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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131019/utility-of-autonomic-function-tests-to-differentiate-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-disease-with-dementia-from-alzheimer-disease
#1
Shuta Toru, Tadashi Kanouchi, Takanori Yokota, Yosuke Yagi, Akira Machida, Takayoshi Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: We studied autonomic disturbance in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD), Alzheimer disease (AD), to determine whether autonomic function tests can be used to distinguish these disorders. METHODS: Autonomic function was tested in 56 patients with DLB, 37 patients with PDD, and 59 patients with AD by using the sympathetic skin response, coefficient of variation in R-R interval, the head-up tilt test, serum norepinephrine concentration, and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy...
November 13, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126445/ykl-40-in-the-brain-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-neurodegenerative-dementias
#2
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Waqas Tahir, Eirini Kanata, Daniela Diaz-Lucena, Konstantinos Xanthopoulos, Eleni Kovatsi, Catharina Pleschka, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Matthias Schmitz, Duru Ozbay, Susana Correia, Ângela Correia, Ira Milosevic, Olivier Andréoletti, Natalia Fernández-Borges, Ina M Vorberg, Markus Glatzel, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Juan Maria Torres, Susanne Krasemann, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Isidro Ferrer, Inga Zerr
BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (also known as Chitinase 3-like 1) is a glycoprotein produced by inflammatory, cancer and stem cells. Its physiological role is not completely understood but YKL-40 is elevated in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammatory processes. Yet the precise characterization of YKL-40 in dementia cases is missing. METHODS: In the present study, we comparatively analysed YKL-40 levels in the brain and CSF samples from neurodegenerative dementias of different aetiologies characterized by the presence of cortical pathology and disease-specific neuroinflammatory signatures...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114221/phenotypic-screen-identifies-a-small-molecule-modulating-erk2-and-promoting-stem-cell-proliferation
#3
Chang Yin, Temesgen Fufa, Gayathri Chandrasekar, Madhu Aeluri, Verina Zaky, Shaimaa Abdelhady, Antonio B Rodríguez, Johan Jakobsson, Farzaneh Shahin Varnoosfaderani, Jayashri Mahalingam, Jianping Liu, Olle Larsson, Outi Hovatta, Frank Gaunitz, Anita Göndör, Michael Andäng, Satish S Kitambi
Stem cells display a fundamentally different mechanism of proliferation control when compared to somatic cells. Uncovering these mechanisms would maximize the impact in drug discovery with a higher translational applicability. The unbiased approach used in phenotype-based drug discovery (PDD) programs can offer a unique opportunity to identify such novel biological phenomenon. Here, we describe an integrated phenotypic screening approach, employing a combination of in vitro and in vivo PDD models to identify a small molecule increasing stem cell proliferation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110046/-supplementary-optical-techniques-for-the-detection-of-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#4
REVIEW
S Aeishen, Y Dawood, S Papadoukakis, M Horstmann
White light cystoscopy (WL) is the gold standard for the detection of bladder cancer. It can be performed using a rigid or flexible urethrocystoscope. With the more recent introduction of high definition (HD) techniques, WL cystoscopy has been decisively improved. Supplementary optical techniques are also used to improve the detection of bladder cancer. Among these are photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), narrow-band imaging (NBI), S‑technologies of IMAGE1 S, optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), and Raman spectroscopy...
November 6, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102668/lead-exposure-in-young-children-over-a-5-year-period-from-urban-environments-using-alternative-exposure-measures-with-the-us-epa-ieubk-model-a-trial
#5
Brian Gulson, Alan Taylor, Marc Stifelman
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model has been widely used to predict blood lead (PbB) levels in children especially around industrial sites. Exposure variables have strongly focussed on the major contribution of lead (Pb) in soil and interior dust to total intake and, in many studies, site-specific data for air, water, diet and measured PbB were not available. We have applied the IEUBK model to a comprehensive data set, including measured PbB, for 108 children monitored over a 5-year period in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094664/parkinson-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-classifications-and-neurobehavioral-symptoms
#6
Kirstie L McDermott, Nancy Fisher, Sandra Bradford, Richard Camicioli
BACKGROUND: We apply recently recommended Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) classification criteria from the movement disorders society (MDS) to PD patients and controls and compare diagnoses to that of short global cognitive scales at baseline and over time. We also examine baseline prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms across different definitions of MCI. METHODS: 51 PD patients and 50 controls were classified as cognitively normal, MCI, or demented using MDS criteria (1...
November 2, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091480/effects-of-age-dependent-bone-electron-density-on-the-calculated-dose-distribution-from-kilovoltage-and-megavoltage-photon-and-electron-radiotherapy-in-paediatric-mri-only-treatment-planning
#7
B Zeinali-Rafsanjani, R Faghihi, M A Mosleh-Shirazi, M Saeedi-Moghadam, R Jalli, S Sina
BACKGROUND: MR-only treatment planning (TP) can be advantageous in paediatric radiotherapy. However, electron density extraction is necessary for dose calculation. Normally, after bone segmentation, a bulk density is assigned. However, the variation of bone bulk density in patients makes the creation of pseudo CTs challenging. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effects of bone density variations in children on radiation attenuation and dose calculation for MR-only TP...
November 1, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091214/validation-of-adapted-daily-dose-definitions-for-hospital-antibacterial-drug-use-evaluation-a-multicentre-study
#8
Gesche Först, Katja de With, Nadine Weber, Johannes Borde, Christiane Querbach, Johannes Kleideiter, Claudia Seifert, Stefan Hagel, Andreas Ambrosch, Micha Löbermann, Philipp Schröder, Michaela Steib-Bauert, Winfried V Kern
Background: The WHO/ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical) index DDD (WHO-DDD) is commonly used for drug consumption measurement. Discrepancies between WHO-DDD and actual prescribed daily doses (PDD) in hospitals have prompted alternative dose definitions adapted to doses recommended in hospital practice guidelines [recommended daily doses (RDD)]. Methods: In order to validate RDD we performed modified point prevalence surveys in 24 acute care hospitals and recorded 20620 PDD of antibiotics given to 4226 adult patients on the day of the survey and the 6 preceding days...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071138/photodynamic-diagnosis-in-upper-urinary-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Elsawi Osman, Ziad Alnaib, Nitya Kumar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and safety of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted. Included studies were assessed for the risks of bias and quality using appropriate tools. Dedicated data extraction forms were used. Diagnostic accuracy in terms of sensitivity and specificity were quoted whenever provided by individual studies. A combined toxicity profile of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5ALA) was given after reviewing individual studies...
June 2017: Arab Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056690/detection-and-characterization-of-histamine-producing-strains-of-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-damselae-isolated-from-mullets
#10
Marcello Trevisani, Rocco Mancusi, Matilde Cecchini, Claudia Costanza, Marino Prearo
Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (Pdd) is considered to be an emerging pathogen of marine fish and has also been implicated in cases of histamine food poisoning. In this study, eight strains isolated from mullets of the genera Mugil and Liza captured in the Ligurian Sea were characterized, and a method to detect histamine-producing Pdd from fish samples was developed. The histamine-producing potential of the strains was evaluated in culture media (TSB+) using a histamine biosensor. Subsequently, two strains were used to contaminate mackerel fillets (4 or 40 CFU/g), simulating a cross-contamination on the selling fish stalls...
June 20, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056554/development-of-a-novel-schiff-base-derivative-for-enhancing-the-anticancer-potential-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-based-photodynamic-therapy
#11
Yusei Shinohara, Yoshio Endo, Chiaki Abe, Ikkyu Shiba, Masahiro Ishizuka, Tohru Tanaka, Yutaka Yonemura, Shun-Ichiro Ogura, Masahide Tominaga, Hisatsugu Yamada, Yoshihiro Uto
5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is now widely used for photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD) and photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) of various cancers. Recently, we found that treatment of cancer cells with the Schiff base derivative TX-816 along with ALA could significantly increase the efficacy of ALA-PDT. This enhancing effect of TX-816 on ALA-PDT is attributed to 3,5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde (DCSA), a molecule produced by the degradation of TX-816. Similar to TX-816, DCSA significantly enhances the effect of ALA-PDT...
October 19, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045251/novel-endoscopic-visualization-techniques-for-bladder-cancer-detection-a-review-of-the-contemporary-literature
#12
Andrea Mari, Mohammad Abufaraj, Killian M Gust, Shahrokh F Shariat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the principles of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), narrow-band imaging (NBI) and Storz Professional Image Enhancement System (SPIES) techniques for the endoscopic management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (BCa) and to report their impact on clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: PDD is associated with an increased sensitivity for detecting BCa specifically carcinoma in situ (CIS). Moreover, PDD has been shown to lower recurrence rate in comparison with white-light cystoscopy...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038245/mitochondrial-calcium-dysregulation-contributes-to-dendrite-degeneration-mediated-by-pd-lbd-associated-lrrk2-mutants
#13
Manish Verma, Jason Callio, P Anthony Otero, Israel Sekler, Zachary P Wills, Charleen T Chu
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to development of late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD), with clinical features of motor and cognitive dysfunction indistinguishable from sporadic PD. Calcium dysregulation plays an important role in PD pathogenesis, but the mechanisms of neurodegeneration remain unclear. Recent reports indicate enhanced excitatory neurotransmission in cortical neurons expressing mutant LRRK2, which occurs prior to the well-characterized phenotype of dendritic shortening...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991698/pitx3-genotype-and-risk-of-dementia-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-population-based-study
#14
David Bäckström, Magdalena Eriksson Domellöf, Gabriel Granåsen, Jan Linder, Sofia Mayans, Eva Elgh, Susanna Jakobson Mo, Lars Forsgren
Dementia is a devastating manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates whether a common polymorphism in the PITX3 gene (rs2281983), which is of importance for the function of dopaminergic neurons, affects the risk of developing dementia in PD and whether it affects dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake. We PITX3 genotyped 133 patients with new-onset, idiopathic PD, participating in a population-based study in Sweden. Patients were followed prospectively during 6-11years with extensive investigations, including neuropsychology and DAT-imaging with (123)I FP-CIT...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974864/study-of-variation-in-dose-calculation-accuracy-between-kv-cone-beam-computed-tomography-and-kv-fan-beam-computed-tomography
#15
Venkatesan Kaliyaperumal, C Jomon Raphael, K Mathew Varghese, Paul Gopu, S Sivakumar, Minu Boban, N Arunai Nambi Raj, K Senthilnathan, P Ramesh Babu
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are presently used for geometric verification for daily patient positioning. In this work, we have compared the images of CBCT with the images of conventional fan beam CT (FBCT) in terms of image quality and Hounsfield units (HUs). We also compared the dose calculated using CBCT with that of FBCT. Homogenous RW3 plates and Catphan phantom were scanned by FBCT and CBCT. In RW3 and Catphan phantom, percentage depth dose (PDD), profiles, isodose distributions (for intensity modulated radiotherapy plans), and calculated dose volume histograms were compared...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974859/choice-of-a-suitable-dosimeter-for-photon-percentage-depth-dose-measurements-in-flattening-filter-free-beams
#16
Silvia Vargas Castrillón, Francisco Cutanda Henríquez
The International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Reports Series-398 code of practice for dosimetry recommends measuring photon percentage depth dose (PDD) curves with parallel-plate chambers. This code of practice was published before flattening filter-free (FFF) beams were widely used in clinical linear accelerators. The choice of detector for PDD measurements needs to be reassessed for FFF beams given the physical differences between FFF beams and flattened ones. The present study compares PDD curves for FFF beams of nominal energies 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, and 10 FFF from a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) acquired with Scanditronix photon diodes, two scanning type chambers (both PTW 31010 Semiflex), two small volume chambers (Wellhofer CC04 and PTW 31016 PinPoint 3D), PTW 34001 Roos, Scanditronix Roos, and NACP 02 parallel-plate chambers...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961866/cognitive-and-neuropsychiatric-features-in-parkinson-s-and-lewy-body-dementias
#17
Julie A Fields
Cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms affect a substantial number of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). These non-motor changes can occur at all stages of disease, often years before motor symptoms manifest in some patients while occurring much later in the disease process for others. Lewy bodies are the hallmark of PD, yet not all patients with PD follow the same course or present in the same way clinically, either from a motor or non-motor standpoint. This has implications on assessment, intervention, and planning for the future...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949080/everyday-task-knowledge-and-everyday-function-in-dementia
#18
Emily E Roll, Tania Giovannetti, David J Libon, Joel Eppig
Tests of everyday action semantics were developed and piloted in a group of healthy adults (n = 53) and then administered to individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 17) or Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD; n = 20). Relations between everyday action knowledge and everyday function were explored. Three action semantic tests were developed: Probe Test - 45 forced-choice questions regarding task sequences, objects, and steps; Picture Sequencing Test - sequential ordering of 4-5 cards depicting task steps; Script Test - open-ended verbal description of the steps required to complete everyday tasks...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937033/transcranial-sonographic-alterations-of-substantia-nigra-and-third-ventricle-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-or-without-dementia
#19
Zhi-Fen Dong, Cai-Shan Wang, Ying-Chun Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yu-Jing Sheng, Hua Hu, Wei-Feng Luo, Chun-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a higher prevalence of substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity compared with controls. Our aim was to explore the neuroimaging characteristics of transcranial sonography (TCS) of patients with PD and those with PD with dementia (PDD). The correlation between the echogenicity of the SN and clinical symptoms in Chinese patients with PDD was also assessed. METHODS: The ratios of SN hyperechogenicity (SN+), maximum sizes of SN+, and widths of third ventricle (TV) were measured using TCS for all the recruited patients...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934619/distinct-brain-metabolic-patterns-separately-associated-with-cognition-motor-function-and-aging-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#20
Ji Hyun Ko, Audrey Katako, Maram Aljuaid, Andrew L Goertzen, Andrew Borys, Douglas E Hobson, Seok Min Kim, Chong Sik Lee
We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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