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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447935/host-selected-mutations-converging-on-a-global-regulator-drive-an-adaptive-leap-by-bacteria-to-symbiosis
#1
Molly Sabrina Pankey, Randi L Foxall, Ian M Ster, Lauren A Perry, Brian M Schuster, Rachel A Donner, Matthew Coyle, Vaughn S Cooper, Cheryl A Whistler
Host immune and physical barriers protect against pathogens but also impede the establishment of essential symbiotic partnerships. To reveal mechanisms by which beneficial organisms adapt to circumvent host defenses, we experimentally evolved ecologically distinct bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri through Euprymna scolopes squid light organs. Serial squid passaging of bacteria produced eight distinct mutations in the binK sensor kinase gene that conferred an exceptional selective advantage demonstrated through both empirical and theoretical analysis...
April 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438927/the-role-of-psl-genes-in-antibiotic-tolerance-of-adherent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Keiji Murakami, Tsuneko Ono, Darija Viducic, Yoko Somiya, Reiko Kariyama, Kenji Hori, Takashi Amoh, Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromi Kumon, Matthew R Parsek, Yoichiro Miyake
Bacteria attached to a surface are generally more tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts, even without the formation of a biofilm. The mechanism of antibiotic tolerance in biofilm communities is multifactorial, and the genetic backgound underlying this antibiotic tolerance has not yet been fully elucidated. Using transposon mutagenesis, we isolated a mutant with reduced tolerance to biapenem (relative to the wild-type) from adherent cells. Sequencing analysis revealed a mutation in the pslL gene, which is a part of the polysaccharide biosynthesis operon...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435837/staphylococcus-aureus-type-i-signal-peptidase-essential-or-not-essential-that-s-the-question
#3
COMMENT
Wouter L Hazenbos, Elizabeth Skippington, Man-Wah Tan
Secretion of proteins into the extracellular environment is crucial for the normal physiology and virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Type I signal peptidase (SPase I) mediates the final step of bacterial secretion, by cleaving proteins at their signal peptide once they are translocated by the Sec or twin-arginine (Tat) translocon. SPase I has long been thought to be essential for viability in multiple bacterial pathogens. Challenging this view, we and others have recently created Staphylococcus aureus bacteria lacking the SPase I SpsB that are viable and able to grow in vitro when over-expressing a native gene cassette encoding for a putative ABC transporter...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434876/dual-targeting-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-fmn-riboswitch-disrupt-riboflavin-homeostasis-in-an-infectious-setting
#4
Hao Wang, Paul A Mann, Li Xiao, Charles Gill, Andrew M Galgoci, John A Howe, Artjohn Villafania, Christopher M Barbieri, Juliana C Malinverni, Xinwei Sher, Todd Mayhood, Megan D McCurry, Nicholas Murgolo, Amy Flattery, Matthias Mack, Terry Roemer
Riboswitches are bacterial-specific, broadly conserved, non-coding RNA structural elements that control gene expression of numerous metabolic pathways and transport functions essential for cell growth. As such, riboswitch inhibitors represent a new class of potential antibacterial agents. Recently, we identified ribocil-C, a highly selective inhibitor of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch that controls expression of de novo riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Here, we provide a mechanistic characterization of the antibacterial effects of ribocil-C as well as of roseoflavin (RoF), an antimetabolite analog of RF, among medically significant Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterococcus faecalis...
April 18, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434086/the-inability-of-bacillus-licheniformis-perr-mutant-to-grow-is-mainly-due-to-the-lack-of-perr-mediated-fur-repression
#5
Jung-Hoon Kim, Yoon-Mo Yang, Chang-Jun Ji, Su-Hyun Ryu, Young-Bin Won, Shin-Yeong Ju, Yumi Kwon, Yeh-Eun Lee, Hwan Youn, Jin-Won Lee
PerR, a member of Fur family protein, is a metal-dependent H2O2 sensing transcription factor that regulates genes involved in peroxide stress response. Industrially important bacterium Bacillus licheniformis contains three PerR-like proteins (PerRBL, PerR2, and PerR3) compared to its close relative Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, unlike other bacteria including B. subtilis, no authentic perR BL null mutant could be established for B. licheniformis. Thus, we constructed a conditional perR BL mutant using a xylose-inducible promoter, and investigated the genes under the control of PerRBL...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#6
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432347/identification-and-characterization-of-differentially-regulated-type-ivb-pilin-genes-necessary-for-predation-in-obligate-bacterial-predators
#7
Ofir Avidan, Margarita Petrenko, René Becker, Sebastian Beck, Michael Linscheid, Shmuel Pietrokovski, Edouard Jurkevitch
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an obligate predator of bacteria that grows and divides within the periplasm of its prey. Functions involved in the early steps of predation have been identified and characterized, but mediators of prey invasion are still poorly detailed. By combining omics data available for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALO's), we identified 43 genes expressed in B. bacteriovorus during the early interaction with prey. These included genes in a tight adherence (TAD) operon encoding for two type IVb fimbriae-like pilin proteins (flp1 and flp2), and their processing and export machinery...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430084/the-spo0a-sini-sinr-regulatory-circuit-plays-an-essential-role-in-biofilm-formation-nematicidal-activities-and-plant-protection-in-bacillus-cereus-ar156
#8
Sunde Xu, Nan Yang, Shiyu Zheng, Fang Yan, Chunhao Jiang, Yiyang Yu, Jianhua Guo, Yunrong Chai, Yun Chen
The rhizosphere bacterium Bacillus cereus AR156 is capable of forming biofilms, killing nematodes, and protecting plants. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these processes are not well understood. In this study, we found that the isogenic mutants ΔBcspo0A and ΔBcsinI have significantly reduced colonization and nematicidal activity in vitro and biological control efficacy on the tomato plant under greenhouse conditions. We further investigated the role of the spo0A-sinI-sinR regulatory circuit in biofilm formation, killing against nematodes, and biological control in AR156...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420751/control-of-potassium-homeostasis-is-an-essential-function-of-the-second-messenger-cyclic-di-amp-in-bacillus-subtilis
#9
Jan Gundlach, Christina Herzberg, Volkhard Kaever, Katrin Gunka, Tamara Hoffmann, Martin Weiß, Johannes Gibhardt, Andrea Thürmer, Dietrich Hertel, Rolf Daniel, Erhard Bremer, Fabian M Commichau, Jörg Stülke
The second messenger cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is essential in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis and in related pathogenic bacteria. It controls the activity of the conserved ydaO riboswitch and of several proteins involved in potassium (K(+)) uptake. We found that the YdaO protein was conserved among several different bacteria and provide evidence that YdaO functions as a K(+) transporter. Thus, we renamed the gene and protein KimA (K(+) importer A). Reporter activity assays indicated that expression beyond the c-di-AMP-responsive riboswitch of the kimA upstream regulatory region occurred only in bacteria grown in medium containing low K(+) concentrations...
April 18, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420677/tcup-typing-and-characterization-of-bacteria-using-bottom-up-tandem-mass-spectrometry-proteomics
#10
Fredrik Boulund, Roger Karlsson, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Anna Johnning, Nahid Karami, Omar Al-Bayati, Christina Ahren, Edward R B Moore, Erik Kristiansson
Methods for rapid and reliable microbial identification are essential in modern healthcare. The ability to detect and correctly identify pathogenic species and their resistance phenotype is necessary for accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment of infectious diseases. Bottom-up tandem mass spectrometry (MS) proteomics enables rapid characterization of large parts of the expressed genes of microorganisms. However, the generated data is highly fragmented, making down-stream analyses complex. Here we present TCUP, a new computational method for typing and characterizing bacteria using proteomics data from bottom-up tandem MS...
April 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419759/regulation-of-burkholderia%C3%A2-cenocepacia-biofilm-formation-by-rpon-and-the-c-di-gmp-effector-berb
#11
Mustafa Fazli, Morten Rybtke, Elisabeth Steiner, Elisabeth Weidel, Jens Berthelsen, Julie Groizeleau, Wu Bin, Boo Zhao Zhi, Zhang Yaming, Volkhard Kaever, Michael Givskov, Rolf W Hartmann, Leo Eberl, Tim Tolker-Nielsen
Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of biofilm formation is essential for the development of biofilm-control measures. It is well established that the nucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a positive regulator of biofilm formation in many bacteria, but more knowledge about c-di-GMP effectors is needed. We provide evidence that c-di-GMP, the alternative sigma factor RpoN (σ54), and the enhancer-binding protein BerB play a role in biofilm formation of Burkholderia cenocepacia by regulating the production of a biofilm-stabilizing exopolysaccharide...
April 16, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414774/mycobacterium-marinum-antagonistically-induces-an-autophagic-response-while-repressing-the-autophagic-flux-in-a-torc1-and-esx-1-dependent-manner
#12
Elena Cardenal-Muñoz, Sonia Arafah, Ana Teresa López-Jiménez, Sébastien Kicka, Alexandra Falaise, Frauke Bach, Olivier Schaad, Jason S King, Monica Hagedorn, Thierry Soldati
Autophagy is a eukaryotic catabolic process also participating in cell-autonomous defence. Infected host cells generate double-membrane autophagosomes that mature in autolysosomes to engulf, kill and digest cytoplasmic pathogens. However, several bacteria subvert autophagy and benefit from its machinery and functions. Monitoring infection stages by genetics, pharmacology and microscopy, we demonstrate that the ESX-1 secretion system of Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative to M. tuberculosis, upregulates the transcription of autophagy genes, and stimulates autophagosome formation and recruitment to the mycobacteria-containing vacuole (MCV) in the host model organism Dictyostelium...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414427/enhancing-extracellular-electron-transfer-of-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1-through-coupling-improved-flavin-synthesis-and-metal-reducing-conduit-for-pollutant-degradation
#13
Di Min, Lei Cheng, Feng Zhang, Xue-Na Huang, Dao-Bo Li, Dong-Feng Liu, Tai-Chu Lau, Yang Mu, Han-Qing Yu
Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides, which are used as external electron acceptors by DMRB for their anaerobic respiration. The EET process has important contribution to environmental remediation mineral cycling, and bioelectrochemical systems. However, the low EET efficiency remains to be one of the major bottlenecks for its practical applications for pollutant degradation. In this work, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model DMRB, was used to examine the feasibility of enhancing the EET and its biodegradation capacity through genetic engineering...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404995/glucose-uptake-in-azotobacter-vinelandii-occurs-through-a-glup-transporter-that-is-under-the-control-of-the-cbra-cbrb-and-hfq-crc-systems
#14
Elva Quiroz-Rocha, Renata Moreno, Armando Hernández-Ortíz, Juan Carlos Fragoso-Jiménez, Luis Felipe Muriel-Millán, Josefina Guzmán, Guadalupe Espín, Fernando Rojo, Cinthia Núñez
Azotobacter vinelandii, a strict aerobic, nitrogen fixing bacterium in the Pseudomonadaceae family, exhibits a preferential use of acetate over glucose as a carbon source. In this study, we show that GluP (Avin04150), annotated as an H(+)-coupled glucose-galactose symporter, is the glucose transporter in A. vinelandii. This protein, which is widely distributed in bacteria and archaea, is uncommon in Pseudomonas species. We found that expression of gluP was under catabolite repression control thorugh the CbrA/CbrB and Crc/Hfq regulatory systems, which were functionally conserved between A...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399822/dominant-bacterial-phyla-in-caves-and-their-predicted-functional-roles-in-c-and-n-cycle
#15
Surajit De Mandal, Raghunath Chatterjee, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Bacteria present in cave often survive by modifying their metabolic pathway or other mechanism. Understanding these adopted bacteria and their survival strategy inside the cave is an important aspect of microbial ecology. Present study focuses on the bacterial community and geochemistry in five caves of Mizoram, Northeast India. The objective of this study was to explore the taxonomic composition and presumed functional diversity of cave sediment metagenomes using paired end Illumina sequencing using V3 region of 16S rRNA gene and bioinformatics pipeline...
April 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396352/association-of-the-cold-shock-dead-box-rna-helicase-rhle-to-the-rna-degradosome-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#16
Angel A Aguirre, Alexandre M Vicente, Steven W Hardwick, Daniela M Alvelos, Ricardo R Mazzon, Ben F Luisi, Marilis V Marques
In diverse bacterial lineages, multi-enzyme assemblies have evolved that are central elements of RNA metabolism and RNA-mediated regulation. The aquatic, Gram-negative bacteria Caulobacter crescentus, which has been a model system for studying the bacterial cell cycle, has an RNA degradosome assembly that is formed by the endoribonuclease RNase E and includes the DEAD-box RNA helicase RhlB. Immunoprecipitations of extracts from cells expressing an epitope-tagged RNase E reveal that RhlE, another member of the DEAD-box helicase family, associates with the degradosome at temperatures below the optimum for growth...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396349/biochemical-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-chlamydia-groel-chaperonins
#17
Melissa Illingworth, Anna J Hooppaw, Lu Ruan, Derek J Fisher, Lingling Chen
Chaperonins are essential for cellular growth under normal and stressful conditions and consequently represent one of the most conserved and ancient protein classes. The paradigm Escherichia coli chaperonin, EcGroEL, and its cochaperonin, EcGroES, assist folding of proteins via an ATP-dependent mechanism. In addition to the presence of groEL and groES homologs, groEL paralogs are found in many bacteria, including pathogens, and have evolved poorly understood species-specific functions. Chlamydia spp., which are obligate intracellular bacteria, have reduced genomes that nonetheless encode three groEL genes, ChgroEL, ChgroEL2 and ChgroEL3 We hypothesized that ChGroEL is the bona-fide chaperonin, while the paralogs perform novel, Chlamydia-specific functions...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393892/four-genes-essential-for-recombination-define-gints-a-new-type-of-mobile-genomic-island-widespread-in-bacteria
#18
Leire Bardaji, Myriam Echeverría, Pablo Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pedro M Martínez-García, Jesús Murillo
Integrases are a family of tyrosine recombinases that are highly abundant in bacterial genomes, actively disseminating adaptive characters such as pathogenicity determinants and antibiotics resistance. Using comparative genomics and functional assays, we identified a novel type of mobile genetic element, the GInt, in many diverse bacterial groups but not in archaea. Integrated as genomic islands, GInts show a tripartite structure consisting of the ginABCD operon, a cargo DNA region from 2.5 to at least 70 kb, and a short AT-rich 3' end...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388876/transcriptomic-buffering-of-cryptic-genetic-variation-contributes-to-meningococcal-virulence
#19
Biju Joseph Ampattu, Laura Hagmann, Chunguang Liang, Marcus Dittrich, Andreas Schlüter, Jochen Blom, Elizaveta Krol, Alexander Goesmann, Anke Becker, Thomas Dandekar, Tobias Müller, Christoph Schoen
BACKGROUND: Commensal bacteria like Neisseria meningitidis sometimes cause serious disease. However, genomic comparison of hyperinvasive and apathogenic lineages did not reveal unambiguous hints towards indispensable virulence factors. Here, in a systems biological approach we compared gene expression of the invasive strain MC58 and the carriage strain α522 under different ex vivo conditions mimicking commensal and virulence compartments to assess the strain-specific impact of gene regulation on meningococcal virulence...
April 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372360/a-modular-high-throughput-in-vivo-screening-platform-based-on-chimeric-bacterial-receptors
#20
Christina E Lehning, Jan B Heidelberger, John Reinhard, Morten H H Nørholm, Roger R Draheim
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a globally relevant problem that requires novel approaches. Two-component systems are a promising, yet untapped target for novel antibacterials. They are prevalent in bacteria and absent in mammals, and their activity can be modulated upon perception of various stimuli. Screening pre-existing compound libraries could reveal small molecules that inhibit stimulus-perception by virulence-modulating receptors, reduce signal output from essential receptors or identify artificial stimulatory ligands for novel SHKs that are involved in virulence...
April 7, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
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