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Pervasive Developmental disorder

Amit Acharyya, Pranit N Jadhav, Valentina Bono, Koushik Maharatna, Ganesh R Naik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: EEG is a non-invasive tool for neuro-developmental disorder diagnosis and treatment. However, EEG signal is mixed with other biological signals including Ocular and Muscular artifacts making it difficult to extract the diagnostic features. Therefore, the contaminated EEG channels are often discarded by the medical practitioners which may result in less accurate diagnosis. Many existing methods require reference electrodes, which will create discomfort to the patient/children and cause hindrance to the diagnosis of the neuro-developmental disorder and Brain Computer Interface in the pervasive environment...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Hilary B Hodgdon, Rachel Liebman, Lia Martin, Michael Suvak, Kari Beserra, Wendy Rosenblum, Joseph Spinazzola
Risk for traumatic sequelae is conveyed directly by risk factors (i.e., exposure to trauma), and via the disruption of developmental competencies. Exposure to caregiver trauma is an especially salient risk factor, as its early and pervasive nature is likely to undermine multiple facets of development, most notably the emergence of cognitive controls (i.e., executive function [EF]). Deficits in EF have been observed among youth exposed to multiple types of trauma and are associated with a range of functional impairments, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and behavioral disorders; they represent a mechanism by which the negative impact of caregiver trauma is conveyed...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
M Palau-Baduell, B Salvado-Salvado, M A Idiazabal-Alecha, A Fernandez-Teruel, T Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The perisylvian areas, located around the Sylvian fissure, are constituted by frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. These are connected forming specialized neural networks and play a primary role in the development of linguistic skills and social cognition. These areas are a possible neuronal substrate of cognitive and behavioral impairments in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). AIM: To locate and quantify epileptiform activity sources through magnetoencephalography in frontal perisylvian areas in children with idiopathic ASD...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Lisa K Sykes, Mark R Geier
Nelson and Bauman (Pediatrics 111:674-679, 2003) previously hypothesized that pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) was not associated with mercury (Hg) exposure because the medical conditions associated with Hg exposure were not associated with PDD. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal case-control study evaluated the frequency of medically diagnosed conditions previously associated with Hg poisoning, including: epilepsy, dysarthria, failure to thrive, cerebral palsy, or contact dermatitis and other eczema among children preceding their eventual PDD diagnosis (cases) compared to controls...
March 6, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Carlo Ripoli, Anna Paola Pinna, Faustina Podda, Roberta Zanni, Maria Giada Tronci, Anna Maria Nurchi
Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are used in children for the treatment of various psychiatric diseases, including pervasive developmental disorders. These drugs can cause metabolic effects as hyperglycemia and diabetes. A 16-year-old young-boy, diagnosed with autism, developed diabetes mellitus type 1 whilst he was on treatment with olanzapine (started 4 months before), clomipramine, valproic acid and lithium. The hypothesis of druginduced diabetes imposed olanzapine interruption and clozapine initiation...
December 13, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Rujuta B Wilson, Peter G Enticott, Nicole J Rinehart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Motor impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are prevalent and pervasive. Moreover, motor impairments may be the first sign of atypical development in ASD and likely contribute to abnormalities in social communication. However, measurement of motor function in ASD has lagged behind other behavioral phenotyping. Quantitative and neurodiagnostic measures of motor function can help identify specific motor impairments in ASD and the underlying neural mechanisms that might be implicated...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Irene Chatoor, Susanne Hommel, Cristina Sechi, Loredana Lucarelli
The Parent-Child Play Scale was developed as a scale that complements the Parent-Child Feeding Scale, created by I. Chatoor et al. (1997), to evaluate mother-infant/toddler interactions in two different caregiving contexts of a young child's everyday life, specifically play and feeding. This Play Scale can be used with infants and toddlers ranging in age from 1 month to 3 years and provides reliable global ratings of mother-child interactions during 10 min of videotaped free-play in a laboratory setting...
February 27, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Harshini Manohar, Vikas Menon
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines are one of the newer therapeutic modalities being researched in psychiatric illnesses with limited role of pharmacological interventions. Preclinical studies on vaccines have shown favorable results in conditions like Substance use Disorders and Alzheimer's Dementia. However, the utility of Mumps Measles Rubella vaccine has been overshadowed by controversy linked to causation of Autism. With this background, the current narrative review aimed to comprehensively and critically evaluate the current status of vaccines in Psychiatric illnesses...
February 15, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Michael O Ogundele
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Isaac R Melamed, Melinda Heffron, Alessandro Testori, Kellie Lipe
Research has shown that a subset of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population presents with immune dysregulation. To explore this topic further, we investigated the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion in children with ASD. In this study, participants were recruited based on a diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Participants also showed evidence of immune dysfunction based on abnormal levels of specific biomarkers, including CD40 ligand (CD154), lymphocyte stimulation, and T or B cell dysfunction...
February 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Maria E Verhoeff, Laura M E Blanken, Desana Kocevska, Viara R Mileva-Seitz, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Tonya White, Frank Verhulst, Maartje P C M Luijk, Henning Tiemeier
Background: Sleep difficulties are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The temporal nature of the association between sleep problems and ASD is unclear because longitudinal studies are lacking. Our aim is to clarify whether sleep problems precede and worsen autistic traits and ASD or occur as a consequence of the disorder. Methods: Repeated sleep measures were available at 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 years of age in 5151 children participating in the Generation R Study, a large prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands...
2018: Molecular Autism
Annalisa Adinolfi, Cristiana Carbone, Damiana Leo, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
ADHD is a neuro-psychiatric disorder characterized by a developmentally inappropriate, pervasive and persistent pattern of severe inattention, hyper-activity and impulsivity. Despite onset in early childhood, ADHD may continue into adulthood with substantial impairment in social, academic and occupational functioning. A new animal model of this disorder was developed in rats with genetic deletion of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene (dopamine transporter knockout rats; DAT-KO rats). We analyzed the behavior of DAT-KO rats for a deeper phenotypical characterization of this model...
February 6, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Hiroyuki Ogata, Hiroshi Ihara, Masao Gito, Masayuki Sayama, Nobuyuki Murakami, Tadayuki Ayabe, Yuji Oto, Toshiro Nagai, Kazutaka Shimoda
This study aims to explore the differences of age as well as genotype in regards to the severity of behavioral symptoms in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), with emphasis on the comparison between youngadults and adults.The Food Related Problem Questionnaire (FRPQ), the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Japanese Version (ABC-J), and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS) were administered to 46 PWS patients, including 33 young adults (ages 18-28) and 13 adults(ages 30-45). To examine the differences between young adults and adults, Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted...
January 8, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Ibrahim Durukan, Koray Kara, Mahmoud Almbaideen, Dursun Karaman, Hesna Gül
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and their relatives have problems to express and recognize emotions but there is a lack of studies concerning alexithymia levels and relationships between parental alexithymia and depression-anxiety symptoms in these groups. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine alexithymia, depression, anxiety levels of parents in children with pervasive developmental disorders and ADHD, also examine if there is a positive correlation between child's neurodevelopmental problem's severity and parental scores...
December 31, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Elizabeth Nance, Siva P Kambhampati, Elizabeth S Smith, Zhi Zhang, Fan Zhang, Sarabdeep Singh, Michael V Johnston, Kannan Rangaramanujam, Mary E Blue, Sujatha Kannan
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive developmental disorder that is progressive and has no effective cure. Immune dysregulation, oxidative stress, and excess glutamate in the brain mediated by glial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of symptoms of RTT. In this study, we investigated a new nanotherapeutic approach to target glia for attenuation of brain inflammation/injury both in vitro and in vivo using a Mecp2-null mouse model of Rett syndrome...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Rika Kosaki, Reiko Horikawa, Eriko Fujii, Kenjiro Kosaki
Perrault syndrome represents a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. Causative genes include HARS2, HSD17B4, CLPP, C10orf2, and LARS2. Some patients with Perrault syndrome exhibit neurologic features including learning disability, cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy and are classified as type 2 and are clinically separate from those without neurological symptoms other than a hearing loss (type 1). To date, all reported patients with LARS2 mutations (15 patients in 8 families) have been classified as type 1...
February 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Daniel F Frank, Galen W Miller, Richard E Connon, Juergen Geist, Pamela J Lein
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) signaling pathways regulate fundamental processes of neurodevelopment, and genetic mutations within these pathways have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. While previous studies have established that these signaling molecules are expressed in developing zebrafish, a detailed characterization of the ontogenetic profile of these signaling molecules is lacking. Thus, we evaluated the spatiotemporal expression of key transcripts in mTOR and RyR signaling pathways in wildtype zebrafish at 24, 72 and 120 hours post fertilization (hpf)...
2017: PeerJ
Ülkü Akyol Ardıç, Eyüp Sabri Ercan, Duygu Aygüneş, Deniz Yüce, Sibel Durak, Buket Kosova
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate is the first-choice medication for the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs), and comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). But this approach generally results with poor outcomes, and increased adverse effects. It is aimed to investigate the comparison of cases who diagnosed with PDDs and Mild Mental Retardation (MR) and cases with pure ADHD in terms of the clinical response to MPH. Also we aimed to investigate the relations between CES-1 polymorphism gene and the clinical response to MPH...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Nancy Sturman, Laura Deckx, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently present with inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, which are the cardinal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The effectiveness of methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD treatment, is therefore of interest in these children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of methylphenidate for symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity) and ASD (impairments in social interaction and communication, and repetitive, restricted or stereotypical behaviours) in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years with ASD...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kelly M Boone, Anne K Brown, Sarah A Keim
Despite the higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children born preterm, valid screening tools for use in preterm populations are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the screening accuracy of the Brief Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) and to compare it to the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II, Stage 2, Developmental Clinic Screener (PDDST-II-DCS) in identifying ASD diagnosis in toddlers born at < 30 weeks' gestation. Caregivers (94% mothers) of 555 children completed questionnaires (BITSEA, PDDST-II-DCS, socio-demographics) when the children (58% male) were 18-36 months...
November 17, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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