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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089970/spatial-working-memory-impairment-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#1
Chun-Min Zhu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Shou-Xing Duan, Zhi-Rong Lin, Jing-Jing Yin, Hong-Bo Le, Dan-Miao Sun, Wen-Can Xu, Shu-Hua Ma
OBJECTIVE: Using ethology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore mild cognitive dysfunction and spatial working memory (WM) impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) and to study whether any clinical biomarkers could serve as predictors of brain dysfunction in this disease. METHODS: Eighteen non-NPSLE patients and 18 matched subjects were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test and scanned using blood-oxygen-level dependent fMRI while performing the n-back task to investigate the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068928/newly-recognized-cerebral-infarctions-on-postmortem-imaging-a-report-of-three-cases-with-systemic-infectious-disease
#2
Sakon Noriki, Kazuyuki Kinoshita, Kunihiro Inai, Toyohiko Sakai, Hirohiko Kimura, Takahiro Yamauchi, Masayuki Iwano, Hironobu Naiki
BACKGROUND: Postmortem imaging (PMI) refers to the imaging of cadavers by computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three cases of cerebral infarctions that were not found during life but were newly recognized on PMI and were associated with severe systemic infections are presented. CASE PRESENTATIONS: An 81-year-old woman with a pacemaker and slightly impaired liver function presented with fever. Imaging suggested interstitial pneumonia and an iliopsoas abscess, and blood tests showed liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943048/vocal-emotion-processing-deficits-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#3
A González-Baeza, J R Arribas, I Pérez-Valero, S Monge, C Bayón, P Martín, S Rubio, F Carvajal
We aimed to explore the brain imaging correlates of vocal emotion processing in a group of HIV+ individuals and to compare the vocal emotion processing of HIV+ individuals with a group of healthy adults. We conducted multiple linear regressions to determine the cerebral correlates of a newly designed vocal emotion processing test in a sub-group of HIV+ individuals who completed the cerebral magnetic resonance scan (n = 36). Separately, we test whether the association between our test scores and each cerebral measure persisted regardless of the presence of neurocognitive impairment...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918911/cortical-amygdala-volumetric-ratios-predict-onset-of-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#4
David Berhanu, Leah M Mattiaccio, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Frank A Middleton, Wendy R Kates
Dysfunction of cortical circuitry involving prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and mesial temporal lobe has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that comports a 25-fold increased risk of developing psychosis. Morphological changes in the neuroanatomy of this syndrome may represent a biological risk factor for the development of psychosis. The present study explored ratios between cortical volumes and the amygdala. We also explored relationships between these ratios and the eventual development of psychosis in youth with 22q11DS...
January 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846290/altered-effective-connectivity-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-stroke-a-resting-state-fmri-study-with-granger-causality-analysis
#5
Zhiyong Zhao, Xiangmin Wang, Mingxia Fan, Dazhi Yin, Limin Sun, Jie Jia, Chaozheng Tang, Xiaohui Zheng, Yuwei Jiang, Jie Wu, Jiayu Gong
The primary motor cortex (M1) is often abnormally recruited in stroke patients with motor disabilities. However, little is known about the alterations in the causal connectivity of M1 following stroke. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the effective connectivity of the ipsilesional M1 is disturbed in stroke patients who show different outcomes in hand motor function. 23 patients with left-hemisphere subcortical stroke were selected and divided into two subgroups: partially paralyzed hands (PPH) and completely paralyzed hands (CPH)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833548/dysfunction-of-the-default-mode-network-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairments-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#6
Yanbing Hou, Jing Yang, Chunyan Luo, Wei Song, Ruwei Ou, Wanglin Liu, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
Objective: Cognitive impairments are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can even occur in the early stages. The default mode network (DMN) is highly relevant for cognitive processes; however, it remains largely unknown if changes in the DMN connectivity are related to the cognitive decline in drug-naïve early stage PD patients with a mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the brain connectivity of the DMN in early stage drug-naïve PD patients with MCI...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752513/longitudinal-profile-of-iron-accumulation-in-good-grade-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#7
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729856/aberrant-brain-regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-in-middle-aged-t2dm-patients-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#8
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Minglong Liang, Xuntao Yin, Ping Wei, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723821/abnormal-intrinsic-functional-hubs-in-severe-male-obstructive-sleep-apnea-evidence-from-a-voxel-wise-degree-centrality-analysis
#9
Haijun Li, Lan Li, Yi Shao, Honghan Gong, Wei Zhang, Xianjun Zeng, Chenglong Ye, Si Nie, Liting Chen, Dechang Peng
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. METHODS: Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623495/impaired-picture-arrangement-subscores-wais-iii-associated-with-decreased-place-orientation-and-frontal-occipital-blood-flow-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-social-judgment-dysfunction-the-osaki-tajiri-project
#10
Yuka Kato, Kenichi Meguro, Masahiro Nakatsuka, Kei Nakamura, Masahiro Tsuboi, Satoshi Yamaguchi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing "judgment" : the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567291/postmortem-structural-studies-of-the-thalamus-in-schizophrenia
#11
Karl-Anton Dorph-Petersen, David A Lewis
In this review, we seek to answer the following question: Do findings in the current literature support the idea that thalamo-cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia is due to structural abnormalities in the thalamus? We base our review on the existing literature of design-unbiased stereological studies of the postmortem thalamus from subjects with schizophrenia. Thus, all reported results are based upon the use of unbiased principles of sampling to determine volume and/or total cell numbers of thalamus or its constituent nuclei...
August 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536237/the-alterations-of-cortical-volume-thickness-surface-and-density-in-the-intermediate-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-han-population-of-mainland-china
#12
Xia Deng, Meihong Zhou, Chunyan Tang, Jie Zhang, Lei Zhu, Zunchun Xie, Honghan Gong, Xiangzuo Xiao, Renshi Xu
Many symptoms of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) can't be completely explained by the lesion of simple typical extrapyramidal circuit between striatum and substantia nigra. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of cortical volume, thickness, surface, and density in the intermediate sPD from the Han population of Mainland China in order to find the new pathological brain regions associated with the complex clinical manifestations of sPD. The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI) in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530801/-research-advances-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-children
#13
Jing Liu, Jiong Qin
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity affecting the posterior brain, i.e. occipital and parietal lobes. The syndrome are characterized by headaches, altered mental status, seizures, and visual disturbances. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, endothelial dysfunction may be a key factor. The basic disease may play a crucial role in the incidence of PRES. In most cases, PRES resolves spontaneously and patients show both clinical and radiological improvements...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432102/inflammatory-pseudotumor-of-the-brain-parenchyma-with-igg4-hypergammaglobulinemia
#14
Haruko Tanji, Hiroaki Okada, Ryosuke Igari, Yoshitaka Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu Sato, Yoshimi Takahashi, Shingo Koyama, Shigeki Arawaka, Manabu Wada, Toru Kawanami, Koichi Wakabayashi, Takeo Kato
A 58-year-old woman with a 1-month history of right hand clumsiness and speaking difficulty was admitted to our hospital. A neurological examination revealed sensory aphasia and right hemiparesis. Her laboratory tests showed elevated serum levels of IgG and IgG4, pancytopenia, and liver dysfunction. The results of the imaging studies of her abdomen were compatible with sclerosing cholangitis. Brain MRI showed extensive signal abnormalities in the left hemisphere on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, extending from left internal capsule to the cerebral peduncle with an irregularly enhancing lesion in the left parietal lobe...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356810/similarity-of-symptoms-between-transient-epileptic-amnesia-and-lewy-body-disease
#15
Katsuyuki Ukai, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Masako Watanabe, Kenji Kosaka, Norio Ozaki
Epilepsy with the main symptom of amnesia is known as transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. The concept that Lewy body disease includes Parkinson's disease with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies was proposed in the 2005 revision of the Clinical Diagnostic Criteria. Here, we describe a woman with cognitive impairment, olfactory dysfunction, and reduced (123) I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake on myocardial scintigraphy...
June 30, 2016: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354020/working-memory-network-dysfunction-in-relapse-onset-multiple-sclerosis-phenotypes-a-clinical-imaging-evaluation
#16
Laura Vacchi, Maria A Rocca, Alessandro Meani, Mariaemma Rodegher, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
OBJECTIVES: We investigated clinical, behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) correlates of working memory load in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: In total, 12 clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) patients at risk of MS, 38 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), 22 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed an N-back fMRI task. Correlations between fMRI abnormalities and clinico-behavioural and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures were assessed...
June 28, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349503/insights-into-intrinsic-brain-networks-based-on-graph-theory-and-pet-in-right-compared-to-left-sided-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Thomas Vanicek, Andreas Hahn, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Eva Hilger, Marie Spies, Wolfgang Wadsak, Rupert Lanzenberger, Ekaterina Pataraia, Susanne Asenbaum-Nan
The human brain exhibits marked hemispheric differences, though it is not fully understood to what extent lateralization of the epileptic focus is relevant. Preoperative [(18)F]FDG-PET depicts lateralization of seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and reveals dysfunctional metabolic brain connectivity. The aim of the present study was to compare metabolic connectivity, inferred from inter-regional [(18)F]FDG PET uptake correlations, in right-sided (RTLE; n = 30) and left-sided TLE (LTLE; n = 32) with healthy controls (HC; n = 31) using graph theory based network analysis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345010/effects-of-hypotension-and-or-hypocapnia-during-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-perfusion-and-metabolites-in-the-developing-brain-of-piglets-a-blinded-randomized-study
#18
Simone K Ringer, Stefanie Ohlerth, Inés Carrera, Jacqueline Mauch, Nelly Spielmann, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Markus Weiss
BACKGROUND: Hypotension (HT) and/or hypocapnia (HC) are frequent complications occurring during pediatric anesthesia and may cause cerebral injury in the developing brain. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of HT and/or HC on perfusion and metabolism in the developing brain. METHODS: Twenty-eight piglets were randomly allocated to four groups: control (C), HT, HC, and hypotension and hyocapnia (HTC). Anesthesia was induced and maintained using sevoflurane...
September 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252647/in-alzheimer-s-disease-6-month-treatment-with-glp-1-analog-prevents-decline-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#19
Michael Gejl, Albert Gjedde, Lærke Egefjord, Arne Møller, Søren B Hansen, Kim Vang, Anders Rodell, Hans Brændgaard, Hanne Gottrup, Anna Schacht, Niels Møller, Birgitte Brock, Jørgen Rungby
In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [(11)C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [(18)F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27248706/alteration-of-the-intra-and-cross-hemisphere-posterior-default-mode-network-in-frontal-lobe-glioma-patients
#20
Haosu Zhang, Yonghong Shi, Chengjun Yao, Weijun Tang, Demin Yao, Chenxi Zhang, Manning Wang, Jinsong Wu, Zhijian Song
Patients with frontal lobe gliomas often experience neurocognitive dysfunctions before surgery, which affects the default mode network (DMN) to different degrees. This study quantitatively analyzed this effect from the perspective of cerebral hemispheric functional connectivity (FC). We collected resting-state fMRI data from 20 frontal lobe glioma patients before treatment and 20 healthy controls. All of the patients and controls were right-handed. After pre-processing the images, FC maps were built from the seed defined in the left or right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to the target regions determined in the left or right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ), respectively...
2016: Scientific Reports
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