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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929497/a-comparison-of-methods-for-monitoring-photon-beam-energy-constancy
#1
Song Gao, Peter A Balter, Mark Rose, William E Simon
In extension of a previous study, we compared several photon beam energy metrics to determine which was the most sensitive to energy change; in addition to those, we accounted for both the sensitivity of each metric and the uncertainty in determining that metric for both traditional flattening filter (FF) beams (4, 6, 8, and 10 MV) and for flattening filter-free (FFF) beams (6 and 10 MV) on a Varian TrueBeam. We examined changes in these energy metrics when photon energies were changed to ± 5% and ± 10% from their nominal energies: 1) an attenuation-based metric (the percent depth dose at 10 cm depth, PDD(10)) and, 2) profile-based metrics, including flatness (Flat) and off-axis ratios (OARs) measured on the orthogonal axes or on the diagonals (diagonal normalized flatness, FDN)...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911312/increased-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-2-in-the-neocortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is%C3%A2-correlated-with-disease-severity-and%C3%A2-soluble-a%C3%AE-42-load
#2
Joyce R Chong, Yuek Ling Chai, Jasinda H Lee, David Howlett, Johannes Attems, Clive G Ballard, Dag Aarsland, Paul T Francis, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
BACKGROUND: Of the three transforming growth factor (TGF)-β isoforms known, TGFβ1 deficits have been widely reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and studied as a potential therapeutic target. In contrast, the status of TGFβ2, which has been shown to mediate amyloid-β (Aβ)-mediated neuronal death, are unclear both in AD and in Lewy body dementias (LBD) with differential neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle burden. OBJECTIVE: To measure neocortical TGFβ2 levels and their correlations with neuropathological and clinical markers of disease severity in a well-characterized cohort of AD as well as two clinical subtypes of LBD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), known to manifest relatively high and low Aβ plaque burden, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899296/targeting-the-norepinephrinergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders-the-locus-coeruleus-story
#3
Yannick Vermeiren, Peter P De Deyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are related, progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders with hallmark features that include a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms (behavioral, autonomic and cognitive dysfunction). For almost half a century, the motor aspects have been attributed to Lewy pathology (LP) predominantly in the substantia nigra (SN), causing a major loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the relative success of dopaminergic replacement therapies for alleviation of solely the parkinsonian features has prompted researchers to further explore other monoaminergic strategies which may tackle all PD-related aspects...
November 26, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894979/-comparison-of-white-light-photodynamic-diagnosis-and-narrow-band-imaging-in-detection-of-carcinoma-in-situ-cis-or-flat-dysplasia-at-transurethral-resection-of-the-bladder-the-dablaca-8-study
#4
Ditte Drejer, Sami Béji, Recep Oezeke, Anna Munk Nielsen, Søren Høyer, Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen, Gitte W Lam, Jørgen B Jensen
: Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and narrow band imaging (NBI) are two different modalities used to improve detection of tumors, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and flat dysplasia compared to white light (WL) cystoscopy. OBJECTIVES: To compare findings in NBI to findings in WL and PDD in a high risk patient population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: 171 patients were included in the study from four different urological departments in Denmark and Norway...
November 25, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876285/zero-field-pdd-and-tmr-data-for-unflattened-beams-in-conventional-linacs-a-tool-for-independent-dose-calculations
#5
Silvia Strolin, Silvia Minosse, Marco D'Andrea, Francesco Fracchiolla, Vicente Bruzzaniti, Stefano Luppino, Marcello Benassi, Lidia Strigari
PURPOSE: To investigate the applicability of the formalism described in BJR supplement n.25 for Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams in determining the zero-field tissue maximum ratio (TMR) for an independent calculation method of Percentage Depth Doses (PDDs) and relative dose factors (RDFs) at different experimental setups. METHODS: Experimental PDDs for field size from 40×40cm(2) to 2×2cm(2) with Source Surface Distance (SSD) 100cm were acquired. The normalized peak scatter factor for each square field was obtained by fitting experimental RDFs in water and collimator factors (CFs) in air...
November 18, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871684/the-utility-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-mediated-photodynamic-diagnosis-in-the-detection-of-intraoperative-bile-leakage
#6
Yoshihiro Inoue, Yoshiro Imai, Kensuke Fujii, Fumitoshi Hirokawa, Michihiro Hayashi, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the utility of the new intraoperative bile leakage test as a preventive measure of postoperative bile leakage. METHOD: 737 patients were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the management of intra- and post-operative bile leakage. RESULTS: Nine (8.3%) of 109 patients evaluated using conventional white light fluorescent imaging were recognized as having intra-operative bile leakage...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869880/-organizational-ethnography-of-direct-drugs-distribution-in-parma-ausl
#7
Lorenza Dodi, Chiara Latini, Marco Lombardi
The locations where healthcare organizations directly distribute medications to patients in specific circumstances, such as at hospital discharge, are settings at risk of professional errors. Using organizational ethnography methodology, we sought to explore the characteristics of points of direct distribution of drugs (PDD) in the AUSL of Parma and identify aspects of the delivery process that could potentially generate errors. We conducted 75 3-hour observations (225 hours at total) of the two Parma AUSL PDDs...
November 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857072/dormant-cancer-cells-accumulate-high-protoporphyrin-ix-levels-and-are-sensitive-to-5-aminolevulinic-acid-based-photodynamic-therapy
#8
Taku Nakayama, Shimpei Otsuka, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Hodaka Okajima, Kentaro Matsumoto, Yuichiro Hagiya, Keiji Inoue, Taro Shuin, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro Ogura
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and diagnosis (PDD) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to drive the production of an intracellular photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), are in common clinical use. However, the tendency to accumulate PpIX is not well understood. Patients with cancer can develop recurrent metastatic disease with latency periods. This pause can be explained by cancer dormancy. Here we created uniformly sized PC-3 prostate cancer spheroids using a 3D culture plate (EZSPHERE). We demonstrated that cancer cells exhibited dormancy in a cell density-dependent manner not only in spheroids but also in 2D culture...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830736/viral-vector-vaccines-expressing-nucleoprotein-and-phosphoprotein-genes-of-avian-bornaviruses-ameliorate-homologous-challenge-infections-in-cockatiels-and-common-canaries
#9
Marita Olbert, Angela Römer-Oberdörfer, Christiane Herden, Sara Malberg, Solveig Runge, Peter Staeheli, Dennis Rubbenstroth
Avian bornaviruses are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an often fatal disease of parrots and related species (order Psittaciformes) which is widely distributed in captive psittacine populations and may affect endangered species. Here, we established a vaccination strategy employing two different well described viral vectors, namely recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that were engineered to express the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein genes of two avian bornaviruses, parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4) and canary bornavirus 2 (CnBV-2)...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826990/dosimetric-characterization-and-behavior-in-small-x-ray-fields-of-a-microchamber-and-a-plastic-scintillator-detector
#10
Massimo Pasquino, Claudia Cutaia, Lorenzo Radici, Serena Valzano, Eva Gino, Carlo Cavedon, Michele Stasi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to investigate the main dosimetric characteristics and the performance of an A26 Exradin ionization microchamber (A26 IC) and a W1 Exradin plastic scintillation detector (W1 PSD) in small photon beam dosimetry for Treatment Planning System (TPS) commissioning and Quality Assurance (QA) program. METHODS: Detectors' characterization measurements (short term stability, dose linearity, angular dependence and energy dependence) were performed in water for field sizes up to 10 x 10 cm2...
November 9, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825983/accelerating-glioblastoma-drug-discovery-convergence-of-patient-derived-models-genome-editing-and-phenotypic-screening
#11
Eoghan O'Duibhir, Neil Carragher, Steven M Pollard
Patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM) continue to face a bleak prognosis. It is critical that new effective therapeutic strategies are developed. GBM stem cells have molecular hallmarks of neural stem and progenitor cells and it is possible to propagate both non-transformed normal neural stem cells and GBM stem cells, in defined, feeder-free, adherent culture. These primary stem cell lines provide an experimental model that is ideally suited to cell-based drug discovery or genetic screens in order to identify tumour-specific vulnerabilities...
November 4, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818651/a-new-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme-and-its-application-for-the-characterization-of-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-damselae-associated-with-mortality-in-cetaceans
#12
Patricia Alba, Andrea Caprioli, Cristiano Cocumelli, Angela Ianzano, Valentina Donati, Francesco Scholl, Luigi Sorbara, Giuliana Terracciano, Gianluca Fichi, Fabio Di Nocera, Alessia Franco, Antonio Battisti
Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (PDD) is a known pathogen of fish, humans and marine mammals. In this study, a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme based on six housekeeping genes (glp, gyrB, metG, pnt, pyrC, and toxR) was developed to better understand the PDD population structure and used to type 73 PDD isolates from cetaceans, mainly striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) involved in mortality episodes, and from a few marine chelonians. Five reference ATCC strains were also included in the study...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814297/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-cognitive-correlates-of-fddnp-pet-and-csf-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-tau-in-parkinson-s-disease1
#13
Mariateresa Buongiorno, Francesca Antonelli, Yaroslau Compta, Yolanda Fernandez, Javier Pavia, Francisco Lomeña, José Ríos, Isabel Ramírez, José Ramón Garía, Marina Soler, Ana Cámara, Manel Fernández, Misericòrdia Basora, Fáima Salazar, Gerard Sanchez-Etayo, Francesc Valldeoriola, Jorge Raúl Barrio, Maria Jose Marti
Tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates have been suggested to play a role in the development of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]FDDNP and the determination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of these proteins constitute a means to visualize in vivo Aβ and tau brain accumulation. Information about longitudinal changes of these CSF and PET biomarkers in PD with regard to progression to dementia is lacking. We assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of CSF and PET biomarkers of tau and Aβ with PD-related cognitive dysfunction in 6 healthy-controls (HC), 16 patients with PD without dementia (PDND), and 8 PD with dementia (PDD)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806617/the-visible-signal-responsible-for-proton-therapy-dosimetry-using-bare-optical-fibers-is-not-%C3%A4-erenkov-radiation
#14
Arash Darafsheh, Reza Taleei, Alireza Kassaee, Jarod C Finlay
PURPOSE: Proton beam dosimetry using bare plastic optical fibers has emerged as a simple approach to proton beam dosimetry. The source of the signal in this method has been attributed to Čerenkov radiation. The aim of this work was a phenomenological study of the nature of the visible light responsible for the signal in bare fiber optic dosimetry of proton therapy beams. METHODS: Plastic fiber optic probes embedded in solid water phantoms were irradiated with proton beams of energies 100, 180, and 225 MeV produced by a proton therapy cyclotron...
November 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802290/naturally-occurring-autoantibodies-against-tau-protein-are-reduced-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#15
Yannick Kronimus, Alexandra Albus, Monika Balzer-Geldsetzer, Sarah Straub, Elisa Semler, Markus Otto, Jens Klotsche, Richard Dodel, David Mengel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Altered levels of naturally occurring autoantibodies (nAbs) against disease-associated neuronal proteins have been reported for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent histopathologic studies suggest a contribution of both Lewy body- and AD-related pathology to Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Therefore, we explored nAbs against alpha-synuclein (αS), tau and β-amyloid (Aβ) in PDD compared to cognitively normal PD patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779758/trpv4-participates-in-pressure-induced-inhibition-of-renin-secretion-by-juxtaglomerular-cells
#16
François Seghers, Xavier Yerna, Nadège Zanou, Olivier Devuyst, Rudi Vennekens, Bernd Nilius, Philippe Gailly
KEY POINTS: Increase in blood pressure in the renal afferent arteriole is known to induce an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) of juxtaglomerular (JG) cells and to result in a decreased secretion of renin. Mechanical stimulation of As4.1 JG cells induces an increase in [Ca(2+) ]i that is inhibited by HC067047 and RN1734, two inhibitors of TRPV4, or by siRNA-mediated repression of TRPV4. Inhibition of TRPV4 impairs pressure-induced decrease in renin secretion. Compared to wild-type mice, Trpv4(-/-) mice present increased resting plasma levels of renin and aldosterone and present a significantly altered pressure-renin relationship...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772793/associations-between-plasma-ceramides-and-cognitive-and-neuropsychiatric-manifestations-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#17
Yi Xing, Yi Tang, Lina Zhao, Qi Wang, Wei Qin, Xiaojuan Ji, Jinlan Zhang, Jianping Jia
BACKGROUND: The abnormal metabolism of ceramides may account for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). However, the effect of ceramides on cognitive domain impairments and neuropsychiatric symptoms of PDD remains unknown. METHODS: A total of 38 PDD, 40 PD with no cognitive impairment (PD-NC) and 40 normal controls were included. A series of cognitive tests and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were used to assess cognitive domains and neuropsychiatric symptoms...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764107/development-of-a-web-based-clinical-decision-support-system-for-drug-prescription-non-interventional-naturalistic-description-of-the-antipsychotic-prescription-patterns-in-4345-outpatients-and-future-applications
#18
Sofian Berrouiguet, Maria Luisa Barrigón, Sara A Brandt, Santiago Ovejero-García, Raquel Álvarez-García, Juan Jose Carballo, Philippe Lenca, Philippe Courtet, Enrique Baca-García
PURPOSE: The emergence of electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is able to significantly improve management pharmacological treatments. We developed a web application available on smartphones in order to help clinicians monitor prescription and further propose CDSS. METHOD: A web application (www.MEmind.net) was developed to assess patients and collect data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed antipsychotic prescriptions in 4345 patients attended in five Psychiatric Community Mental Health Centers from June 2014 to October 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747464/a-comparison-of-dsm-iv-tr-and-dsm-5-diagnostic-classifications-in-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-autistic-spectrum-disorder
#19
Ferhat Yaylaci, Suha Miral
Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Clinical severity was determined using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). A statistically significant decrease (19.3 %) was detected in the diagnostic ratio with DSM-5...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743321/factor-analysis-of-the-childhood-autism-rating-scale-in-a-sample-of-two-year-olds-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Emily Moulton, Kathryn Bradbury, Marianne Barton, Deborah Fein
The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), (Schopler et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 10(1):91-103, 1980) is a 15-item observation-based rating scale that yields a total score reflective of autism symptom severity. This study investigated the factor structure of the CARS in a sample of 2-year-old children with DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, 2000) diagnoses of AD or PDD-NOS. Following a preliminary internal cross-validation, principal axis factor analysis was completed (N = 282)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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