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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644872/helicobacter-pylori-gene-silencing-in-vivo-demonstrates-urease-is-essential-for-chronic-infection
#1
Aleksandra W Debowski, Senta M Walton, Eng-Guan Chua, Alfred Chin-Yen Tay, Tingting Liao, Binit Lamichhane, Robyn Himbeck, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Alma Fulurija, Mohammed Benghezal
Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic active gastritis that after many years of infection can develop into peptic ulceration or gastric adenocarcinoma. The bacterium is highly adapted to surviving in the gastric environment and a key adaptation is the virulence factor urease. Although widely postulated, the requirement of urease expression for persistent infection has not been elucidated experimentally as conventional urease knockout mutants are incapable of colonization. To overcome this constraint, conditional H...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642371/electrostatic-interactions-between-the-ctx-phage-minor-coat-protein-and-the-bacterial-host-receptor-tola-drives-the-pathogenic-conversion-of-vibrio-cholerae
#2
Laetitia Houot, Romain Navarro, Matthieu Nouailler, Denis Duché, Françoise Guerlesquin, Roland Lloubes
Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments and converts to a pathogen upon infection by a filamentous phage, CTXφ, that transmits the cholera toxin encoding genes. This toxigenic conversion of V. cholerae has evident implication in both genome plasticity and epidemic risk, but the early stages of the infection have not been thoroughly studied. CTXφ transit across the bacterial periplasm requires binding between the minor coat protein named pIII and a bacterial inner-membrane receptor, TolA, which is part of the conserved Tol-Pal molecular motor...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638805/increased-zinc-availability-enhances-initial-aggregation-and-biofilm-formation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#3
Lindsey R Brown, Rachel C Caulkins, Tyler E Schartel, Jason W Rosch, Erin S Honsa, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Sean Cherry, Justin A Thornton
Bacteria growing within biofilms are protected from antibiotics and the immune system. Within these structures, horizontal transfer of genes encoding virulence factors, and promoting antibiotic resistance occurs, making biofilms an extremely important aspect of pneumococcal colonization and persistence. Identifying environmental cues that contribute to the formation of biofilms is critical to understanding pneumococcal colonization and infection. Iron has been shown to be essential for the formation of pneumococcal biofilms; however, the role of other physiologically important metals such as copper, zinc, and manganese has been largely neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638803/peptide-nucleic-acid-knockdown-and-intra-host-cell-complementation-of-ehrlichia-type-iv-secretion-system-effector
#4
Pratibha Sharma, Omid Teymournejad, Yasuko Rikihisa
Survival of Ehrlichia chaffeensis depends on obligatory intracellular infection. One of the barriers to E. chaffeensis research progress has been the inability, using conventional techniques, to generate knock-out mutants for genes essential for intracellular infection. This study examined the use of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) technology to interrupt type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein expression in E. chaffeensis followed by intracellular complementation of the effector to determine its requirement for infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636560/lipocalin-2-regulates-intestine-bacterial-survival-by-interplaying-with-siderophore-in-a-weaned-piglet-model-of-escherichia-coli-infection
#5
Bing-Xiu Guo, Qian-Qian Wang, Jia-Hui Li, Zhen-Shun Gan, Xiao-Feng Zhang, Yi-Zhen Wang, Hua-Hua Du
Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth, which plays a pivotal role in modulating the battle for survival between mammalian hosts and their pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria secrete siderophores to acquire iron from the host. However, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), a siderophore-binding antimicrobial protein, binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial uptake of iron, which is critical for the control of systemic infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli). But few studies focus on the anti-infective response of Lcn2 in the intestines by inhibiting bacterial proliferation based on microbial iron metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636310/sensing-mechanisms-in-the-redox-regulated-2fe-2s-cluster-containing-bacterial-transcriptional-factor-soxr
#6
Kazuo Kobayashi
Bacteria possess molecular biosensors that enable responses to a variety of stressful conditions, including oxidative stress, toxic compounds, and interactions with other organisms, through elaborately coordinated regulation of gene expression. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the transcription factor SoxR functions as a sensor of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO). SoxR protein contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster essential for its transcription-enhancing activity, which is regulated by redox changes in the [2Fe-2S] cluster...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#7
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634238/electron-transport-chain-is-biochemically-linked-to-pilus-assembly-required-for-polymicrobial-interactions-and-biofilm-formation-in-the-gram-positive-actinobacterium-actinomyces-oris
#8
Belkys C Sanchez, Chungyu Chang, Chenggang Wu, Bryan Tran, Hung Ton-That
The Gram-positive actinobacteria Actinomyces spp. are key colonizers in the development of oral biofilms due to the inherent ability of Actinomyces to adhere to receptor polysaccharides on the surface of oral streptococci and host cells. This receptor-dependent bacterial interaction, or coaggregation, requires a unique sortase-catalyzed pilus consisting of the pilus shaft FimA and the coaggregation factor CafA forming the pilus tip. While the essential role of the sortase machine SrtC2 in pilus assembly, biofilm formation, and coaggregation has been established, little is known about trans-acting factors contributing to these processes...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631353/microbiome-dynamics-in-early-life-stages-of-the-scleractinian-coral-acropora-gemmifera-in-response-to-elevated-pco2
#9
Guowei Zhou, Lin Cai, Tao Yuan, Renmao Tian, Haoya Tong, Weipeng Zhang, Lei Jiang, Minglan Guo, Sheng Liu, Pei-Yuan Qian, Hui Huang
Reef-building coral is a complex holobiont, harbouring diverse microorganisms that play essential roles in maintaining coral health. However, microbiome development in early life stages of coral remains poorly understood. Here, microbiomes of Acropora gemmifera were analysed during spawning and early developmental stages, and also under different seawater partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) conditions, using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and archaea and of ITS2 for Symbiodinium. No remarkable microbiome shift was observed in adults before and after spawning...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630299/bacteria-mediated-hypoxia-functions-as-a-signal-for-mosquito-development
#10
Kerri L Coon, Luca Valzania, David A McKinney, Kevin J Vogel, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, do not develop beyond the first instar when fed a nutritionally complete diet in the absence of a gut microbiota. In contrast, several species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, rescue development of axenic larvae into adults. The molecular mechanisms underlying bacteria-dependent growth are unknown. Here, we designed a genetic screen around E...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630160/listeriolysin-o-from-bazooka-to-swiss-army-knife
#11
REVIEW
Suzanne E Osborne, John H Brumell
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen. Infections in humans can lead to listeriosis, a systemic disease with a high mortality rate. One important mechanism of Lm dissemination involves cell-to-cell spread after bacteria have entered the cytosol of host cells. Listeriolysin O (LLO; encoded by the hly gene) is a virulence factor present in Lm that plays a central role in the cell-to-cell spread process. LLO is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of toxins that were initially thought to promote disease largely by inducing cell death and tissue destruction-essentially acting like a 'bazooka'...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630129/the-polar-organizing-protein-popz-is-required-for-chromosome-segregation-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#12
Haley M Ehrle, Jacob T Guidry, Rebecca Iacovetto, Anne K Salisbury, D J Sandidge, Grant Bowman
Despite being perceived as relatively simple organisms, many bacteria exhibit an impressive degree of sub-cellular organization. In Caulobacter crescentus, the evolutionarily conserved polar organizing protein PopZ facilitates cytoplasmic organization by recruiting chromosome centromeres and regulatory proteins to the cell poles. Here, we characterize the localization and function of PopZ in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a genetically related species with distinct anatomy. In this species, we find that PopZ molecules are relocated from the old pole to the new pole in the minutes following cell division...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630126/a-key-enzyme-of-the-nad-salvage-pathway-in-thermus-thermophilus-characterization-of-nicotinamidase-and-the-impact-of-its-gene-deletion-at-high-temperatures
#13
Hironori Taniguchi, Sathidaphorn Sungwallek, Phatcharin Chotchuang, Kenji Okano, Kohsuke Honda
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a cofactor related to many cellular processes. This cofactor is known to be unstable, especially at high temperatures, where it chemically decomposes to nicotinamide and ADP-ribose. Bacteria, yeast, and higher organisms possess the salvage pathway for reconstructing NAD(+) from these decomposition products; however, the importance of the salvage pathway for survival is not well elucidated, except for in pathogens lacking the NAD(+)de novo synthesis pathway. Herein, we report the importance of the NAD(+) salvage pathway in the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 at high temperatures...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621429/the-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligase-dgrn-is-essential-for-drosophila-innate-immunity
#14
Bella Koltun, Eliza Shackelford, François Bonnay, Nicolas Matt, Jean Marc Reichhart, Amir Orian
The ability of metazoans to combat pathogenic infection involves both systemic and local responses to the invading pathogens. Ubiquitin and SUMO pathways molecularly regulate the response to infection, immune signaling and gene expression. Here, we report that Degringolade (Dgrn, CG10981), a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase connecting the two pathways, is essential for the innate immunity response in Drosophila. dgrn(DK) null and heterozygous mutant adult flies are severely immune-compromised and succumb rapidly to both pathogenic bacteria and fungi infections...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620585/identification-of-a-large-family-of-slam-dependent-surface-lipoproteins-in-gram-negative-bacteria
#15
Yogesh Hooda, Christine C L Lai, Trevor F Moraes
The surfaces of many Gram-negative bacteria are decorated with soluble proteins anchored to the outer membrane via an acylated N-terminus; these proteins are referred to as surface lipoproteins or SLPs. In Neisseria meningitidis, SLPs such as transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) and factor-H binding protein (fHbp) are essential for host colonization and infection because of their essential roles in iron acquisition and immune evasion, respectively. Recently, we identified a family of outer membrane proteins called Slam (Surface lipoprotein assembly modulator) that are essential for surface display of neisserial SLPs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620359/genome-wide-search-for-genes-required-for-bifidobacterial-growth-under-iron-limitation
#16
Noreen Lanigan, Francesca Bottacini, Pat G Casey, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Douwe van Sinderen
Bacteria evolved over millennia in the presence of the vital micronutrient iron. Iron is involved in numerous processes within the cell and is essential for nearly all living organisms. The importance of iron to the survival of bacteria is obvious from the large variety of mechanisms by which iron may be acquired from the environment. Random mutagenesis and global gene expression profiling led to the identification of a number of genes, which are essential for Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 survival under iron-restrictive conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620358/the-transcriptional-regulators-of-the-crp-family-regulate-different-essential-bacterial-functions-and-can-be-inherited-vertically-and-horizontally
#17
REVIEW
Gloria Soberón-Chávez, Luis D Alcaraz, Estefanía Morales, Gabriel Y Ponce-Soto, Luis Servín-González
One of the best-studied transcriptional regulatory proteins in bacteria is the Escherichia coli catabolite repressor protein (CRP) that when complexed with 3'-5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) changes its conformation and interacts with specific DNA-sequences. CRP DNA-binding can result in positive or negative regulation of gene expression depending on the position of its interaction with respect to RNA polymerase binding site. The aim of this work is to review the biological role and phylogenetic relations that some members of the CRP family of transcriptional regulators (also known as cAMP receptor protein family) have in different bacterial species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610916/the-rhizoferrin-biosynthetic-gene-in-the-fungal-pathogen-rhizopus-delemar-is-a-novel-member-of-the-nis-gene-family
#18
Cassandra S Carroll, Clark L Grieve, Indu Murugathasan, Andrew J Bennet, Clarissa M Czekster, Huanting Lui, James Naismith, Margo M Moore
Iron is essential for growth and in low iron environments such as serum many bacteria and fungi secrete ferric iron-chelating molecules called siderophores. All fungi produce hydroxamate siderophores with the exception of Mucorales fungi, which secrete rhizoferrin, a polycarboxylate siderophore. Here we investigated the biosynthesis of rhizoferrin by the opportunistic human pathogen, Rhizopus delemar. We searched the genome of R. delemar 99-880 for a homologue of the bacterial NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) protein, SfnaD, that is involved in biosynthesis of staphyloferrin A in Staphylococcus aureus...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609133/carotenoids-biosynthesis-and-cleavage-related-genes-from-bacteria-to-plants
#19
Ming-Hua Liang, Jianhua Zhu, Jian-Guo Jiang
Carotenoids are essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection in photosynthetic organisms and beneficial for human health. Apocarotenoids derived from carotenoid degradation can serve critical functions including hormones, volatiles, and signals. They have been used commercially as food colorants, animal feed supplements, and nutraceuticals for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. This review focuses on the molecular evolution of carotenogenic enzymes and carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) from bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria, algae, and plants...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608649/high-coverage-proteomics-reveals-methionine-auxotrophy-in-deinococcus-radiodurans
#20
Yanxia Zhou, Pan Shen, Qiuyan Lan, Chen Deng, Yao Zhang, Yanchang Li, Wei Wei, Yihao Wang, Na Su, Fuchu He, Qiong Xie, Zhitang Lyu, Dong Yang, Xu Ping
Deinococcus radiodurans is a robust bacterium best known for its capacity to resist to radiation. In this study, the SDS-PAGE coupled with high-precision LC-MS/MS was used to study the D. radiodurans proteome. A total of 1951 proteins were identified which covers 63.18% protein coding genes. Comparison of the identified proteins to the key enzymes in amino acid biosyntheses from KEGG database showed the methionine biosynthesis is incomplete while other amino acid biosynthesis are complete, which indicated methionine auxotrophy in D...
June 13, 2017: Proteomics
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