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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310446/resting-state-fmri-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#1
Wu Xing, Wei Shi, Yueshuang Leng, Xianting Sun, Tingting Guan, Weihua Liao, Xiaoyi Wang
Background The involvement of the central nervous system in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) remains controversial. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a relatively new method that can be applied to investigate the heterogeneity of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in pSS patients through regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. Purpose To collect data from pSS patients and healthy controls, and use ReHo analysis to elucidate the neurobiological mechanism of CNS involvement in pSS. Material and Methods Fourteen clinically diagnosed pSS patients and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201866/getting-lost-behavior-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cognitive-and-anatomical-model
#2
Chathuri Yatawara, Daryl Renick Lee, Levinia Lim, Juan Zhou, Nagaendran Kandiah
Background: Getting lost behavior (GLB) in the elderly is believed to involve poor top-down modulation of visuospatial processing, by impaired executive functions. However, since healthy elderly and elderly with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a different pattern of cognitive decline, it remains unclear whether this hypothesis can explain GLB in dementia. Objective: We sought to identify whether poor executive functions and working memory modulate the relationship between visuospatial processing and prevalence of GLB in healthy elderly and patients with AD...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201555/background-and-distribution-of-lobar-microbleeds-in-cognitive-dysfunction
#3
Hirofumi Matsuyama, Yuichiro Ii, Masayuki Maeda, Maki Umino, Yukito Ueda, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Satoh, Akihiro Shindo, Akira Taniguchi, Ryosuke Takahashi, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Objectives: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are often observed in memory clinic patients. It has been generally accepted that deep CMBs (D-CMBs) result from hypertensive vasculopathy (HV), whereas strictly lobar CMBs (SL-CMBs) result from cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) which frequently coexists with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mixed CMBs (M-CMBs) have been partially attributed to HV and also partially attributed to CAA. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences between SL-CMBs and M-CMBs in terms of clinical features and regional distribution...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198072/pres-in-the-course-of-hemato-oncological-treatment-in-children
#4
Katarzyna Musioł, Sylwia Waz, Michał Boroń, Magdalena Kwiatek, Magdalena Machnikowska-Sokołowska, Katarzyna Gruszczyńska, Grażyna Sobol-Milejska
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical syndrome of varying aetiologies, characterised by acute neurological symptoms of brain dysfunction with MRI abnormalities in posterior cerebral white and grey matter. In most cases, symptoms resolve without neurological consequences. AIM: The aim of this paper is the analysis of predisposing factors, clinical outcomes and radiological features of PRES in eight children with hemato-oncological disease...
December 2, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181265/off-label-use-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-for-left-ventricular-thrombus-is-it-appropriate
#5
George Degheim, Abeer Berry, Marcel Zughaib
A 57 year old gentleman with a history of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation presented with worsening lower extremity edema and dyspnea on exertion. He had been compliant with his medications including rivaroxaban (Xarelto) for atrial fibrillation that he takes with the evening meal daily. His echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction of 10-15% and a new left ventricle (LV) apical thrombus. During his hospital stay, he developed right sided weakness. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a subacute infarct involving the left parietal lobe...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170933/impact-of-previous-episodes-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-on-short-term-brain-function-recovery-after-liver-transplantation-a-functional-connectivity-strength-study
#6
Yue Cheng, Gaoyan Zhang, Wen Shen, Li-Xiang Huang, Li Zhang, Shuang-Shuang Xie, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Baolin Liu
Neuropsychological studies have documented an incomplete reversal of pre-existing cognitive dysfunction in cirrhotic patients after liver transplantation (LT) and have found this is more severe in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of prior HE episodes on post-transplantation brain function recovery. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected from 30 healthy controls and 33 cirrhotic patients (HE, n = 15 and noHE, n = 18) before and one month after LT...
November 23, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167639/disrupted-thalamus-white-matter-anatomy-and-posterior-default-mode-network-effective-connectivity-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#7
Thomas Alderson, Elizabeth Kehoe, Liam Maguire, Dervla Farrell, Brian Lawlor, Rose A Kenny, Declan Lyons, Arun L W Bokde, Damien Coyle
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal state amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are characterized by widespread abnormalities in inter-areal white matter fiber pathways and parallel disruption of default mode network (DMN) resting state functional and effective connectivity. In healthy subjects, DMN and task positive network interaction are modulated by the thalamus suggesting that abnormal task-based DMN deactivation in aMCI may be a consequence of impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153397/embolic-stroke-due-to-carotidynia-potentially-associated-with-moving-carotid-artery-caused-by-swallowing
#8
Yoshitaka Yamaguchi, Mikito Hayakawa, Naoto Kinoshita, Chiaki Yokota, Toshiya Ishihara, Kazunori Toyoda
A 63-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis discontinued her medication for rheumatoid arthritis with prednisolone and azathioprine. One month later, she was admitted because of consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple hyperintensities in her left frontal and parietal lobes. She also developed high fever and left neck pain. Carotid ultrasonography showed calcified plaque with vessel wall swelling at the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and surrounding hypoechoic soft tissue...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149177/new-brain-lesions-with-no-impact-on-physical-disability-can-impact-cognition-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-a-ten-year-longitudinal-study
#9
D Wybrecht, F Reuter, F Pariollaud, W Zaaraoui, A Le Troter, A Rico, S Confort-Gouny, E Soulier, M Guye, A Maarouf, J-P Ranjeva, J Pelletier, B Audoin
OBJECTIVE: In early multiple sclerosis, although brain T2 lesions accrual are hallmark of the disease, only weak correlations were found between T2 lesions accrual and EDSS progression, the disability scale commonly used in multiple sclerosis studies. This may be related to the very poor sensitivity of EDSS to cognitive dysfunctions that may occur and progress from the first stage of the disease. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate that cognitive deficits progress during the first ten years of MS and are significantly impacted by new T2 lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073774/migraine-with-brainstem-aura-why-not-a-cortical-origin
#10
Geneviève Demarquay, Anne Ducros, Alexandra Montavont, François Mauguiere
Background Migraine with brainstem aura is defined as a migraine with aura including at least two of the following symptoms: dysarthria, vertigo, tinnitus, hypacusis, diplopia, ataxia and/or decreased level of consciousness. Aim The aim of this study is to review data coming from clinical observations and functional mapping that support the role of the cerebral cortex in the initiation of brainstem aura symptoms. Results Vertigo can result from a vestibular cortex dysfunction, while tinnitus and hypacusis can originate within the auditory cortex...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050382/distinct-18f-av-1451-tau-pet-retention-patterns-in-early-and-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Michael Schöll, Rik Ossenkoppele, Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Jonas Jögi, Tomas Ohlsson, Ruben Smith, Oskar Hansson
Patients with Alzheimer's disease can present with different clinical phenotypes. Individuals with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (>65 years) typically present with medial temporal lobe neurodegeneration and predominantly amnestic symptomatology, while patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (<65 years) exhibit greater neocortical involvement associated with a clinical presentation including dyspraxia, executive dysfunction, or visuospatial impairment. We recruited 20 patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, 21 with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, three with prodromal early-onset Alzheimer's disease and 13 with prodromal late-onset Alzheimer's disease, as well as 30 cognitively healthy elderly controls, that had undergone 18F-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography and structural magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease exhibit differential regional tau pathology and atrophy patterns...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031739/neural-correlates-of-visuospatial-bias-in-patients-with-left-hemisphere-stroke-a-causal-functional-contribution-analysis-based-on-game-theory
#12
C Malherbe, R M Umarova, M Zavaglia, C P Kaller, L Beume, G Thomalla, C Weiller, C C Hilgetag
Stroke patients frequently display spatial neglect, an inability to report, or respond to, relevant stimuli in the contralesional space. Although this syndrome is widely considered to result from the dysfunction of a large-scale attention network, the individual contributions of damaged grey and white matter regions to neglect are still being disputed. Moreover, while the neuroanatomy of neglect in right hemispheric lesions is well studied, the contributions of left hemispheric brain regions to visuospatial processing are less well understood...
October 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970793/differential-effect-of-left-vs-right-white-matter-hyperintensity-burden-on-functional-decline-the-northern-manhattan-study
#13
Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Ahmet Bagci, Noam Alperin, Ralph L Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
Asymmetry of brain dysfunction may disrupt brain network efficiency. We hypothesized that greater left-right white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) asymmetry was associated with functional trajectories. Methods: In the Northern Manhattan Study, participants underwent brain MRI with axial T1, T2, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences, with baseline interview and examination. Volumetric WMHV distribution across 14 brain regions was determined separately by combining bimodal image intensity distribution and atlas based methods...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905419/fast-3d-rosette-spectroscopic-imaging-of-neocortical-abnormalities-at-3-t-assessment-of-spectral-quality
#14
Claudiu V Schirda, Tiejun Zhao, Victor E Yushmanov, Yoojin Lee, Gena R Ghearing, Frank S Lieberman, Ashok Panigrahy, Hoby P Hetherington, Jullie W Pan
PURPOSE: To use a fast 3D rosette spectroscopic imaging acquisition to quantitatively evaluate how spectral quality influences detection of the endogenous variation of gray and white matter metabolite differences in controls, and demonstrate how rosette spectroscopic imaging can detect metabolic dysfunction in patients with neocortical abnormalities. METHODS: Data were acquired on a 3T MR scanner and 32-channel head coil, with rosette spectroscopic imaging covering a 4-cm slab of fronto-parietal-temporal lobes...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861031/visual-dysfunction-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#15
REVIEW
Mari N Maia da Silva, Rebecca S Millington, Holly Bridge, Merle James-Galton, Gordon T Plant
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical) visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855495/adult-onset-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids-and-pigmented-glia-a-case-presented-brain-calcification-and-corpus-callosum-atrophy-from-over-10-years-before-the-onset-of-dementia
#16
Miyuki Okamoto, Jun Takeshita, Kazunori Takahashi, Akio Tanaka, Kunihiro Yoshida, Masaru Kuriyama
A 44-year-old man made many mistakes at work over a year. Eleven years prior, he had had medical examination with headache. He presented with symptoms consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction including cognitive decline, and bilateral pyramidal signs. Brain MRI showed cerebral atrophy, localized atrophy of corpus callosum, asymmetrical white matter lesions and multiple cystic lesions. CT images showed bilateral calcifications in the parietal subcortical white matter. Reconstructed sagittal CT images showed bilateral calcifications in the frontal white matter adjacent to the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles, which had a symmetrical "stepping stone appearance" in the frontal pericallosal regions...
September 30, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825847/neuropsychological-comparisons-of-cocaine-versus-methamphetamine-users-a-research-synthesis-and-meta-analysis
#17
Matthew G Hall, Alexander O Hauson, Scott C Wollman, Kenneth E Allen, Eric J Connors, Mark J Stern, Christine L Kimmel, Rick A Stephan, Sharis Sarkissians, Brianna D Barlet, Igor Grant
BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analytical research examining cocaine and methamphetamine separately suggests potentially different neuropsychological profiles associated with each drug. In addition, neuroimaging studies point to distinct structural changes that might underlie differences in neuropsychological functioning. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis compared the effect sizes identified in cocaine versus methamphetamine studies across 15 neuropsychological domains...
August 21, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736888/alterations-in-cortical-thickness-in-nonmedicated-premature-ejaculation-patients-a-morphometric-mri-study
#18
Fan Guo, Yi-Bin Xi, Ming Gao, Lin Liu, Ning-Bo Fei, Wei Qin, Chen Li, Long-Biao Cui, Fei Yan, Lei Yu, Jian-Lin Yuan, Hong Yin
PURPOSE: Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure related to PE. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of nonmedicated PE patients in terms of brain morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted with 32 medication-naïve adult men with clinical diagnosed PE and matched 31 healthy controls. All participants received diagnostic interviews and 3...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711476/treatment-in-early-psychosis-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-for-6months-improves-low-level-auditory-processing-pilot-study
#19
Chrysa Retsa, Jean-François Knebel, Eveline Geiser, Carina Ferrari, Raoul Jenni, Margot Fournier, Luis Alameda, Philipp S Baumann, Stephanie Clarke, Philippe Conus, Kim Q Do, Micah M Murray
Sensory impairments constitute core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. In the auditory modality, impaired mismatch negativity (MMN) has been observed in chronic schizophrenia and may reflect N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) hypo-function, consistent with models of schizophrenia based on oxidative stress. Moreover, a recent study demonstrated deficits in the N100 component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) in early psychosis patients. Previous work has shown that add-on administration of the glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) improves the MMN and clinical symptoms in chronic schizophrenia...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702354/white-matter-integrity-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-relationship-with-intelligence-quotient-and-executive-function
#20
Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Kerstin Pannek, Júlia Ballester-Plané, Lee B Reid, Élida Vázquez, Ignacio Delgado, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Carme Junqué, Roslyn Boyd, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most disabling motor types of CP and has been classically associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalamus. Although cognitive dysfunction is common in CP, there is a paucity of published quantitative analyses investigating the relationship between white matter (WM) microstructure and cognition in this CP type. AIMS: This study aims (1) to compare brain WM microstructure between people with dyskinetic CP and healthy controls, (2) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to intelligence and (3) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to executive function in people with dyskinetic CP and (4) to identify brain regions where the correlations are different between controls and people with CP in IQ and executive functions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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