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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073774/migraine-with-brainstem-aura-why-not-a-cortical-origin
#1
Geneviève Demarquay, Anne Ducros, Alexandra Montavont, François Mauguiere
Background Migraine with brainstem aura is defined as a migraine with aura including at least two of the following symptoms: dysarthria, vertigo, tinnitus, hypacusis, diplopia, ataxia and/or decreased level of consciousness. Aim The aim of this study is to review data coming from clinical observations and functional mapping that support the role of the cerebral cortex in the initiation of brainstem aura symptoms. Results Vertigo can result from a vestibular cortex dysfunction, while tinnitus and hypacusis can originate within the auditory cortex...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050382/distinct-18f-av-1451-tau-pet-retention-patterns-in-early-and-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Michael Schöll, Rik Ossenkoppele, Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Jonas Jögi, Tomas Ohlsson, Ruben Smith, Oskar Hansson
Patients with Alzheimer's disease can present with different clinical phenotypes. Individuals with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (>65 years) typically present with medial temporal lobe neurodegeneration and predominantly amnestic symptomatology, while patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (<65 years) exhibit greater neocortical involvement associated with a clinical presentation including dyspraxia, executive dysfunction, or visuospatial impairment. We recruited 20 patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, 21 with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, three with prodromal early-onset Alzheimer's disease and 13 with prodromal late-onset Alzheimer's disease, as well as 30 cognitively healthy elderly controls, that had undergone 18F-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography and structural magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease exhibit differential regional tau pathology and atrophy patterns...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031739/neural-correlates-of-visuospatial-bias-in-patients-with-left-hemisphere-stroke-a-causal-functional-contribution-analysis-based-on-game-theory
#3
C Malherbe, R M Umarova, M Zavaglia, C P Kaller, L Beume, G Thomalla, C Weiller, C C Hilgetag
Stroke patients frequently display spatial neglect, an inability to report, or respond to, relevant stimuli in the contralesional space. Although this syndrome is widely considered to result from the dysfunction of a large-scale attention network, the individual contributions of damaged grey and white matter regions to neglect are still being disputed. Moreover, while the neuroanatomy of neglect in right hemispheric lesions is well studied, the contributions of left hemispheric brain regions to visuospatial processing are less well understood...
October 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970793/differential-effect-of-left-vs-right-white-matter-hyperintensity-burden-on-functional-decline-the-northern-manhattan-study
#4
Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Ahmet Bagci, Noam Alperin, Ralph L Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
Asymmetry of brain dysfunction may disrupt brain network efficiency. We hypothesized that greater left-right white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) asymmetry was associated with functional trajectories. Methods: In the Northern Manhattan Study, participants underwent brain MRI with axial T1, T2, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences, with baseline interview and examination. Volumetric WMHV distribution across 14 brain regions was determined separately by combining bimodal image intensity distribution and atlas based methods...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905419/fast-3d-rosette-spectroscopic-imaging-of-neocortical-abnormalities-at-3-t-assessment-of-spectral-quality
#5
Claudiu V Schirda, Tiejun Zhao, Victor E Yushmanov, Yoojin Lee, Gena R Ghearing, Frank S Lieberman, Ashok Panigrahy, Hoby P Hetherington, Jullie W Pan
PURPOSE: To use a fast 3D rosette spectroscopic imaging acquisition to quantitatively evaluate how spectral quality influences detection of the endogenous variation of gray and white matter metabolite differences in controls, and demonstrate how rosette spectroscopic imaging can detect metabolic dysfunction in patients with neocortical abnormalities. METHODS: Data were acquired on a 3T MR scanner and 32-channel head coil, with rosette spectroscopic imaging covering a 4-cm slab of fronto-parietal-temporal lobes...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861031/visual-dysfunction-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#6
REVIEW
Mari N Maia da Silva, Rebecca S Millington, Holly Bridge, Merle James-Galton, Gordon T Plant
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical) visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855495/adult-onset-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids-and-pigmented-glia-a-case-presented-brain-calcification-and-corpus-callosum-atrophy-from-over-10-years-before-the-onset-of-dementia
#7
Miyuki Okamoto, Jun Takeshita, Kazunori Takahashi, Akio Tanaka, Kunihiro Yoshida, Masaru Kuriyama
A 44-year-old man made many mistakes at work over a year. Eleven years prior, he had had medical examination with headache. He presented with symptoms consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction including cognitive decline, and bilateral pyramidal signs. Brain MRI showed cerebral atrophy, localized atrophy of corpus callosum, asymmetrical white matter lesions and multiple cystic lesions. CT images showed bilateral calcifications in the parietal subcortical white matter. Reconstructed sagittal CT images showed bilateral calcifications in the frontal white matter adjacent to the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles, which had a symmetrical "stepping stone appearance" in the frontal pericallosal regions...
September 30, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825847/neuropsychological-comparisons-of-cocaine-versus-methamphetamine-users-a-research-synthesis-and-meta-analysis
#8
Matthew G Hall, Alexander O Hauson, Scott C Wollman, Kenneth E Allen, Eric J Connors, Mark J Stern, Christine L Kimmel, Rick A Stephan, Sharis Sarkissians, Brianna D Barlet, Igor Grant
BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analytical research examining cocaine and methamphetamine separately suggests potentially different neuropsychological profiles associated with each drug. In addition, neuroimaging studies point to distinct structural changes that might underlie differences in neuropsychological functioning. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis compared the effect sizes identified in cocaine versus methamphetamine studies across 15 neuropsychological domains...
August 21, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736888/alterations-in-cortical-thickness-in-nonmedicated-premature-ejaculation-patients-a-morphometric-mri-study
#9
Fan Guo, Yi-Bin Xi, Ming Gao, Lin Liu, Ning-Bo Fei, Wei Qin, Chen Li, Long-Biao Cui, Fei Yan, Lei Yu, Jian-Lin Yuan, Hong Yin
PURPOSE: Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure related to PE. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of nonmedicated PE patients in terms of brain morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted with 32 medication-naïve adult men with clinical diagnosed PE and matched 31 healthy controls. All participants received diagnostic interviews and 3...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711476/treatment-in-early-psychosis-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-for-6months-improves-low-level-auditory-processing-pilot-study
#10
Chrysa Retsa, Jean-François Knebel, Eveline Geiser, Carina Ferrari, Raoul Jenni, Margot Fournier, Luis Alameda, Philipp S Baumann, Stephanie Clarke, Philippe Conus, Kim Q Do, Micah M Murray
Sensory impairments constitute core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. In the auditory modality, impaired mismatch negativity (MMN) has been observed in chronic schizophrenia and may reflect N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) hypo-function, consistent with models of schizophrenia based on oxidative stress. Moreover, a recent study demonstrated deficits in the N100 component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) in early psychosis patients. Previous work has shown that add-on administration of the glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) improves the MMN and clinical symptoms in chronic schizophrenia...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702354/white-matter-integrity-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-relationship-with-intelligence-quotient-and-executive-function
#11
Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Kerstin Pannek, Júlia Ballester-Plané, Lee B Reid, Élida Vázquez, Ignacio Delgado, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Carme Junqué, Roslyn Boyd, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most disabling motor types of CP and has been classically associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalamus. Although cognitive dysfunction is common in CP, there is a paucity of published quantitative analyses investigating the relationship between white matter (WM) microstructure and cognition in this CP type. AIMS: This study aims (1) to compare brain WM microstructure between people with dyskinetic CP and healthy controls, (2) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to intelligence and (3) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to executive function in people with dyskinetic CP and (4) to identify brain regions where the correlations are different between controls and people with CP in IQ and executive functions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579860/distinguishing-motor-weakness-from-impaired-spatial-awareness-a-helping-hand
#12
Suneil A Raju, Charles R Swift, Karna Dev Bardhan
Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient's right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575506/limbic-interference-during-social-action-planning-in-schizophrenia
#13
Katharina Stegmayer, Stephan Bohlhalter, Tim Vanbellingen, Andrea Federspiel, Roland Wiest, René M Müri, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
Schizophrenia is characterized by social interaction deficits contributing to poor functional outcome. Hand gesture use is particularly impaired, linked to frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal grey matter deficits. The functional neural correlates of impaired gesturing are currently unclear. We therefore investigated aberrant brain activity during impaired gesturing in schizophrenia. We included 22 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, and education level. We obtained functional magnetic resonance imaging data using an event-related paradigm to assess brain activation during gesture planning and execution...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566609/progressive-b%C3%A3-lint-s-syndrome-in-a-patient-demonstrating-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#14
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Yoshifumi Nakashima
We herein report a 65-year-old man demonstrating dementia with Lewy bodies who first presented with Bálint's syndrome. Two years later, a mild cognitive impairment was noted. From three years after onset, he developed progressive parkinsonism, visual hallucination, and autonomic dysfunction, in line with the deterioration of the cognitive function. Single photon emission computed tomography with a (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer performed two years after onset revealed hypoperfusion in the restricted area of the bilateral superior parietal lobule, which extended to the lateral occipital cortices within two years...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557398/-characteristic-of-the-cognitive-evoked-potentials-at-elderly-people-with-cognitive-decline
#15
I N Deryabina, Yu S Dzhos
Results of research of cognitive visual evoked potentials at elderly women with various level of cognitive decline are shown in article. Both relevance of the early diagnostics of cognitive disorders and expedience of using of methods of functional neurovisualization to reveal higher cortical dysfunctions are shown also. To appraise cognitive functions we applied express-method of evaluating of cognitive functions during normal aging. According to results of this test two groups were created: the 1st - women without cognitive disorders, the 2nd - with mild cognitive impairment...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539636/effect-of-kidney-dysfunction-on-cerebral-cortical-thinning-in-elderly-population
#16
Chih-Hao Chen, Ya-Fang Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu, Ta-Fu Chen, Ping-Huan Tsai, Jen-Hau Chen, Chung-Jen Yen, Sung-Chun Tang, Shin-Joe Yeh, Yen-Ching Chen
Chronic kidney disease has been linked to cognitive impairment and morphological brain change. However, less is known about the impact of kidney functions on cerebral cortical thickness. This study investigated the relationship between kidney functions and global or lobar cerebral cortical thickness (CTh) in 259 non-demented elderly persons. Forty-three participants (16.7%) had kidney dysfunction, which was defined as either a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or presence of proteinuria...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532916/spinal-intramedullary-tuberculosis-with-concurrent-supra-and-infratentorial-intracranial-disease-in-a-9-month-old-boy-case-report-and-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Michael George Zaki Ghali, Visish M Srinivasan, Marc J Kim, Archana Malik
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous involvement of the spinal cord parenchyma is an exceedingly rare clinical entity; even more so is concurrent intracranial tuberculosis (TB). Spinal intramedullary TB presents with a characteristic subacute myelopathy, with slowly progressive paraplegia, sensory deficits, and/or bowel and bladder dysfunction. Diagnosis is strongly suspected with a clinical history of known TB in conjunction with characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Management involves multiagent antitubercular chemotherapy without or with operative intervention...
October 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529871/subtle-alterations-in-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-detected-by-graph-theoretical-analysis-and-not-by-the-standard-approach
#18
Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús, Gretel Sanabria-Diaz, Antoon Willemsen, Eduardo Martinez-Montes, Juan Samper-Noa, Angel Aguila-Ruiz, Ronald Boellaard, Peter De Deyn, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Lester Melie-Garcia
There is growing support that cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in response to a vasodilatory challenge, also defined as the cerebrovascular reserve, is reduced in Alzheimer's disease dementia. However, this is less clear in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current standard analysis may not reflect subtle abnormalities in CVR. In this study, we aimed to investigate vasodilatory-induced changes in the topology of the cerebral blood flow correlation (CBFcorr) network to study possible network-related CVR abnormalities in MCI...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509077/relationships-between-cognitive-impairment-on-adas-cog-and-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-using-spect-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Michio Takahashi, Yasunori Oda, Toshiyuki Okubo, Yukihiko Shirayama
The aim of this study was to examine brain hypoperfusion and its relationship with cognitive dysfunction in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty patients with late-onset AD and not receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and brain perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography, and analyzed classified gyrus level segments with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and the stereotactic extraction estimation method level 3...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498826/divergent-influences-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-domains-on-cognition-and-gray-and-white-matter-morphology
#20
Mitzi M Gonzales, Olusola Ajilore, Rebecca C Charlton, Jamie Cohen, Shaolin Yang, Erica Sieg, Dulal K Bhaumik, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. METHODS: A total of 124 adults (age, 59.8 [13.1] years; 41% African American; 50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
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