysfunction. Although neurosurgeons' concerns when operating on the presumed dominant hemisphere are well known, literature evaluating laterality as a predictive surgical parameter in glioblastoma (GB) patients is sparse. We evaluated whether tumor laterality correlated with surgical performance, functional outcome, and survival. METHODS: All GB patients treated at our institution between 2006 and 2016 were reviewed...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Danilo S Silva, Wagner M Avelar, Brunno M de Campos, Ana Paula B L Lino, Márcio L F Balthazar, Marcio J O Figueiredo, Fernando Cendes, Ana Carolina Coan
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a widely accepted risk for causing stroke. However, recent studies show AF as a risk factor for dementia, even without causing stroke. The mechanisms by which dementia develops in stroke-free patients with AF are still poorly understood and the association of AF with abnormal function of brain networks activities, such as the default mode network (DMN), has not been previously studied. We aimed to determine whether, in the absence of stroke and dementia, patients with AF have abnormal resting-state brain networks compared to controls without AF...
March 2, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Laura Prieto Del Val, Jose L Cantero, Daniel Baena, Mercedes Atienza
In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the APOE4 genotype is associated with accelerated memory decline, likely due to the impact of neuropathology on main cerebral networks required for successful memory retrieval and/or to decreased capacity for recruiting secondary networks that might compensate for that brain damage. Here, we tested this hypothesis in twenty-six healthy older adults and thirty-four MCI patients, of which sixteen were APOE4 carriers. Compared to controls, MCI showed hippocampal volume reduction, cortical thinning in frontal, temporal and parietal regions, and dysfunctional EEG oscillations across fronto-temporal networks...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Enrica Bersano, Maria Francesca Sarnelli, Valentina Solara, Fabiola De Marchi, Gian Mauro Sacchetti, Alessandro Stecco, Lucia Corrado, Sandra D'alfonso, Roberto Cantello, Letizia Mazzini
We describe a 64-year-old woman, suffering from late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from the age of 57, who developed dysarthria and dysphagia, spastic diplegic, and proximal muscles weakness. Needle electromyography showed no active denervation. Neuropsychological evaluation showed intact cognitive functioning. We diagnosed upper motor neuron disease (MND), with no known genetic correlates. Brain magnetic resonance (MRI) detected bilateral hippocampal atrophy with sclerosis of right hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Yumi Takano, Keiko Kunitoki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Totsune, Hideo Shimomura, Manabu Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND Semantic dementia (SD) is a type of primary progressive aphasia with prominent language dysfunction, mostly within the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Although there is an overlap in clinical manifestations of SD attributable to FTLD and neuropathologically proven Alzheimer disease (AD), clinical diagnostic clues are not readily available. We present a characteristic finding based on a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based regional cerebral blood flow study and its statistical imaging analysis for a rare case of SD with AD-like pathology...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Kiwon Kim, Hong Jin Jeon
[This corrects the article on p. 904 in vol. 14.].
January 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Aimee F Luat, Michael E Behen, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
PURPOSE: Most children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) develop seizures that may contribute to neurocognitive status. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that very early seizure onset has a particularly detrimental effect on the cognitive and/or motor outcomes of children with unilateral SWS. We also tested whether side of SWS brain involvement modulates the effect of seizure variables on the pattern of cognitive abnormalities. METHODS: Thirty-four children (22 girls; mean age 6...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nicole Law, Elysa Widjaja, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVE: Previous findings have been mixed in terms of identifying a distinct pattern of neuropsychological deficits in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and in those with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The current study investigated the neuropsychological similarities and differences across these two pediatric medically intractable localization-related epilepsies. METHOD: Thirty-eight children with FLE, 20 children with TLE, and 40 healthy children (HC) participated in this study...
January 25, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Elżbieta Ciara, Dariusz Rokicki, Michal Lazniewski, Hanna Mierzewska, Elżbieta Jurkiewicz, Monika Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Edyta Szymańska, Piotr Stawiński, Joanna Kosińska, Agnieszka Pollak, Maciej Pronicki, Dariusz Plewczyński, Rafał Płoski, Ewa Pronicka
Most of the 19 mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs) involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis are already linked to specific entities, one of the exceptions being PARS2 mutations for which pathogenic significance is not finally validated. The aim of the study was to characterize the PARS2- related phenotype.Three siblings with biallelic PARS2 mutations presented from birth with infantile spasms, secondary microcephaly, and similar facial dysmorphy. Mental development was deeply impaired with speech absence and no eye contact...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Bei Cao, Qian-Qian Wei, Ruwei Ou, Bi Zhao, Tao Hu, Yongping Chen, Jing Yang, Fei Lei, Xiangdong Tang, Hui-Fang Shang
INTRODUCTION: Although several studies suggested that sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) is a frequent symptom of multiple system atrophy (MSA), whether SRBD has influence on the motor and non-motor symptoms of MSA is unknown. METHODS: A total of 40 MSA patients and 40 healthy volunteers (HVs) underwent video-polysomnography (PSG) in the current study. All the MSA individuals were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Unified Multiple-System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Frontal assessment battery (FAB), Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
January 29, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Zhi-Gang Jiang, Gordon Winocur, J Martin Wojtowicz, Olga Shevtsova, Steven Fuller, Hossein A Ghanbari
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) occurs in a substantial proportion of treated cancer patients, with no drug currently available for its therapy. This study investigated whether PAN-811, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, can reduce cognitive impairment and related suppression of neurogenesis following chemotherapy in an animal model. Young adult rats in Chemo and Chemo+PAN-811 groups received 3 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of methotrexate (MTX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and those in Saline and Saline+PAN-811 groups received equal volumes of physiological saline at 10-day intervals...
2018: PloS One
Xun Li, Yuying Hou, Yanping Ren, Xin Tian, Yijun Song
Attention dysfunction, especially executive control has been investigated within many types of diseases of the central nervous system. The present study aims to clarify alterations of the executive control (EC) network in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty patients with TLE and 20 matched healthy control subjects participated in the attention network test (ANT), and scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were set up. The ANT was used to evaluate attention network behavior deficits. Power spectral density (PSD), coherence and correlation were used to detect power and oscillation alterations of attention network in patients with TLE...
January 10, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Esra Korkmaz Kirakli, Ozgur Oztekin
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy is performed to prevent neural stem cell injury causing neurocognitive dysfunction. Nevertheless, the estimated risk of metastases in hippocampal avoidance area in small-cell lung cancer is unknown. The current study aimed to characterize the metastatic distribution within the brain relative to the hippocampus, estimate the incidence of hippocampal metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer, and identify clinical and radiographic variables that may be associated with the risk of hippocampal avoidance area metastasis...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Hidefumi Jokura, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
Pituitary adenomas with high proliferation rate and rapid growth are well known, but the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and treatment algorithm remain unclear. The clinical characteristics and mid-term prognosis of patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas with high proliferative potential were retrospectively investigated. This study identified 53 patients with Ki-67 labeling index of > 3% among 845 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (6.3%) initially treated by surgery. Prophylactic treatment was not applied for patients with residual tumor, but salvage treatment was performed if tumor progression was identified within the follow-up period...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Kiwamu Matsuoka, Fumihiko Yasuno, Akiko Hashimoto, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Masato Takahashi, Kuniaki Kiuchi, Junzo Iida, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Toshifumi Kishimoto
OBJECTIVE: Caregivers of patients with dementia experience physical and mental deterioration. We have previously reported a correlation between caregiver burden and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) total scores of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially regarding the dependency factor from the Zarit Burden Interview. The present study aimed to identify an objective biomarker for predicting caregiver burden. METHODS: The participants were 26 pairs of caregivers and patients with AD and mild-to-moderate dementia...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Robynne George, Alex Langford
An 82-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department following bizarre behaviour. Police had noticed him driving erratically through his village. He did not stop when instructed, drove slowly home and appeared 'vacant' on questioning. While in hospital, he had approximately 15 episodes of catatonia, involving rigidity, negativism, mutism except echolalia and perseveration, automatic obedience and utilisation phenomena, lasting 2-20 min each. Between episodes, he was amnestic but otherwise well. Electroencephalography demonstrated bifrontal slowing with left-sided emphasis, and captured two focal onset partial seizures with the clinical correlate of the syndrome described above...
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Kiwon Kim, Hong Jin Jeon
Suicide attempts at the Han river are rapidly increasing, which are 4.11 times from 2005 to 2015, whereas the rate of completed suicide in South Korea increased 1.07 times during the same period. However, few studies have been conducted on the issue because many suicide attempters were seriously injured after a fall in the Han river. We present a case of a patient with major depressive disorder (MDD) who attempted suicide and minimally injured after jumping from the bridge at the Han river. We could assess his psychological and neurocognitive functions before and immediately after his attempt...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
Chathuri Yatawara, Daryl Renick Lee, Levinia Lim, Juan Zhou, Nagaendran Kandiah
Background: Getting lost behavior (GLB) in the elderly is believed to involve poor top-down modulation of visuospatial processing, by impaired executive functions. However, since healthy elderly and elderly with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a different pattern of cognitive decline, it remains unclear whether this hypothesis can explain GLB in dementia. Objective: We sought to identify whether poor executive functions and working memory modulate the relationship between visuospatial processing and prevalence of GLB in healthy elderly and patients with AD...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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