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parietal lobe dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539636/effect-of-kidney-dysfunction-on-cerebral-cortical-thinning-in-elderly-population
#1
Chih-Hao Chen, Ya-Fang Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu, Ta-Fu Chen, Ping-Huan Tsai, Jen-Hau Chen, Chung-Jen Yen, Sung-Chun Tang, Shin-Joe Yeh, Yen-Ching Chen
Chronic kidney disease has been linked to cognitive impairment and morphological brain change. However, less is known about the impact of kidney functions on cerebral cortical thickness. This study investigated the relationship between kidney functions and global or lobar cerebral cortical thickness (CTh) in 259 non-demented elderly persons. Forty-three participants (16.7%) had kidney dysfunction, which was defined as either a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or presence of proteinuria...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532916/spinal-intramedullary-tuberculosis-with-concurrent-supra-and-infratentorial-intracranial-disease-in-a-9-month-old-boy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Michael George Zaki Ghali, Visish M Srinivasan, C J Kim, Archana Malik
Tuberculous involvement of the spinal cord parenchyma is an exceedingly rare clinical entity; even more so is concurrent intracranial tuberculosis (TB). Spinal intramedullary TB presents with a characteristic subacute myelopathy, with slowly progressive paraplegia, sensory deficits, and/or bowel and bladder dysfunction. Diagnosis is strongly suspected with a clinical history of known TB in conjunction with characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Management involves multi-agent antitubercular chemotherapy without or with operative intervention...
May 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529871/subtle-alterations-in-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-detected-by-graph-theoretical-analysis-and-not-by-the-standard-approach
#3
Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús, Gretel Sanabria-Diaz, Antoon Willemsen, Eduardo Martinez-Montes, Juan Samper-Noa, Angel Aguila-Ruiz, Ronald Boellaard, Peter De Deyn, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Lester Melie-Garcia
There is growing support that cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in response to a vasodilatory challenge, also defined as the cerebrovascular reserve, is reduced in Alzheimer's disease dementia. However, this is less clear in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current standard analysis may not reflect subtle abnormalities in CVR. In this study, we aimed to investigate vasodilatory-induced changes in the topology of the cerebral blood flow correlation (CBFcorr) network to study possible network-related CVR abnormalities in MCI...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509077/relationships-between-cognitive-impairment-on-adas-cog-and-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-using-spect-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Michio Takahashi, Yasunori Oda, Toshiyuki Okubo, Yukihiko Shirayama
The aim of this study was to examine brain hypoperfusion and its relationship with cognitive dysfunction in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty patients with late-onset AD and not receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and brain perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography, and analyzed classified gyrus level segments with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and the stereotactic extraction estimation method level 3...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498826/divergent-influences-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-domains-on-cognition-grey-and-white-matter-morphology
#5
Mitzi M Gonzales, Olusola Ajilore, Rebecca C Charlton, Jamie Cohen, Shaolin Yang, Erica Sieg, Dulal K Bhaumik, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically-derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. METHODS: 124 adults (age~59.8±13.1;41% African American;50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural MRI...
January 16, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347876/parietal-lobe-critically-supports-successful-paired-immediate-and-single-item-delayed-memory-for-targets
#6
Sabine Krumm, Sasa L Kivisaari, Andreas U Monsch, Julia Reinhardt, Stephan Ulmer, Christoph Stippich, Reto W Kressig, Kirsten I Taylor
The parietal lobe is important for successful recognition memory, but its role is not yet fully understood. We investigated the parietal lobes' contribution to immediate paired-associate memory and delayed item-recognition memory separately for hits (targets) and correct rejections (distractors). We compared the behavioral performance of 56 patients with known parietal and medial temporal lobe dysfunction (i.e. early Alzheimer's Disease) to 56 healthy control participants in an immediate paired and delayed single item object memory task...
March 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289629/neurocognitive-dysfunction-according-to-hypoperfusion-territory-in-patients-with-moyamoya-disease
#7
Chang Gu Kang, Min Ho Chun, Jung-A Kang, Kyung Hee Do, Su Jin Choi
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the prevalence of cerebral hypoperfusion without focal cerebral lesions in patients with Moyamoya disease (MMD), and the relationship between areas of hypoperfusion and cognitive impairment. METHODS: Twenty-six MMD patients were included. Patients were categorized according to the presence/absence of hypoperfusion in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes on brain single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) after acetazolamide challenge...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253512/neonatal-hypoglycaemia-and-visual-development-a-review
#8
Nabin Paudel, Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Jo E Hegarty, Jane E Harding, Benjamin Thompson
BACKGROUND: Many newborn babies experience low blood glucose concentrations, a condition referred to as neonatal hypoglycaemia (NH). The effect of NH on visual development in infancy and childhood is of interest because the occipital lobes, which include the primary visual cortex and a number of extrastriate visual areas, may be particularly susceptible to NH-induced injury. In addition, a number of case series have suggested that NH can affect eye and optic nerve development. OBJECTIVE: To review the existing literature concerning the effect of NH on the visual system...
March 3, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213372/effect-of-topiramate-and-zonisamide-on-fmri-cognitive-networks
#9
Britta Wandschneider, Jane Burdett, Lucy Townsend, Andrea Hill, Pamela J Thompson, John S Duncan, Matthias J Koepp
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of topiramate (TPM), zonisamide (ZNS), and levetiracetam (LEV) on cognitive network activations in patients with focal epilepsy using an fMRI language task. METHODS: In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, we identified patients from our clinical database of verbal fluency fMRI studies who were treated with either TPM (n = 32) or ZNS (n = 51). We matched 62 patients for clinical measures who took LEV but not TPM or ZNS. We entered antiepileptic comedications as nuisance variables and compared out-of-scanner psychometric measures for verbal fluency and working memory between groups...
March 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089970/spatial-working-memory-impairment-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#10
Chun-Min Zhu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Shou-Xing Duan, Zhi-Rong Lin, Jing-Jing Yin, Hong-Bo Le, Dan-Miao Sun, Wen-Can Xu, Shu-Hua Ma
OBJECTIVE: Using ethology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore mild cognitive dysfunction and spatial working memory (WM) impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) and to study whether any clinical biomarkers could serve as predictors of brain dysfunction in this disease. METHODS: Eighteen non-NPSLE patients and 18 matched subjects were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test and scanned using blood-oxygen-level dependent fMRI while performing the n-back task to investigate the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068928/newly-recognized-cerebral-infarctions-on-postmortem-imaging-a-report-of-three-cases-with-systemic-infectious-disease
#11
Sakon Noriki, Kazuyuki Kinoshita, Kunihiro Inai, Toyohiko Sakai, Hirohiko Kimura, Takahiro Yamauchi, Masayuki Iwano, Hironobu Naiki
BACKGROUND: Postmortem imaging (PMI) refers to the imaging of cadavers by computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three cases of cerebral infarctions that were not found during life but were newly recognized on PMI and were associated with severe systemic infections are presented. CASE PRESENTATIONS: An 81-year-old woman with a pacemaker and slightly impaired liver function presented with fever. Imaging suggested interstitial pneumonia and an iliopsoas abscess, and blood tests showed liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943048/vocal-emotion-processing-deficits-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#12
A González-Baeza, J R Arribas, I Pérez-Valero, S Monge, C Bayón, P Martín, S Rubio, F Carvajal
We aimed to explore the brain imaging correlates of vocal emotion processing in a group of HIV+ individuals and to compare the vocal emotion processing of HIV+ individuals with a group of healthy adults. We conducted multiple linear regressions to determine the cerebral correlates of a newly designed vocal emotion processing test in a sub-group of HIV+ individuals who completed the cerebral magnetic resonance scan (n = 36). Separately, we test whether the association between our test scores and each cerebral measure persisted regardless of the presence of neurocognitive impairment...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918911/cortical-amygdala-volumetric-ratios-predict-onset-of-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#13
David Berhanu, Leah M Mattiaccio, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Frank A Middleton, Wendy R Kates
Dysfunction of cortical circuitry involving prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and mesial temporal lobe has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that comports a 25-fold increased risk of developing psychosis. Morphological changes in the neuroanatomy of this syndrome may represent a biological risk factor for the development of psychosis. The present study explored ratios between cortical volumes and the amygdala. We also explored relationships between these ratios and the eventual development of psychosis in youth with 22q11DS...
January 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846290/altered-effective-connectivity-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-stroke-a-resting-state-fmri-study-with-granger-causality-analysis
#14
Zhiyong Zhao, Xiangmin Wang, Mingxia Fan, Dazhi Yin, Limin Sun, Jie Jia, Chaozheng Tang, Xiaohui Zheng, Yuwei Jiang, Jie Wu, Jiayu Gong
The primary motor cortex (M1) is often abnormally recruited in stroke patients with motor disabilities. However, little is known about the alterations in the causal connectivity of M1 following stroke. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the effective connectivity of the ipsilesional M1 is disturbed in stroke patients who show different outcomes in hand motor function. 23 patients with left-hemisphere subcortical stroke were selected and divided into two subgroups: partially paralyzed hands (PPH) and completely paralyzed hands (CPH)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833548/dysfunction-of-the-default-mode-network-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairments-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#15
Yanbing Hou, Jing Yang, Chunyan Luo, Wei Song, Ruwei Ou, Wanglin Liu, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
Objective: Cognitive impairments are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can even occur in the early stages. The default mode network (DMN) is highly relevant for cognitive processes; however, it remains largely unknown if changes in the DMN connectivity are related to the cognitive decline in drug-naïve early stage PD patients with a mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the brain connectivity of the DMN in early stage drug-naïve PD patients with MCI...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752513/longitudinal-profile-of-iron-accumulation-in-good-grade-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#16
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729856/aberrant-brain-regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-in-middle-aged-t2dm-patients-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#17
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Minglong Liang, Xuntao Yin, Ping Wei, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723821/abnormal-intrinsic-functional-hubs-in-severe-male-obstructive-sleep-apnea-evidence-from-a-voxel-wise-degree-centrality-analysis
#18
Haijun Li, Lan Li, Yi Shao, Honghan Gong, Wei Zhang, Xianjun Zeng, Chenglong Ye, Si Nie, Liting Chen, Dechang Peng
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. METHODS: Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623495/impaired-picture-arrangement-subscores-wais-iii-associated-with-decreased-place-orientation-and-frontal-occipital-blood-flow-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-social-judgment-dysfunction-the-osaki-tajiri-project
#19
Yuka Kato, Kenichi Meguro, Masahiro Nakatsuka, Kei Nakamura, Masahiro Tsuboi, Satoshi Yamaguchi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing "judgment" : the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567291/postmortem-structural-studies-of-the-thalamus-in-schizophrenia
#20
Karl-Anton Dorph-Petersen, David A Lewis
In this review, we seek to answer the following question: Do findings in the current literature support the idea that thalamo-cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia is due to structural abnormalities in the thalamus? We base our review on the existing literature of design-unbiased stereological studies of the postmortem thalamus from subjects with schizophrenia. Thus, all reported results are based upon the use of unbiased principles of sampling to determine volume and/or total cell numbers of thalamus or its constituent nuclei...
August 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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