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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300607/high-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-control
#1
Roberta Sellaro, Lorenza S Colzato
The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and cognitive deficits concerning mental flexibility and inhibitory control efficiency. The present study aims at replicating and extending these observations. We compared cognitive control performance of normal weight (BMI < 25) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25) university students on a task tapping either inhibitory control (Experiment 1) or interference control (Experiment 2)...
March 11, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299814/functional-neuroanatomical-associations-of-working-memory-in-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Christopher Kobylecki, Cathleen Haense, Jennifer M Harris, Cheryl L Stopford, Shailendra H Segobin, Matthew Jones, Anna M T Richardson, Alexander Gerhard, José Anton-Rodriguez, Jennifer C Thompson, Karl Herholz, Julie S Snowden
OBJECTIVE: To characterize metabolic correlates of working memory impairment in clinically defined subtypes of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. BACKGROUND: Established models of working memory suggest a key role for frontal lobe function, yet the association in Alzheimer's disease between working memory impairment and visuospatial and language symptoms suggests that temporoparietal neocortical dysfunction may be responsible. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with predominantly early-onset Alzheimer's disease were clinically classified into groups with predominantly amnestic, multidomain or visual deficits...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289629/neurocognitive-dysfunction-according-to-hypoperfusion-territory-in-patients-with-moyamoya-disease
#3
Chang Gu Kang, Min Ho Chun, Jung-A Kang, Kyung Hee Do, Su Jin Choi
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the prevalence of cerebral hypoperfusion without focal cerebral lesions in patients with Moyamoya disease (MMD), and the relationship between areas of hypoperfusion and cognitive impairment. METHODS: Twenty-six MMD patients were included. Patients were categorized according to the presence/absence of hypoperfusion in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes on brain single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) after acetazolamide challenge...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284581/cognitive-function-surrounding-resection-of-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas-with-suprasellar-extension-a-prospective-matched-control-study
#4
Philipp Hendrix, Christoph J Griessenauer, Elisa Hans, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from pituitary adenomas may experience cognitive dysfunctions due to hormonal imbalance or suprasellar tumor extension displacing neural structures. Progressively enlarging or symptomatic nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension are frequently resected. The literature on neurocognitive performance surrounding resection of these lesions is sparse. METHODS: A prospective matched-control study was conducted to investigate the impact of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension on preoperative and postoperative cognitive performance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243073/a-case-of-possibly-pathogenic-psen2-r62c-mutation-in-a-patient-with-probable-early-onset-alzheimer-s-dementia-supported-by-structure-prediction
#5
Kyung Won Park, Seong Soo An, Eva Bagyinszky, SangYun Kim
A 49-year-old Korean male patient with dementia was diagnosed with probable early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). He presented with memory problems, personality changes, and disorientation. His family history of dementia was probably negative, since no family member with dementia was found or mentioned. Mild cortical atrophy was observed upon magnetic resonance imaging analyses of his brain, and the single-photon emission computed tomography analysis revealed hypoperfusion in the frontal, temporal, and limbic lobes...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225493/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-treatment-alleviated-cognitive-impairment-caused-by-delayed-encephalopathy-due-to-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Kumi Yanagiha, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka
INTRODUCTION: Delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can even occur in patients with mild symptoms of acute CO poisoning. Some cases taking conventional hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy or steroid-pulse therapy may be insufficient, and AchEI may be effective. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report two cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning involving two women aged 69 (Case 1) and 60 years (Case 2) whose cognitive function improved with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) treatment...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225385/two-cases-of-oral-somatic-delusions-ameliorated-with-brain-perfusion-asymmetry-a-case-report
#7
Yojiro Umezaki, Akihito Uezato, Akira Toriihara, Toru Nishikawa, Akira Toyofuku
BACKGROUND: Oral cenesthopathy is the complaint of abnormal oral sensation where no underlying organic cause can be identified. It is also called oral dysesthesia or oral somatic delusion and classified as delusional disorder, somatic type. The patients with oral cenesthopathy show right > left asymmetric regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the broad brain region. However, the studies scrutinizing the rCBF change before and after the successful treatment are still a few so far. CASE: We present 2 cases of oral cenesthopathy, who responded well to aripiprazole...
March 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213372/effect-of-topiramate-and-zonisamide-on-fmri-cognitive-networks
#8
Britta Wandschneider, Jane Burdett, Lucy Townsend, Andrea Hill, Pamela J Thompson, John S Duncan, Matthias J Koepp
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of topiramate (TPM), zonisamide (ZNS), and levetiracetam (LEV) on cognitive network activations in patients with focal epilepsy using an fMRI language task. METHODS: In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, we identified patients from our clinical database of verbal fluency fMRI studies who were treated with either TPM (n = 32) or ZNS (n = 51). We matched 62 patients for clinical measures who took LEV but not TPM or ZNS. We entered antiepileptic comedications as nuisance variables and compared out-of-scanner psychometric measures for verbal fluency and working memory between groups...
March 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193536/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-diagnosis-and-correlation-to-cognition
#9
Dan Abrahamov, Oren Levran, Sharon Naparstek, Yael Refaeli, Shani Kaptson, Mahmud Abu Salah, Yaron Ishai, Gideon Sahar
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) elicits a systemic inflammatory response that may impair blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. BBB disruption can currently be detected by dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), reflected by an increase in the permeability constant (K(trans)). We aimed to determine (1) whether CPB induces BBB disruption, (2) duration until BBB disruption resolution, and (3) the obtainable correlation between BBB injury (location and intensity) and neurocognitive dysfunction...
February 10, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130804/frontal-lobe-function-in-elderly-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-caregiver-burden
#10
Akiko Hashimoto, Kiwamu Matsuoka, Fumihiko Yasuno, Masato Takahashi, Junzo Iida, Kiyoko Jikumaru, Toshifumi Kishimoto
AIM: Understanding of the relationship between caregiver burden and the degree of behavioural deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is relatively limited. Therefore, it is worthwhile to examine the correlations between the various relevant factors to improve the efficacy of care for patients with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific contributions of frontal lobe dysfunction in AD patients to caregiver burden, while controlling for other predictor variables...
January 28, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121881/the-severity-of-deformity-in-metopic-craniosynostosis-is-correlated-with-the-degree-of-neurologic-dysfunction
#11
Jenny F Yang, Eric D Brooks, Peter W Hashim, Hannah S Reuman, Roberto Travieso, Jordan Terner, Linda C Mayes, Derek M Steinbacher, John A Persing, James C McPartland
BACKGROUND: In recent years, metopic synostosis has represented up to 25 percent of all nonsyndromic craniosynostosis cases, manifesting with varying degrees of trigonocephaly. It is unknown whether the degree of severity of anterior dysmorphology is proportionate to neurologic dysfunction. This knowledge is essential to guide future surgical treatment recommendations. Given the reported correlation of abnormal auditory processing with future language dysfunction and poorer academic performance in craniosynostosis patients, the present study aims to evaluate auditory processing in preoperative patients with moderate and severe metopic synostosis, and in control infants, to discern the neurologic risk carried by different severities of trigonocephaly...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100023/frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-pathogenesis-pathology-and-pathways-to-phenotype
#12
REVIEW
David M A Mann, Julie S Snowden
Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) is a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that affect principally the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. There are three major associated clinical syndromes, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD) and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA); three principal histologies, involving tau, TDP-43 and FUS proteins; and mutations in three major genes, MAPT, GRN and C9orf72, along with several other less common gene mutations...
January 18, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096672/a-biopsychological-review-of-gambling-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Gabriel C Quintero
The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094161/disinhibition-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-changes-in-oxy-hb-on-near-infrared-spectroscopy-during-rock-paper-scissors-task
#14
Sayaka Ishii, Yoshimi Kaga, Tomoko Tando, Kakuro Aoyagi, Fumikazu Sano, Hideaki Kanemura, Kanji Sugita, Masao Aihara
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a common developmental disorder. Many reports have suggested that symptoms of AD/HD are related to frontal lobe dysfunctions, particularly disinhibition. However, measuring neurological findings with biomarkers during frontal functional tasks has sometimes been difficult in children with AD/HD. This study aimed to investigate frontal inhibitory function objectively in children with AD/HD during "rock, paper, scissors" (RPS) tasks, as a familiar game for Japanese children, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
January 13, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073591/neuropeptide-y-neuronal-network-dysfunction-in-the-frontal-lobe-of-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#15
Shunsuke Morosawa, Shuji Iritani, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Youta Torii, Chikako Habuchi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Norio Ozaki
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been found to play a critical role in various mental functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in the development of schizophrenia, a particularly intractable psychiatric disease whose precise etiology remains unknown. Recent molecular biological investigations have identified several candidate genes which may be associated with this disease, including disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). The role of DISC1 would involve neurogenesis and neuronal migration. However, the functional consequences of this gene defect have not yet been fully clarified in neuronal systems...
January 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048182/su-g-iep1-14-the-relationship-between-voxel-based-morphometry-and-fiber-tract-abnormalities-by-correlation-analysis-in-patients-with-neurodegerative-disease
#16
R Juh, T Suh, J Han, C Kim, C Oh
PURPOSE: We evaluated the relationship between white matter (WM) tract disintegration and gray matter (GM) atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and controls, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and an optimized voxel-based analysis. METHODS: Two hundred thirty one individuals (61 controls, 116 MCI and 54 AD) were included. Voxel-based WM tract statistics was used to obtain whole-brain maps of WM bundles for FA. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was conducted to detect regions of gray matter (GM) atrophy in the AD, MCI group relative to the control group...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043955/structural-cerebellar-correlates-of-cognitive-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-cerebellar-degeneration
#17
Kalyani Kansal, Zhen Yang, Ann M Fishman, Haris I Sair, Sarah H Ying, Bruno M Jedynak, Jerry L Prince, Chiadi U Onyike
Detailed mapping of clinical dysfunctions to the cerebellar lobules in disease populations is necessary to establish the functional significance of lobules implicated in cognitive and motor functions in normal subjects. This study constitutes the first quantitative examination of the lobular correlates of a broad range of cognitive and motor phenomena in cerebellar disease. We analysed cross-sectional data from 72 cases with cerebellar disease and 36 controls without cerebellar disease. Cerebellar lobule volumes were derived from a graph-cut based segmentation algorithm...
January 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035933/frontal-lobe-function-correlates-with%C3%A2-one-year-incidence-of-urinary-incontinence-in-elderly-with-alzheimer-disease
#18
Taiki Sugimoto, Masaki Yoshida, Rei Ono, Shunsuke Murata, Naoki Saji, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Takashi Sakurai
BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although previous works highlight the association between frontal lobe-related function and UI, causal relationship is unclear. OBJECTS: To clarify the longitudinal association between frontal lobe function and the incidence of UI at 1 year in patients with AD. METHODS: The subjects were 215 continent AD patients who attended the Memory Clinic of the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology of Japan during the period from March 2011 to December 2014...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009983/abnormal-brain-functional-connectivity-leads-to-impaired-mood-and-cognition-in-hyperthyroidism-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#19
Ling Li, Mengmeng Zhi, Zhenghua Hou, Yuqun Zhang, Yingying Yue, Yonggui Yuan
Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999981/phospholipids-in-mitochondrial-dysfunction-during-hemorrhagic-shock
#20
REVIEW
Galina F Leskova
Energy deficiency plays a key role in the development of irreversible shock conditions. Therefore, identifying mitochondrial functional disturbances during hemorrhagic shock should be considered a prospective direction for studying its pathogenesis. Phospholipid (PL)-dependent mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain (i.e., in the frontal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres and medulla oblongata) and liver, which, when damaged, leads to an encephalopathy, are examined in this review. These mechanisms show strong regional specificity...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
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