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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510361/chlamydia-trachomatis-transformation-and-allelic-exchange-mutagenesis
#1
Konrad E Mueller, Katerina Wolf, Kenneth A Fields
Gene inactivation is essential for forward and reverse genetic approaches to establish protein function. Techniques such as insertion or chemical mutagenesis have been developed to mutagenize chlamydiae via targeted or random mutagenesis, respectively. Both of these approaches require transformation of chlamydiae to either introduce insertion elements or complement mutants. We have recently developed a targeted mutagenesis strategy, fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM), to delete Chlamydia trachomatis L2 genes...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503197/the-significance-of-proline-and-glutamate-on-butanol-chaotropic-stress-in-bacillus-subtilis-168
#2
Gumpanat Mahipant, Atchara Paemanee, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Junichi Kato, Alisa S Vangnai
BACKGROUND: Butanol is an intensively used industrial solvent and an attractive alternative biofuel, but the bioproduction suffers from its high toxicity. Among the native butanol producers and heterologous butanol-producing hosts, Bacillus subtilis 168 exhibited relatively higher butanol tolerance. Nevertheless, organic solvent tolerance mechanisms in Bacilli and Gram-positive bacteria have relatively less information. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate butanol stress responses that may involve in unique tolerance of B...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502395/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-rapidec%C3%A2-carba-np-test-for-rapid-screening-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-and-gram-negative-nonfermenters-from-clinical-specimens
#3
Marco Coppi, Alberto Antonelli, Tommaso Giani, Teresa Spanu, Flora Marzia Liotti, Carla Fontana, Walter Mirandola, Raffaele Gargiulo, Agostino Barozzi, Carola Mauri, Luigi Principe, Gian Maria Rossolini
The rapid diagnosis of carbapenemase-producing (CP) bacteria is essential for the management of therapy and infection control. In this study, RAPIDEC® CARBA NP (RCNP) was evaluated for the rapid screening of CP Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii complex, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical specimens collected at five Italian hospitals. Firstly, each site tested 20 well-characterized strains in a blinded fashion. Secondly, each center prospectively tested 25 isolates from blood cultures processed with a rapid workflow (6h after subculture) and 25 isolates from other specimens processed after an overnight culture...
April 27, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500532/the-structure-function-and-roles-of-the-archaeal-escrt-apparatus
#4
Rachel Y Samson, Megan J Dobro, Grant J Jensen, Stephen D Bell
Although morphologically resembling bacteria, archaea constitute a distinct domain of life with a closer affiliation to eukaryotes than to bacteria. This similarity is seen in the machineries for a number of essential cellular processes, including DNA replication and gene transcription. Perhaps surprisingly, given their prokaryotic morphology, some archaea also possess a core cell division apparatus that is related to that involved in the final stages of membrane abscission in vertebrate cells, the ESCRT machinery...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496436/myxococcus-xanthus-dk1622-coordinates-expressions-of-the-duplicate-groel-and-single-groes-genes-for-synergistic-functions-of-groels-and-groes
#5
Li Zhuo, Yan Wang, Zheng Zhang, Jian Li, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Yue-Zhong Li
Chaperonin GroEL (Cpn60) requires cofactor GroES (Cpn10) for protein refolding in bacteria that possess single groEL and groES genes in a bicistronic groESL operon. Among 4,861 completely-sequenced prokaryotic genomes, 884 possess duplicate groEL genes and 770 possess groEL genes with no neighboring groES. It is unclear whether stand-alone groEL requires groES in order to function and, if required, how duplicate groEL genes and unequal groES genes balance their expressions. In Myxococcus xanthus DK1622, we determined that, while duplicate groELs were alternatively deletable, the single groES that clusters with groEL1 was essential for cell survival...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496434/a-critical-assessment-of-the-microorganisms-proposed-to-be-important-to-enhanced-biological-phosphorus-removal-in-full-scale-wastewater-treatment-systems
#6
Mikkel Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Simon J McIlroy, Marta Nierychlo, Søren M Karst, Mads Albertsen, Per H Nielsen
Understanding the microbiology of phosphorus (P) removal is considered essential to knowledge-based optimization of enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) systems. Biological P removal is achieved in these systems by promoting the growth of organisms collectively known as the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Also considered important to EBPR are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), which are theorized to compete with the PAOs for resources at the expense of P removal efficiency. Numerous studies have sought to identify the PAOs and their GAOs competitors, with several candidates proposed for each over the last few decades...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493048/a-novel-%C3%AF-3-desaturase-in-the-deep-sea-giant-tubeworm-riftia-pachyptila
#7
Helu Liu, Hui Wang, Shanya Cai, Haibin Zhang
One paradox of the trophic biochemistry of the deep sea giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, endemic to hydrothermal vent sites and nourished by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency chemolitoautotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, is the source of their PUFAs. Biosynthesis of PUFA starts with two precursors C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, which cannot be biosynthesized by most animals due to lack of ω6- and ω3-desaturase; thus, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 are generally essential fatty acids for animals. Here, we characterized a gene derived from the R...
May 10, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492351/mest-a-unique-epoxide-hydrolase-is-essential-for-optimal-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-the-presence-of-styrene-oxide
#8
Manisha Chownk, Aashish Sharma, Kashmir Singh, Jagdeep Kaur
AIM: mesT of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a hypothetical/putative epoxide hydrolase, is predicted to convert toxic epoxides to the more water-soluble and less toxic diols. Detailed characterization of the protein was carried out. RESULTS: mesT demonstrated esterase as well as epoxide hydrolase activity. It was membrane bound and was upregulated under hypoxic conditions. The enzyme was able to degrade styrene oxide. The presence of antisense against this gene resulted in the inhibition of in vitro bacterial growth/survival in the presence of styrene oxide...
May 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487432/deciphering-mcr-2-colistin-resistance
#9
Jian Sun, Yongchang Xu, Rongsui Gao, Jingxia Lin, Wenhui Wei, Swaminath Srinivas, Defeng Li, Run-Shi Yang, Xing-Ping Li, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Youjun Feng
Antibiotic resistance is a prevalent problem in public health worldwide. In general, the carbapenem β-lactam antibiotics are considered a final resort against lethal infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Colistin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic and acts as the last line of defense for treatment of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Very recently, a new plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, mcr-2, was revealed soon after the discovery of the paradigm gene mcr-1, which has disseminated globally. However, the molecular mechanisms for MCR-2 colistin resistance are poorly understood...
May 9, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487228/characterization-of-s-adenosylhomocysteine-methylthioadenosine-nucleosidase-on-secretion-of-ai-2-and-biofilm-formation-of-escherichia-coli
#10
Tian Han, Yanhua Li, Qiuli Shan, Wenjing Liang, Weiwei Hao, Yumei Li, Xiaojun Tan, Jinsong Gu
S-adenosylhomocysteine/Methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (SAHN E.C.3.2.2.9) does not exist in mammalian cells but is essential for methyl recycling in numerous bacterial and protozoan species. Inhibition of this enzyme could limit synthesis of autoinducers of bacterial quorum sensing (QS), and hence, causes reduction in biofilm formation and may attenuate virulence. In this study, sahn deletion mutant of E. coli MG1655, sahn-complemented strain, and SANH-overexpressing strain were established and used to identify the secretion of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and biofilm formation...
May 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485369/control-of-type-iii-protein-secretion-using-a-minimal-genetic-system
#11
Miryoung Song, David J Sukovich, Luciano Ciccarelli, Julia Mayr, Jesus Fernandez-Rodriguez, Ethan A Mirsky, Alex C Tucker, D Benjamin Gordon, Thomas C Marlovits, Christopher A Voigt
Gram-negative bacteria secrete proteins using a type III secretion system (T3SS), which functions as a needle-like molecular machine. The many proteins involved in T3SS construction are tightly regulated due to its role in pathogenesis and motility. Here, starting with the 35 kb Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), we eliminated internal regulation and simplified the genetics by removing or recoding genes, scrambling gene order and replacing all non-coding DNA with synthetic genetic parts. This process results in a 16 kb cluster that shares no sequence identity, regulation or organizational principles with SPI-1...
May 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484046/exploring-the-%C3%AE-ctd-amino-acid-residue-requirements-for-productive-interaction-between-spx-and-rna-polymerase-of-bacillus-subtilis
#12
Cierra Birch, Madison Davis, Lea Mbengi, Peter Zuber
Bacillus subtilis Spx is a global transcriptional regulator that is conserved among gram-positive bacteria, in which Spx is required for preventing oxidatively induced proteotoxicity. Upon stress induction, Spx engages RNA polymerase (RNAP) through interaction with the C-terminal domain of the rpoA-encoded RNAP α subunit (αCTD). Previous mutational analysis of rpoA revealed that substitutions of Y263 in αCTD severely impaired Spx-activated transcription. Attempts to substitute alanine for αCTD R261, R268, R289, E255, E298 and K294 were unsuccessful, suggesting that these residues are essential...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481096/cuo-and-zno-nanoparticles-modify-interkingdom-cell-signaling-processes-relevant-to-crop-production-a-review
#13
Anne Anderson, Joan E McLean, Astrid Rosa Jacobson, David Britt
As the world population increases, strategies for sustainable agriculture are needed to fulfill the global need for plants for food and other commercial products. Nanoparticle formulations are likely to be part of the developing strategies. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) offer potential as fertilizers, as they provide bioavailable essential metals, and as pesticides, because of dose-dependent toxicity. Effects of these metal oxide NPs on rhizosphere functions are the focus of this review. These NPs at doses of 10 mg metal/kg and above change production of key metabolites involved in plant protection in a root-associated microbe, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480139/dynamics-and-genetic-diversification-of-escherichia-coli-during-experimental-adaptation-to-an-anaerobic-environment
#14
Thomas J Finn, Sonal Shewaramani, Sinead C Leahy, Peter H Janssen, Christina D Moon
BACKGROUND: Many bacteria are facultative anaerobes, and can proliferate in both anoxic and oxic environments. Under anaerobic conditions, fermentation is the primary means of energy generation in contrast to respiration. Furthermore, the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutations that arise during anaerobic growth differ to those under aerobic growth. A long-term selection experiment was undertaken to investigate the genetic changes that underpin how the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, adapts to anaerobic environments...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477337/comparative-analysis-of-dna-extraction-methods-to-study-the-body-surface-microbiota-of-insects-a-case-study-with%C3%A2-ant-cuticular-bacteria
#15
Caroline Birer, Niklas Tysklind, Lucie Zinger, Christophe Duplais
High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene has considerably helped revealing the essential role of bacteria living on insect cuticles in the ecophysiology and behavior of their hosts. However, our understanding of host-cuticular microbiota feedbacks remains hampered by the difficulties to working with low bacterial DNA quantities as in individual insect cuticle samples, which are more prone to molecular biases and contaminations. Herein, we conducted a methodological benchmark on the cuticular bacterial loads retrieved from two Neotropical ant species of different body size and ecology: Atta cephalotes (~15 mm) and Pseudomyrmex penetrator (~5 mm)...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476891/drosophila-tg-a-transglutaminase-is-secreted-via-an-unconventional-golgi-independent-mechanism-involving-exosomes-and-two-types-of-fatty-acylations
#16
Toshio Shibata, Jinki Hadano, Daichi Kawasaki, Xiaoqing Dong, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
Transglutaminases (TGs) play essential intracellular and extracellular roles by covalently cross-linking many proteins. Drosophila TG is encoded by one gene and has two alternative splicing-derived isoforms, TG-A and TG-B, which contain distinct N-terminal 46- and 38-amino acid sequences, respectively. The TGs identified to date do not have a typical endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-signal peptide, and the molecular mechanisms of their secretion under physiologic conditions are unclear. Immunocytochemistry revealed that TG-A localizes to multivesicular-like structures, whereas TG-B localizes to the cytosol...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475907/nitrospira-are-more-sensitive-than-nitrobacter-to-land-management-in-acid-fertilized-soils-of-a-rapeseed-rice-rotation-field-trial
#17
Shun Han, Xuesong Luo, Hao Liao, Hailing Nie, Wenli Chen, Qiaoyun Huang
Nitrite oxidation is recognized as an essential process of biogeochemical nitrogen cycling in agricultural ecosystems. How nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) respond to land managements (the effect from the long-term straw incorporation and environmental variability caused by the shift from the upland stage to the paddy stage) in a rapeseed-rice rotation field remains unclear. We found the nitrite oxidation (NO) in soils increased from the upland stage to the paddy stage. An inhibitory effect of the long-term straw incorporation on NO was detectable in the upland stage...
May 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469617/exploration-of-using-antisense-peptide-nucleic-acid-pna-cell-penetrating-peptide-cpp-as-a-novel-bactericide-against-fire-blight-pathogen-erwinia-amylovora
#18
Ravi R Patel, George W Sundin, Ching-Hong Yang, Jie Wang, Regan B Huntley, Xiaochen Yuan, Quan Zeng
Erwinia amylovora is a Gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen in the family Enterobacteriaceae and is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear. Fire blight is traditionally managed by the application of the antibiotic streptomycin during bloom, but this strategy has been challenged by the development and spread of streptomycin resistance. Thus, there is an urgent need for effective, specific, and sustainable control alternatives for fire blight. Antisense antimicrobials are oligomers of nucleic acid homologs with antisense sequence of essential genes in bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469616/guar-gum-stimulates-biogenic-sulfide-production-at-elevated-pressures-implications-for-shale-gas-extraction
#19
Sophie L Nixon, Leanne Walker, Matthew D T Streets, Bob Eden, Christopher Boothman, Kevin G Taylor, Jonathan R Lloyd
Biogenic sulfide production is a common problem in the oil industry, and can lead to costly hydrocarbon processing and corrosion of extraction infrastructure. The same phenomenon has recently been identified in shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing, and organic additives in fracturing fluid have been hypothesized to stimulate this process. Constraining the relative effects of the numerous organic additives on microbial metabolism in situ is, however, extremely challenging. Using a bespoke bioreactor system we sought to assess the potential for guar gum, the most commonly used gelling agent in fracturing fluids, to stimulate biogenic sulfide production by sulfate-reducing microorganisms at elevated pressure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469612/fis-regulates-type-iii-secretion-system-by-influencing-the-transcription-of-exsa-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strain-pa14
#20
Xuan Deng, Mei Li, Xiaolei Pan, Ruiping Zheng, Chang Liu, Fei Chen, Xue Liu, Zhihui Cheng, Shouguang Jin, Weihui Wu
Fis is a versatile DNA binding protein in bacteria. It has been demonstrated in multiple bacteria that Fis plays crucial roles in regulating bacterial virulence factors and optimizing bacterial adaptation to various environments. However, the role of Fis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence as well as gene regulation remains largely unknown. Here, we found that Fis was required for the virulence of P. aeruginosa in a murine acute pneumonia model. Transcriptome analysis revealed that expression of T3SS genes, including master regulator ExsA, was defective in a fis::Tn mutant...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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