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Luis R Peraza, Ruth Cromarty, Xenia Kobeleva, Michael J Firbank, Alison Killen, Sara Graziadio, Alan J Thomas, John T O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) require differential management despite presenting with symptomatic overlap. Currently, there is a need of inexpensive DLB biomarkers which can be fulfilled by electroencephalography (EEG). In this regard, an established electrophysiological difference in DLB is a decrease of dominant frequency (DF)-the frequency with the highest signal power between 4 and 15 Hz. Here, we investigated network connectivity in EEG signals acquired from DLB patients, and whether these networks were able to differentiate DLB from healthy controls (HCs) and associated dementias...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nathan Cho, Panagiotis Tsiamas, Esteban Velarde, Erik Tryggestad, Robert Jacques, Ross Berbeco, Todd McNutt, Peter Kazanzides, John Wong
PURPOSE: The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) has been developed for conformal micro irradiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. The graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated Superposition-Convolution (SC) method for dose computation has been integrated into the treatment planning system (TPS) for SARRP. This paper describes the validation of the SC method for the kilovoltage energy by comparing with EBT2 film measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations...
March 15, 2018: Medical Physics
Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jaime McDonald, Emmanuelle Pourcher, Alexandra Nadeau, Philippe Corbeil
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral and transdermal rivastigmine for postural instability in patients with Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) who were candidates for a cholinesterase inhibitor. The primary outcome was the change in mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP) after 6 months. Secondary outcomes included structural parameters of dynamic posturography, clinical rating scales, and adverse events requiring dose reduction. METHODS: Patients with PDD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to oral or transdermal rivastigmine with target doses of 6 mg twice daily and 9...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Yi-Qi Lin, Sheng-Di Chen
Increasing evidence indicates a strong association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Parkinson's disease - cognitive impairment (PD-CI). Numerous longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have shown that RBD may be an important risk factor and predictor of Parkinson's disease - mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); which may be explained by the association of mechanisms between RBD and PD-CI, including neurotransmitter alterations, genetic mutation, neuroinflammation, alpha-synuclein inclusion, abnormal cerebral metabolism and cortical activity slowing...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Emma Robson, Clare Tweedy, Nelson Manzanza, John-Paul Taylor, Peter Atkinson, Fiona Randall, Amy Reeve, Gavin J Clowry, Fiona E N LeBeau
Intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a key pathological process evident in Lewy body dementias (LBD), including Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). LBD results in marked cognitive impairments and changes in cortical networks. To assess the impact of abnormal α-syn expression on cortical network oscillations relevant to cognitive function, we studied changes in fast beta/gamma network oscillations in the hippocampus in a mouse line that over-expresses human mutant α-syn (A30P)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Simon J Woodings, J J Bluemink, J H Wilfred de Vries, Yury Niatsetski, Bob van Veelen, Joost Schillings, Jan G M Kok, Jochem W H Wolthaus, Sara L Hackett, Bram van Asselen, Helena Maria van Zijp, Stefan Pencea, David A Roberts, Jan J W Lagendijk, Bas W Raaymakers
As a prerequisite for clinical treatments it was necessary to characterize the Elekta 1.5 T MRI-linac 7 MV FFF radiation beam. Following acceptance testing, beam characterization data were acquired with Semiflex 3D (PTW 31021), microDiamond (PTW 60019), and Farmer-type (PTW 30013 and IBA FC65-G) detectors in an Elekta 3D scanning water phantom and a PTW 1D water phantom. EBT3 Gafchromic film and ion chamber measurements in a buildup cap were also used. Special consideration was given to scan offsets, detector effective points of measurement and avoiding air gaps...
March 9, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Panagiotis Delinikolas, Georgios Patatoukas, Vasilios Kouloulias, Maria Dilvoi, Agapi Plousi, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Kalliopi Platoni
PURPOSE: Certain radiation responsive skin diseases may develop symptoms on the upper or the lower half of the body. The concept of a novel Hemi-Body Electron Irradiation (HBIe- ) technique, described in this work, provides a low cost, LINAC based, intermediate treatment option in between extremely localized and Total Skin irradiation techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The HBIe- technique, developed in our department, incorporates a custom crafted treatment chamber equipped with adjustable Pb shielding and a single electron beam in extended Source-Skin Distance (SSD) setup...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Navin Singh, Sunil Dutt Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Painuly, Abhijit Mandal, Lalit Mohan Agarwal, Ashutosh Sinha
Aims: To evaluate the underdosing of the maxillary sinus at its distal end produced by air cavity in the path of the 6 MV photon beam. Materials and Methods: A cubic solid water slab phantom of dimensions 18 cm × 18 cm × 18 cm with 4 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm air cavity 3 cm away from its anterior surface was used in this study. The percentage depth dose (PDD) for 6 MV X-rays along the central axis of the cubical air cavity was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeter-100 chips...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Liying Yang, Hongyan Wang, Lijun Liu, Anmu Xie
Dementia, a condition that frequently afflicts patients in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), results in decreased quality of life and survival time. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are not completely understood. The symptoms characteristic of PDD may be the result of functional and structural deficiencies. The present study implicates the accumulation of Lewy bodies in the cortex and limbic system as a potent trigger in the development of PDD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Lisa K Sykes, Mark R Geier
Nelson and Bauman (Pediatrics 111:674-679, 2003) previously hypothesized that pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) was not associated with mercury (Hg) exposure because the medical conditions associated with Hg exposure were not associated with PDD. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal case-control study evaluated the frequency of medically diagnosed conditions previously associated with Hg poisoning, including: epilepsy, dysarthria, failure to thrive, cerebral palsy, or contact dermatitis and other eczema among children preceding their eventual PDD diagnosis (cases) compared to controls...
March 6, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Kurt A Jellinger, Amos D Korczyn
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), which share many clinical, neurochemical, and morphological features, have been incorporated into DSM-5 as two separate entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies. Despite clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction concerning the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms, namely as early cognitive impairment in DLB and later onset following that of motor symptoms in PDD...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medicine
Antonio Daniele, Giordano Lacidogna
Among non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive and behavioural symptoms may precede the appearance of motor symptoms and become increasingly severe over disease progression. In patients with PD, mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) refers to a condition characterized by variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction, which does not significantly interfere with independence in daily living activities. PD-MCI may occur in at least 9% of patients in early disease stages1 , is a risk factor for PD dementia (PDD), and may present with a variety of patterns of impairment across several cognitive domains (executive functions, attention/working memory, episodic memory, visuospatial skills, language)...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Zhou-Wei Zhan, Li-Zhen Lin, Er-Han Yu, Jia-Wei Xin, Lin Lin, Hai-Long Lin, Qin-Yong Ye, Xiao-Chun Chen, Xiao-Dong Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in the functional connectivity (FC) pattern in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia by employing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). METHODS: Twenty-seven PD patients with different cognitive status and 9 healthy control subjects (control group) were enrolled for RS-fMRI. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed with DPARSF and REST software...
March 3, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Yuqiong Zhao, Yihuan Lu, Ridong Li, Jianan He, Han Zhang, Xin Wang, Zemei Ge, Runtao Li
Based on our discovered novel lead compound 1 through phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) approaches, systematic structural optimization was performed. A series of 2-allylthio-5-amino substituted benzoquinones were synthesized and evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activities against human prostate cancer cell line PC3. The compound 7a was found inhibit the growth of PC3 with an IC50 of 0.22 μM, which is over 20-fold improvement compared to lead compound 1. It is noteworthy that compound 7a also showed potent anti-proliferation activity toward a panel of cancer cells with relatively less cytotoxicity to nonmalignant cell, as well as good water solubility...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sygrid van der Zee, Yannick Vermeiren, Erik Fransen, Debby Van Dam, Tony Aerts, Marleen J Gerritsen, Jacoba M Spikman, Teus van Laar, Peter P De Deyn
BACKGROUND: Lewy body disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), are characterized by profound central and peripheral monoaminergic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether these alterations depend on dementia status, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum monoamine and metabolite levels across subgroups of the cognitive spectrum, and evaluated their marker potential afterwards...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Brenna Cholerton, Catherine O Johnson, Brian Fish, Joseph F Quinn, Kathryn A Chung, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Liana S Rosenthal, Ted M Dawson, Marilyn S Albert, Shu-Ching Hu, Ignacio F Mata, James B Leverenz, Kathleen L Poston, Thomas J Montine, Cyrus P Zabetian, Karen L Edwards
INTRODUCTION: Identification of factors associated with progression of cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is important for treatment planning, clinical care, and design of future clinical trials. The current study sought to identify whether prediction of cognitive progression is aided by examining baseline cognitive features, and whether this differs according to stage of cognitive disease. METHODS: Participants with PD in the Pacific Udall Center Clinical Consortium who had longitudinal data available and were nondemented at baseline were included in the study (n = 418)...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
G Biasi, M Petasecca, S Guatelli, N Hardcastle, M Carolan, V Perevertaylo, T Kron, A B Rosenfeld
PURPOSE: Flattening filter free (FFF) beams are increasingly being considered for stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). For the first time, the performance of a monolithic silicon array detector under 6 and 10 MV FFF beams was evaluated. The dosimeter, named "Octa" and designed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), was tested also under flattened beams for comparison. METHODS: Output factors (OFs), percentage depth-dose (PDD), dose profiles (DPs) and dose per pulse (DPP) dependence were investigated...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Israel Pérez-López, Antonio Martínez-López, Juan Antonio Retamero, Francisco Gallo, Salvador Arias-Santiago
We report a case of pachydermodactyly (PDD). PDD is a benign, asymptomatic soft tissue swelling affecting the skin of the lateral aspects of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers, mostly in young adolescent males. It has often been interpreted as a consequence of tic-like behavior as part of an obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although the diagnosis is essentially clinical, skin biopsy shows compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, increased numbers of collagen fibers and fibroblasts, and no inflammatory changes...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Brian W Pence, Jon C Mills, Angela M Bengtson, Bradley N Gaynes, Tiffany L Breger, Robert L Cook, Richard D Moore, David J Grelotti, Conall O'Cleirigh, Michael J Mugavero
Importance: Depression commonly affects adults with HIV and complicates the management of HIV. Depression among individuals with HIV tends to be chronic and cyclical, but the association of this chronicity with HIV outcomes (and the related potential for screening and intervention to shorten depressive episodes) has received little attention. Objective: To examine the association between increased chronicity of depression and multiple HIV care continuum indicators (HIV appointment attendance, treatment failure, and mortality)...
February 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
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