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İbrahim Durukan, Koray Kara, Mahmoud Almbaideen, Dursun Karaman, Hesna Gül
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and their relatives have problems expressing and recognizing emotions, but there is a lack of studies on alexithymia, and the relationship between parental alexithymia and depression-anxiety symptoms in these groups. The aim of this study was therefore to measure alexithymia, depression, and anxiety levels in parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and determine whether there is a positive correlation between the child's neurodevelopmental problem severity and parent scores...
March 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Alexander J Hinnebusch, Lauren E Miller, Deborah A Fein
Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit low mental age (Low-MA; i.e., cognitive functioning below 12 months). We examined diagnosis, symptom severity, and development in children with ASD-low MA (n = 25), autistic disorder (n = 111), and PDD-NOS (n = 82) at ages two and four. We predicted that some ASD-low MA children would demonstrate just intellectual impairment and not autism symptoms on follow-up, with social deficits at age two attributable to global delays. Instead, most ASD-low MA children (96%) had an ASD at follow-up, compared to children initially diagnosed with autistic disorder (86...
December 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Emily Moulton, Kathryn Bradbury, Marianne Barton, Deborah Fein
The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), (Schopler et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 10(1):91-103, 1980) is a 15-item observation-based rating scale that yields a total score reflective of autism symptom severity. This study investigated the factor structure of the CARS in a sample of 2-year-old children with DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, 2000) diagnoses of AD or PDD-NOS. Following a preliminary internal cross-validation, principal axis factor analysis was completed (N = 282)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
L Vaivre-Douret, A Boschi, M L Cuny, C Clouard, A Mosser, B Golse, A Philippe, M Bourgeois, N Boddaert, S Puget
Left temporal arachnoid cyst and specific learning disorders associated with pervasive developmental disorders - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): contributions of an integrative neuro-psychomotor, neuropsychological, psychopathological and neurosurgical approach about a case report in a child (François). With DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR, the terminology of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) covers two main categories of infantile disorders: disorders of "strictly" autistic nature and pervasive developmental disorders - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
Lauren E Hirsch, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Antipsychotics have been used as a medication intervention for irritability related to ASD. Aripiprazole, a third-generation, atypical antipsychotic, is a relatively new drug that has a unique mechanism of action different from that of other antipsychotics. This review updates a previous Cochrane review on the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole for individuals with ASD, published in 2011 (Ching 2011)...
June 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rei Wake, Tsuyoshi Miyaoka, Motohide Furuya, Sadayuki Hashioka, Jun Horiguchi
A neuropsychiatric syndrome, Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is qualified via impairments in qualitative communication, social interaction, and stereotyped or restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. While all ASDs are considered to have qualitative deficits in social relatedness to others, many people with ASDs have other symptoms, including irritability (which includes aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums). In order to decrease these behaviors, it is often helpful to make use of behavioral therapy...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Meda Kondolot, Elif N Ozmert, Ali Ascı, Pınar Erkekoglu, Didem B Oztop, Hakan Gumus, Belma Kocer-Gumusel, Kadriye Yurdakok
Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruting chemicals (EDCs) that are suggested to exert neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with "Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium levels were measured...
April 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Emily Moulton, Marianne Barton, Diana L Robins, Danielle N Abrams, Deborah Fein
Although for many children, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability, a subset of children with ASD lose their diagnosis and show typical cognitive and adaptive abilities. The ages at which this transition can occur is not known, but it sometimes occurs quite early. Participants in the current study were 207 children with an ASD at age two who were reevaluated at age four. Eighty-three percent retained an ASD diagnosis at reevaluation and 9 % showed "optimal progress": clear ASD at age two but not at age four, and average cognition, language, communication and social skills at age four...
June 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Antonius J van Rooij, Tim M Schoenmakers, Dike van de Mheen
AIMS: Clinicians struggle with the identification of video gaming problems. To address this issue, a clinical assessment tool (C-VAT 2.0) was developed and tested in a clinical setting. The instrument allows exploration of the validity of the DSM-5 proposal for 'internet gaming disorder'. METHOD: Using C-VAT 2.0, the current study provides a sensitivity analysis of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in a clinical youth sample (13-23years old) in treatment for video gaming disorder (N=32)...
January 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Roberto Canitano
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified as to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All these categories are grouped together in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, classification under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Behavioral disorders including irritability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and aggression are additional symptoms found in up to 20% of children and adolescents with ASD and require careful evaluation for appropriate treatment...
September 2015: Clinical Neuropharmacology
J J L Berkvens, I Veugen, M J B M Veendrick-Meekes, F M Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, H J Schelhaas, M H Willemsen, I Y Tan, A P Aldenkamp
INTRODUCTION: Autism and behavioral characteristics in adults with Dravet syndrome (DS) have rarely been systematically studied. METHOD: Three scales were used to assess the outcomes of DS in adulthood in terms of autism and behavior. All the adult patients with DS, nine male and four female, aged between 18 and 60 years, living at the Epilepsy Center Kempenhaeghe in The Netherlands were included in the study. In addition, the past medical history of each patient was systematically screened for diagnoses like autism, Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), hyperactivity, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and self-mutilation...
June 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Muhammad Mahajnah, Rajech Sharkia, Haitham Shalabe, Ruth Terkel-Dawer, Ashraf Akawi, Nathanel Zelnik
Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers...
2015: BioMed Research International
Dorothea C Lerman, Lynn Hawkins, Conrad Hillman, Molly Shireman, Melissa A Nissen
Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In Experiment 1, training of the adults focused on the implementation of mand training via incidental teaching. Experiment 2 focused on teaching participants to use discrete-trial training (DTT) with children who exhibited problem behavior...
2015: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Maria De Angelis, Ruggiero Francavilla, Maria Piccolo, Andrea De Giacomo, Marco Gobbetti
Through extensive microbial-mammalian co-metabolism, the intestinal microbiota have evolved to exert a marked influence on health and disease via gut-brain-microbiota interactions. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of our recent study on the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of children with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) or autism (AD) compared with healthy children (HC). Children with PDD-NOS or AD have altered fecal microbiota and metabolomes (including neurotransmitter molecules)...
2015: Gut Microbes
Isaac C Smith, Brian Reichow, Fred R Volkmar
A growing body of research has raised concerns about the number of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV-TR who may no longer qualify for diagnoses under the new DSM-5 criteria, published in May 2013. The current study systematically reviews 25 articles evaluating samples according to both DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 ASD criteria. Consistent with previous reviews, the majority of included studies indicated between 50 and 75% of individuals will maintain diagnoses. We conducted visual analyses of subgroups using harvest plots and found the greatest decreases among high-functioning populations with IQs over 70 and/or previous diagnoses of PDD-NOS or Asperger's disorder...
August 2015: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Megan MacDonald, Catherine Lord, Dale Ulrich
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of motor skills and the core behaviors of young children with autism, social affective skills and repetitive behaviors, as indicated through the calibrated autism severity scores. DESIGN: The univariate GLM tested the relationship of gross and fine motor skills measured by the gross motor scale and the fine motor scale of the MSEL with autism symptomology as measured by calibrated autism severity scores. SETTING: Majority of the data collected took place in an autism clinic...
November 1, 2013: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Venla Lehti, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Mika Gissler, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: The association between parental socio-economic status (SES) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been studied in several countries, but the results have been contradictory. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal SES and subtypes of ASD in Finland. METHODS: A national case-control study was conducted. Children born in 1991-2005 and diagnosed with ASD by the year 2007 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR)...
2015: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Sung Koo Kim
In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with ASDs. A revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASDs was proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) that was released in May 2013...
January 2015: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Afshin Fayyazi, Elham Salari, Ali Khajeh, Abdi Gajarpour
OBJECTIVE: Many patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU) suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients. MATERIALS & METHODS: In this crossover clinical trial study, patients with severe behavior disorders after medical examination were randomly divided into two groups of two 8-week crossover treatments with risperidone or buspirone. Patient behavioral disorders before and after treatment by each drug was rated by parents on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF), and after treatment by each drug, were assessed by a physician through clinical global impression (CGI)...
2014: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Gitte Falcher Madsen, Niels Bilenberg, Jens Richardt Jepsen, Birte Glenthøj, Cathriona Cantio, Bob Oranje
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia are separate disorders, but there is evidence of conversion or comorbid overlap. The objective of this paper was to explore whether deficits in sensory gating, as seen in some schizophrenia patients, can also be found in a group of ASD children compared to neurotypically developed children. An additional aim was to investigate the possibility of subdividing our ASD sample based on these gating deficits. In a case-control design, we assessed gating of the P50 and N100 amplitude in 31 ASD children and 39 healthy matched controls (8-12 years) and screened for differences between groups and within the ASD group...
August 2015: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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