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Bacteria AND essential genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818038/role-of-the-type-vi-secretion-systems-during-disease-interactions-of-erwinia-amylovora-with-its-plant-host
#1
Tim Kamber, Joël F Pothier, Cosima Pelludat, Fabio Rezzonico, Brion Duffy, Theo H M Smits
BACKGROUND: Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are widespread among Gram-negative bacteria and have a potential role as essential virulence factors or to maintain symbiotic interactions. Three T6SS gene clusters were identified in the genome of E. amylovora CFBP 1430, of which T6SS-1 and T6SS-3 represent complete T6SS machineries, while T6SS-2 is reduced in its gene content. RESULTS: To assess the contribution of T6SSs to virulence and potential transcriptomic changes of E...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813778/the-bactericidal-effect-of-high-temperature-is-an-essential-resistance-mechanism-of-chicken-macrophage-against-brucella-abortus-infection
#2
Lauren Togonon Arayan, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo Reyes, Huynh Tan Hop, Huy Tran Xuan, Eun Jin Baek, Wongi Min, Suk Kim
Knowledge of avian host responses to brucellosis is critical to understanding how avian resists this infection however this mechanism is not well established. On the other hand, temperature has a major involvement in the physiology of living organisms and cell death induced by heat is attributed to protein denaturation. This study demonstrates the direct bactericidal effect of a higher temperature (41ºC) to Brucella (B.) abortus that resulted in the gradual reduction of intracellular bacteria that inhibits bacterial growth within avian macrophage HD11 along an increasing period of time...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812884/controlling-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-gene-expression-and-predation-using-synthetic-riboswitches
#3
Mohammed Dwidar, Yohei Yokobayashi
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predatory bacterium that feeds on Gram-negative bacteria including a wide range of pathogens and thus has potential applications as a biocontrol agent. Owing to its unique life cycle, however, there are limited tools that enable genetic manipulation of B. bacteriovorus. This work describes our first steps toward engineering the predatory bacterium for practical applications by developing basic genetic parts to control gene expression. Specifically, we evaluated four robust promoters that are active during the attack phase of B...
August 18, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808127/the-components-of-the-unique-zur-regulon-of-cupriavidus-metallidurans-mediate-cytoplasmic-zinc-handling
#4
Lucy Bütof, Christopher Schmidt-Vogler, Martin Herzberg, Cornelia Große, Dietrich H Nies
Zinc is an essential trace element and at the same time it is toxic at high concentrations. In the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for its outstanding metal resistance. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans instead has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the ZRT/IRT (ZIP) family...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806924/essential-genome-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#5
Rabindra K Mandal, Tieshan Jiang, Young Min Kwon
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide. Despite the global efforts to curb them, Campylobacter infections have increased continuously in both developed and developing countries. The development of effective strategies to control the infection by this pathogen is warranted. The essential genes of bacteria are the most prominent targets for this purpose. In this study, we used transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) of a genome-saturating library of Tn5 insertion mutants to define the essential genome of C...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800614/optimization-of-recombinant-bacteria-expressing-dsrna-to-enhance-insecticidal-activity-against-a-lepidopteran-insect-spodoptera-exigua
#6
Mohammad Vatanparast, Yonggyun Kim
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been applied to control insect pests due to its induction of RNA interference (RNAi) of a specific target gene expression. However, developing dsRNA-based insecticidal agent has been a great challenge especially against lepidopteran insect pests due to variations in RNAi efficiency. The objective of this study was to screen genes of chymotrypsins (SeCHYs) essential for the survival of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, to construct insecticidal dsRNA. In addition, an optimal oral delivery method was developed using recombinant bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800137/chemical-dispersants-enhance-the-activity-of-oil-and-gas-condensate-degrading-marine-bacteria
#7
Julien Tremblay, Etienne Yergeau, Nathalie Fortin, Susan Cobanli, Miria Elias, Thomas L King, Kenneth Lee, Charles W Greer
Application of chemical dispersants to oil spills in the marine environment is a common practice to disperse oil into the water column and stimulate oil biodegradation by increasing its bioavailability to indigenous bacteria capable of naturally metabolizing hydrocarbons. In the context of a spill event, the biodegradation of crude oil and gas condensate off eastern Canada is an essential component of a response strategy. In laboratory experiments, we simulated conditions similar to an oil spill with and without the addition of chemical dispersant under both winter and summer conditions and evaluated the natural attenuation potential for hydrocarbons in near-surface sea water from the vicinity of crude oil and natural gas production facilities off eastern Canada...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800133/adaptive-evolution-of-rhizobial-symbiotic-compatibility-mediated-by-co-evolved-insertion-sequences
#8
Ran Zhao, Li Xue Liu, Yun Zeng Zhang, Jian Jiao, Wen Jing Cui, Biliang Zhang, Xiao Lin Wang, Meng Lin Li, Yi Chen, Zhu Qing Xiong, Wen Xin Chen, Chang Fu Tian
Mutualism between bacteria and eukaryotes has essential roles in the history of life, but the evolution of their compatibility is poorly understood. Here we show that different Sinorhizobium strains can form either nitrogen-fixing nodules or uninfected pseudonodules on certain cultivated soybeans, while being all effective microsymbionts of some wild soybeans. However, a few well-infected nodules can be found on a commercial soybean using inocula containing a mixed pool of Tn5 insertion mutants derived from an incompatible strain...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797225/environmentally-triggered-genomic-plasticity-and-capsular-polysaccharide-formation-are-involved-in-increased-ethanol-and-acetic-acid-tolerance-in-kozakia-baliensis-nbrc-16680
#9
Julia U Brandt, Friederike-Leonie Born, Frank Jakob, Rudi F Vogel
BACKGROUND: Kozakia baliensis NBRC 16680 secretes a gum-cluster derived heteropolysaccharide and forms a surface pellicle composed of polysaccharides during static cultivation. Furthermore, this strain exhibits two colony types on agar plates; smooth wild-type (S) and rough mutant colonies (R). This switch is caused by a spontaneous transposon insertion into the gumD gene of the gum-cluster, resulting in a heteropolysaccharide secretion deficient, rough phenotype. To elucidate, whether this is a directed switch triggered by environmental factors, we checked the number of R and S colonies under different growth conditions including ethanol and acetic acid supplementation...
August 10, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795162/global-survey-of-mrna-levels-and-decay-rates-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-trachoma-and-lymphogranuloma-venereum-biovars
#10
Rita Ferreira, Vítor Borges, Maria José Borrego, João Paulo Gomes
Interpreting the intricate bacterial transcriptomics implies understanding the dynamic relationship established between de novo transcription and the degradation of transcripts. Here, we performed a comparative overview of gene expression levels and mRNA decay rates for different-biovar (trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum) strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. By using RNA-sequencing to measure gene expression levels at mid developmental stage and mRNA decay rates upon rifampicin-based transcription blockage, we observed that: i) 60-70% of the top-50 expressed genes encode proteins with unknown function and proteins involved in "Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis" for all strains; ii) the expression ranking by genes' functional categories was in general concordant among different-biovar strains; iii) the median of the half-life time (t1/2) values of transcripts were 15-17 min, indicating that the degree of transcripts' stability seems to correlate with the bacterial intracellular life-style, as these values are considerably higher than the ones observed in other studies for facultative intracellular and free-living bacteria; iv) transcript decay rates were highly heterogeneous within each C...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793203/rna-extraction-from-decaying-wood-for-meta-transcriptomic-analyses
#11
Martino Adamo, Samuele Voyron, Mariangela Girlanda, Roland Marmeisse
Wood decomposition is a key step of the terrestrial carbon cycle and of economic importance. It is essentially a microbiological process performed by fungi and to an unknown extent by bacteria. To gain access to the genes expressed by the diverse microbial communities participating to wood decay we developed an RNA extraction protocol from this recalcitrant material rich in polysaccharides and phenolic compounds. This protocol was implemented on 22 wood samples representing as many tree species from 11 plant families in the Angiosperms and Gymnosperms...
August 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790204/bacterial-chromatin-structural-proteins-regulate-the-bimodal-expression-of-the-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-lee-pathogenicity-island-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#12
Hervé Leh, Ahmad Khodr, Marie-Christine Bouger, Bianca Sclavi, Sylvie Rimsky, Stéphanie Bury-Moné
In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons (LEE1 to LEE5), with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1, encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator), an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein) paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783096/c-di-amp-an-essential-molecule-in-the-signaling-pathways-that-regulate-the-viability-and-virulence-of-gram-positive-bacteria
#13
REVIEW
Tazin Fahmi, Gary C Port, Kyu Hong Cho
Signal transduction pathways enable organisms to monitor their external environment and adjust gene regulation to appropriately modify their cellular processes. Second messenger nucleotides including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP), cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), and cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) play key roles in many signal transduction pathways used by prokaryotes and/or eukaryotes. Among the various second messenger nucleotides molecules, c-di-AMP was discovered recently and has since been shown to be involved in cell growth, survival, and regulation of virulence, primarily within Gram-positive bacteria...
August 7, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776041/hiding-in-plain-sight-mining-bacterial-species-records-for-phenotypic-trait-information
#14
Albert Barberán, Hildamarie Caceres Velazquez, Stuart Jones, Noah Fierer
Cultivation in the laboratory is essential for understanding the phenotypic characteristics and environmental preferences of bacteria. However, basic phenotypic information is not readily accessible. Here, we compiled phenotypic and environmental tolerance information for >5,000 bacterial strains described in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSEM) with all information made publicly available in an updatable database. Although the data span 23 different bacterial phyla, most entries described aerobic, mesophilic, neutrophilic strains from Proteobacteria (mainly Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes isolated from soils, marine habitats, and plants...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774270/strand-specific-transcriptomes-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-in-response-to-interactions-with-ground-beef-microbiota-interactions-between-microorganisms-in-raw-meat
#15
Wessam Galia, Francoise Leriche, Stéphane Cruveiller, Cindy Garnier, Vincent Navratil, Audrey Dubost, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot, Delphine Thevenot-Sergentet
BACKGROUND: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are zoonotic agents associated with outbreaks worldwide. Growth of EHEC strains in ground beef could be inhibited by background microbiota that is present initially at levels greater than that of the pathogen E. coli. However, how the microbiota outcompetes the pathogenic bacteria is unknown. Our objective was to identify metabolic pathways of EHEC that were altered by natural microbiota in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the growth and survival of EHECs in ground beef...
August 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770367/carbon-catabolite-regulation-in-streptomyces-new-insights-and-lessons-learned
#16
REVIEW
Alba Romero-Rodríguez, Diana Rocha, Beatriz Ruiz-Villafán, Silvia Guzmán-Trampe, Nidia Maldonado-Carmona, Melissa Vázquez-Hernández, Augusto Zelarayán, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja, Sergio Sánchez
One of the most significant control mechanisms of the physiological processes in the genus Streptomyces is carbon catabolite repression (CCR). This mechanism controls the expression of genes involved in the uptake and utilization of alternative carbon sources in Streptomyces and is mostly independent of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS). CCR also affects morphological differentiation and the synthesis of secondary metabolites, although not all secondary metabolite genes are equally sensitive to the control by the carbon source...
September 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770008/overexpression-of-serine-protease-htra-enhances-disruption-of-adherens-junctions-paracellular-transmigration-and-type-iv-secretion-of-caga-by-helicobacter-pylori
#17
Aileen Harrer, Manja Boehm, Steffen Backert, Nicole Tegtmeyer
BACKGROUND: The serine protease HtrA is an important factor for regulating stress responses and protein quality control in bacteria. In recent studies, we have demonstrated that the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori can secrete HtrA into the extracellular environment, where it cleaves-off the ectodomain of the tumor suppressor and adherens junction protein E-cadherin on gastric epithelial cells. RESULTS: E-cadherin cleavage opens cell-to-cell junctions, allowing paracellular transmigration of the bacteria across polarized monolayers of MKN-28 and Caco-2 epithelial cells...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769917/identification-and-functional-validation-of-autolysis-associated-genes-in-lactobacillus-bulgaricus-atcc-baa-365
#18
Xiaoyang Pang, Shuwen Zhang, Jing Lu, Lu Liu, Changlu Ma, Yang Yang, Panpan Ti, Weihua Gao, Jiaping Lv
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important organisms in food production. Indeed, LAB autolysis is very critical in dairy processing. For example, it influences the development of cheese flavor by releasing intracellular enzymes, and controls cell growth in yogurts and probiotic products. Two component systems (TCS) constitute essential environmental sensors and effectors of signal transduction in most bacteria. In the present work, mutants of one TCS (LBUL_RS00115/LBUL_RS00110) were generated to assess the relationship between TCS and cell autolysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769116/the-reverse-transcriptases-associated-with-crispr-cas-systems
#19
Nicolás Toro, Francisco Martínez-Abarca, Alejandro González-Delgado
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and associated proteins (Cas) act as adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea. Some CRISPR-Cas systems have been found to be associated with putative reverse transcriptases (RT), and an RT-Cas1 fusion associated with a type III-B system has been shown to acquire RNA spacers in vivo. Nevertheless, the origin and evolutionary relationships of these RTs and associated CRISPR-Cas systems remain largely unknown. We performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these RTs and associated Cas1 proteins, and classified their CRISPR-Cas modules...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765224/genome-wide-sensitivity-analysis-of-the-microsymbiont-sinorhizobium-meliloti-to-symbiotically-important-defensin-like-host-peptides
#20
Markus F F Arnold, Mohammed Shabab, Jon Penterman, Kevin L Boehme, Joel S Griffitts, Graham C Walker
The model legume species Medicago truncatula expresses more than 700 nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) signaling peptides that mediate the differentiation of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. NCR peptides are essential for a successful symbiosis in legume plants of the inverted-repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) and show similarity to mammalian defensins. In addition to signaling functions, many NCR peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobial activities is likely to be important for symbiosis...
August 1, 2017: MBio
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