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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731148/molecular-genetics-and-targeted-therapy-of-wnt-related-human-diseases-review
#1
Masuko Katoh, Masaru Katoh
Canonical WNT signaling through Frizzled and LRP5/6 receptors is transduced to the WNT/β-catenin and WNT/stabilization of proteins (STOP) signaling cascades to regulate cell fate and proliferation, whereas non-canonical WNT signaling through Frizzled or ROR receptors is transduced to the WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP), WNT/G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and WNT/receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling cascades to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and directional cell movement. WNT/β-catenin signaling cascade crosstalks with RTK/SRK and GPCR-cAMP-PKA signaling cascades to regulate β-catenin phosphorylation and β-catenin-dependent transcription...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722514/non-autonomous-autophagy-in-germline-stem-cell-proliferation
#2
Kristina Ames, Alicia Meléndez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720768/gilgamesh-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-germline-stem-cells-in-drosophila-testis
#3
Dongsheng Chen, Xiangxiang Zhu, Lijuan Zhou, Jian Wang, Xiaoqian Tao, Shuang Wang, Fuling Sun, Xianzhao Kan, Zhengqi Han, Yuelin Gu
Emerging evidence supports that stem cells are regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. However, factors that determine the fate of stem cells remain incompletely understood. The Drosophila testis provides an exclusive powerful model in searching for potential important regulatory factors and their underlying mechanisms for controlling the fate of germline stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we have found that Drosophila gilgamesh (gish), which encodes a homologue of human CK1-γ (casein kinase 1-gamma), is required intrinsically for GSC maintenance...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711606/ovarian-aromatase-loss-of-function-mutant-medaka-undergo-ovary-degeneration-and-partial-female-to-male-sex-reversal-after-puberty
#4
Masatoshi Nakamoto, Yasushi Shibata, Kaoru Ohno, Takeshi Usami, Yasuhiro Kamei, Yoshihito Taniguchi, Takeshi Todo, Takashi Sakamoto, Graham Young, Penny Swanson, Kiyoshi Naruse, Yoshitaka Nagahama
Although estrogens have been generally considered to play a critical role in ovarian differentiation in non-mammalian vertebrates, the specific functions of estrogens during ovarian differentiation remain unclear. We isolated two mutants with premature stops in the ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1) gene from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-based gene-driven mutagenesis library of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. In XX mutants, gonads first differentiated into normal ovaries containing many ovarian follicles that failed to accumulate yolk...
July 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711427/temporal-remodeling-of-the-cell-cycle-accompanies-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-germline
#5
Taylor D Hinnant, Arturo A Alvarez, Elizabeth T Ables
Development of multicellular organisms relies upon the coordinated regulation of cellular differentiation and proliferation. Growing evidence suggests that some molecular regulatory pathways associated with the cell cycle machinery also dictate cell fate; however, it remains largely unclear how the cell cycle is remodeled in concert with cell differentiation. During Drosophila oogenesis, mature oocytes are created through a series of precisely controlled division and differentiation steps, originating from a single tissue-specific stem cell...
July 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706564/vitamin-c-induces-specific-demethylation-of-h3k9me2-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-via-kdm3a-b
#6
Kevin T Ebata, Kathryn Mesh, Shichong Liu, Misha Bilenky, Alexander Fekete, Michael G Acker, Martin Hirst, Benjamin A Garcia, Miguel Ramalho-Santos
BACKGROUND: Histone methylation patterns regulate gene expression and are highly dynamic during development. The erasure of histone methylation is carried out by histone demethylase enzymes. We had previously shown that vitamin C enhances the activity of Tet enzymes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, leading to DNA demethylation and activation of germline genes. RESULTS: We report here that vitamin C induces a remarkably specific demethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in naïve ES cells...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701172/vitamin-c-induces-specific-demethylation-of-h3k9me2-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-via-kdm3a-b
#7
Kevin T Ebata, Kathryn Mesh, Shichong Liu, Misha Bilenky, Alexander Fekete, Michael G Acker, Martin Hirst, Benjamin A Garcia, Miguel Ramalho-Santos
BACKGROUND: Histone methylation patterns regulate gene expression and are highly dynamic during development. The erasure of histone methylation is carried out by histone demethylase enzymes. We had previously shown that vitamin C enhances the activity of Tet enzymes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, leading to DNA demethylation and activation of germline genes. RESULTS: We report here that vitamin C induces a remarkably specific demethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in naïve ES cells...
July 12, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698559/repression-of-abd-b-by-polycomb-is-critical-for-cell-identity-maintenance-in-adult-drosophila-testis
#8
Shuo Zhang, Chenyu Pan, Xiangdong Lv, Wei Wu, Hao Chen, Wenqing Wu, Hailong Wu, Lei Zhang, Yun Zhao
Hox genes play a fundamental role in regulating animal development. However, less is known about their functions on homeostasis maintenance in adult stem cells. Here, we report that the repression of an important axial Hox gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), in cyst stem cells (CySCs) is essential for the homeostasis and cell identity maintenance in the adult Drosophila testis. Derepression of Abd-B in CySCs disrupts the proper self-renewal of both germline stem cells (GSCs) and CySCs, and leads to an excessive expansion of early stage somatic cells, which originate from both lineages...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698301/prdm16-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-postnatal-forebrain-and-their-differentiation-into-ependymal-cells
#9
Issei S Shimada, Melih Acar, Rebecca J Burgess, Zhiyu Zhao, Sean J Morrison
We and others showed previously that PR domain-containing 16 (Prdm16) is a transcriptional regulator required for stem cell function in multiple fetal and neonatal tissues, including the nervous system. However, Prdm16 germline knockout mice died neonatally, preventing us from testing whether Prdm16 is also required for adult stem cell function. Here we demonstrate that Prdm16 is required for neural stem cell maintenance and neurogenesis in the adult lateral ventricle subventricular zone and dentate gyrus. We also discovered that Prdm16 is required for the formation of ciliated ependymal cells in the lateral ventricle...
July 11, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680106/gaining-comprehensive-biological-insight-into-the-transcriptome-by-performing-a-broad-spectrum-rna-seq-analysis
#10
Sayed Mohammad Ebrahim Sahraeian, Marghoob Mohiyuddin, Robert Sebra, Hagen Tilgner, Pegah T Afshar, Kin Fai Au, Narges Bani Asadi, Mark B Gerstein, Wing Hung Wong, Michael P Snyder, Eric Schadt, Hugo Y K Lam
RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is an essential technique for transcriptome studies, hundreds of analysis tools have been developed since it was debuted. Although recent efforts have attempted to assess the latest available tools, they have not evaluated the analysis workflows comprehensively to unleash the power within RNA-seq. Here we conduct an extensive study analysing a broad spectrum of RNA-seq workflows. Surpassing the expression analysis scope, our work also includes assessment of RNA variant-calling, RNA editing and RNA fusion detection techniques...
July 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674809/rnai-based-techniques-for-the-analysis-of-gene-function-in-drosophila-germline-stem-cells
#11
Amelia J Blake, Danielle S Finger, Victoria L Hardy, Elizabeth T Ables
Elucidating the full repertoire of molecular mechanisms that promote stem cell maintenance requires sophisticated techniques for identifying and characterizing gene function in stem cells in their native environment. Ovarian germline stem cells in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are an ideal model to study the complex molecular mechanisms driving stem cell function in vivo. A variety of new genetic tools make RNAi a useful complement to traditional genetic mutants for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms guiding ovarian germline stem cell function...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674274/all-are-equal-but-some-are-more-equal-than-others-epigenetic-regulation-of-germ-line-stem-cell-fate-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Sonam Mehrotra, Girish Deshpande
Adult stem cells are capable of both symmetric andasymmetric cell divisions. Asymmetric cell division allows self-renewal and gives rise to intermediate cells that ultimately differentiate into specific cell types. Consequently, adult stem cells play a key role in development and tissue homeostasis during the life span of an organism. Typically, adult stem cell divisions are regulated through coordination between non-autonomous signaling from the niche and cell-autonomous influences from stem cell-intrinsic factors...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670516/generation-of-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cell-colonies-in-a-non-adherent-culture
#13
Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella, Abdolhossein Shahverdi
OBJECTIVE: The properties of self-renewal and division in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) support spermatogenesis. There is a number of reported methods for in vitro SSC culture systems. The development of a culture system that effectively supports isolation and selfrenewal of germline stem cells (GSCs) is of tremendous benefit for clinical trials, experimental research, and as potential treatment for male infertility. The current study aims to consider the cultivation and behavior of GSCs in a non-adherent culture system...
July 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669604/redox-homeostasis-plays-important-roles-in-the-maintenance-of-the-drosophila-testis-germline-stem-cells
#14
Sharon Wui Sing Tan, Qian Ying Lee, Belinda Shu Ee Wong, Yu Cai, Gyeong Hun Baeg
Oxidative stress influences stem cell behavior by promoting the differentiation, proliferation, or apoptosis of stem cells. Thus, characterizing the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on stem cell behavior provides insights into the significance of redox homeostasis in stem cell-associated diseases and efficient stem cell expansion for cellular therapies. We utilized the Drosophila testis as an in vivo model to examine the effects of ROS on germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance. High levels of ROS induced by alteration in Keap1/Nrf2 activity decreased GSC number by promoting precocious GSC differentiation...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669603/nodal-secures-pluripotency-upon-embryonic-stem-cell-progression-from%C3%A2-the-ground-state
#15
Carla Mulas, Tüzer Kalkan, Austin Smith
Naive mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can develop multiple fates, but the cellular and molecular processes that enable lineage competence are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated progression from the ESC ground state in defined culture. We utilized downregulation of Rex1::GFPd2 to track the loss of ESC identity. We found that cells that have newly downregulated this reporter have acquired capacity for germline induction. They can also be efficiently specified for different somatic lineages, responding more rapidly than naive cells to inductive cues...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669362/putative-germline-and-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-adult-mouse-ovary-and-their-in-vitro-differentiation-potential-into-oocyte-like-and-somatic-cells
#16
Yashar Esmaeilian, Arzu Atalay, Esra Erdemli
According to classical knowledge of reproductive biology, in the ovary of female mammals there is a limited number of oocytes and there is no possibility of renewal if the oocytes are lost due to disease or injury. However, in recent years, the results of some studies on renewal and formation of oocytes and follicles in the adult mammalian ovary have led to the questioning of this opinion. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the presence of putative germline and pluripotent stem cells in the adult mouse ovary and their differentiation potential into germ and somatic cells...
July 3, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666956/coordination-of-cellular-differentiation-polarity-mitosis-and-meiosis-new-findings-from-early-vertebrate-oogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Yaniv M Elkouby, Mary C Mullins
A mechanistic dissection of early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates is key to advancing our knowledge of germline development, reproductive biology, the regulation of meiosis, and all of their associated disorders. Recent advances in the field include breakthroughs in the identification of germline stem cells in Medaka, in the cellular architecture of the germline cyst in mice, in a mechanistic dissection of chromosomal pairing and bouquet formation in meiosis in mice, in tracing oocyte symmetry breaking to the chromosomal bouquet of meiosis in zebrafish, and in the biology of the Balbiani body, a universal oocyte granule...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663207/is-it-possible-to-develop-a-universal-influenza-virus-vaccine-immunogenetic-considerations-underlying-b-cell-biology-in-the-development-of-a-pan-subtype-influenza-a-vaccine-targeting-the-hemagglutinin-stem
#18
Sarah F Andrews, Barney S Graham, John R Mascola, Adrian B McDermott
Current influenza vaccines preferentially generate B-cell responses to the variable hemagglutinin (HA) head. Focusing vaccine-induced antibody responses on epitopes in the conserved HA stem may provide better protection against future drifted and pandemic strains. Understanding the basis for the dominant HA head and subdominant HA stem-specific responses at the level of B-cell activation and differentiation will be critical for designing vaccines that induce sustained stem-specific responses. Identifying antibody lineages with broad neutralizing activity against influenza A viruses and defining the structural mode of recognition for germline precursors of those antibodies will also guide future immunogen design...
June 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659335/bone-marrow-pathologic-abnormalities-in-familial-platelet-disorder-with-propensity-for-myeloid-malignancy-and-germline-runx1-mutation
#19
Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, Sanam Loghavi, Courtney D DiNardo, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Elias Jabbour, Mark J Routbort, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Carlos E Bueso-Ramos, Joseph D Khoury
A subset of patients with familial platelet disorder with propensity to myeloid malignancy and germline RUNX1 mutation develops hematological malignancies, often myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia, currently recognized in the 2016 WHO classification. Patients who develop hematologic malignancies are typically young, respond poorly to conventional therapy, and need allogeneic stem cell transplant from non-familial donors. Understanding the spectrum of bone marrow morphologic and genetic findings in these patients is critical to ensure diagnostic accuracy and develop criteria to recognize the onset of hematologic malignancies, particularly myelodysplastic syndrome...
June 28, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653810/the-piwi-pirna-pathway-road-to-immortality
#20
Ádám Sturm, András Perczel, Zoltán Ivics, Tibor Vellai
Despite its medical, social, and economic significance, understanding what primarily causes aging, that is, the mechanisms of the aging process, remains a fundamental and fascinating problem in biology. Accumulating evidence indicates that a small RNA-based gene regulatory machinery, the Piwi-piRNA pathway, represents a shared feature of nonaging (potentially immortal) biological systems, including the germline, somatic cancer stem cells, and certain 'lower' eukaryotic organisms like the planarian flatworm and freshwater hydra...
June 27, 2017: Aging Cell
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