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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232700/sygl-1-and-lst-1-link-niche-signaling-to-puf-rna-repression-for-stem-cell-maintenance-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Heaji Shin, Kimberly A Haupt, Aaron M Kershner, Peggy Kroll-Conner, Marvin Wickens, Judith Kimble
Central questions in regenerative biology include how stem cells are maintained and how they transition from self-renewal to differentiation. Germline stem cells (GSCs) in Caenorhabditis elegans provide a tractable in vivo model to address these questions. In this system, Notch signaling and PUF RNA binding proteins, FBF-1 and FBF-2 (collectively FBF), maintain a pool of GSCs in a naïve state. An open question has been how Notch signaling modulates FBF activity to promote stem cell self-renewal. Here we report that two Notch targets, SYGL-1 and LST-1, link niche signaling to FBF...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231816/cell-lineage-and-cell-cycling-analyses-of-the-4d%C3%A2-micromere-using-live-imaging-in-the-marine-annelid-platynereis-dumerilii
#2
B Duygu Özpolat, Mette Handberg-Thorsager, Michel Vervoort, Guillaume Balavoine
Cell lineage, cell cycle, and cell fate are tightly associated in developmental processes, but in vivo studies at single-cell resolution showing the intricacies of these associations are rare due to technical limitations. In this study on the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, we investigated the lineage of the 4d micromere, using high-resolution long-term live imaging complemented with a live-cell cycle reporter. 4d is the origin of mesodermal lineages and the germline in many spiralians. We traced lineages at single-cell resolution within 4d and demonstrate that embryonic segmental mesoderm forms via teloblastic divisions, as in clitellate annelids...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222434/embryonic-lethality-and-defective-male-germ-cell-development-in-mice-lacking-utf1
#3
Seth D Kasowitz, Mengcheng Luo, Jun Ma, N Adrian Leu, P Jeremy Wang
The germ cell lineage is specified early in embryogenesis and undergoes complex developmental programs to generate gametes. Here, we conducted genetic studies to investigate the role of Utf1 (Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1) in mouse germ cell development. Utf1 is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells and regulates ES cell differentiation. In a proteomics screen, we identified UTF1 among 38 proteins including DNMT3L and DND1 that associate with chromatin in embryonic testes...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209081/low-number-of-fixed-somatic-mutations-in-a-long-lived-oak-tree
#4
Emanuel Schmid-Siegert, Namrata Sarkar, Christian Iseli, Sandra Calderon, Caroline Gouhier-Darimont, Jacqueline Chrast, Pietro Cattaneo, Frédéric Schütz, Laurent Farinelli, Marco Pagni, Michel Schneider, Jérémie Voumard, Michel Jaboyedoff, Christian Fankhauser, Christian S Hardtke, Laurent Keller, John R Pannell, Alexandre Reymond, Marc Robinson-Rechavi, Ioannis Xenarios, Philippe Reymond
Because plants do not possess a defined germline, deleterious somatic mutations can be passed to gametes, and a large number of cell divisions separating zygote from gamete formation may lead to many mutations in long-lived plants. We sequenced the genome of two terminal branches of a 234-year-old oak tree and found several fixed somatic single-nucleotide variants whose sequential appearance in the tree could be traced along nested sectors of younger branches. Our data suggest that stem cells of shoot meristems in trees are robustly protected from the accumulation of mutations...
December 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198565/evoregen-in-animals-time-to-uncover-deep-conservation-or-convergence-of-adult-stem-cell-evolution-and-regenerative-processes
#5
REVIEW
Alvina G Lai, A Aziz Aboobaker
How do animals regenerate specialised tissues or their entire body after a traumatic injury, how has this ability evolved and what are the genetic and cellular components underpinning this remarkable feat? While some progress has been made in understanding mechanisms, relatively little is known about the evolution of regenerative ability. Which elements of regeneration are due to lineage specific evolutionary novelties or have deeply conserved roots within the Metazoa remains an open question. The renaissance in regeneration research, fuelled by the development of modern functional and comparative genomics, now enable us to gain a detailed understanding of both the mechanisms and evolutionary forces underpinning regeneration in diverse animal phyla...
October 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198563/transient-transcriptional-silencing-alters-the-cell-cycle-to-promote-germline-stem-cell-differentiation-in-drosophila
#6
Pooja Flora, Sean Schowalter, SiuWah Wong-Deyrup, Matthew DeGennaro, Mohamad Ali Nasrallah, Prashanth Rangan
Transcriptional silencing is a conserved process used by embryonic germ cells to repress somatic fate and maintain totipotency and immortality. In Drosophila, this transcriptional silencing is mediated by polar granule component (pgc). Here, we show that in the adult ovary, pgc is required for timely germline stem cell (GSC) differentiation. Pgc is expressed transiently in the immediate GSC daughter (pre-cystoblast), where it mediates a pulse of transcriptional silencing. This transcriptional silencing mediated by pgc indirectly promotes the accumulation of Cyclin B (CycB) and cell cycle progression into late-G2 phase, when the differentiation factor bag of marbles (bam) is expressed...
November 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197744/transcriptional-landscape-of-a-retc634y-mutated-ipsc-and-its-crispr-corrected-isogenic-control-reveals-the-putative-role-of-egr1-transcriptional-program-in-the-development-of-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2a-associated-cancers
#7
Julien Hadoux, Christophe Desterke, Olivier Féraud, Mathieu Guibert, Roberta Francesca De Rose, Paule Opolon, Dominique Divers, Emilie Gobbo, Frank Griscelli, Martin Schlumberger, Annelise Bennaceur-Griscelli, Ali G Turhan
MEN2A is a hereditary cancer-predisposing syndrome that affects patients with germline RET mutations. The effects of this oncogenic tyrosine kinase in the context of primitive stem cells are not known. In order to study these events, we generated a MEN2A induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) line from a patient with RET mutation and an isogenic counterpart by CRISPR-Cas9 correction of the mutation. Whole exome sequencing of iPSC before and after CRISPR-Cas9 genome edition revealed no major exonic off target effect of the CRISPR correction...
November 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194616/comparative-analysis-of-single-cell-rna-sequencing-data-from-mouse-spermatogonial-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-identify-differentially-expressed-genes-and-transcriptional-regulators-of-germline-cells
#8
Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad, Parvin Heshmati
Identifying effective internal factors for regulating germline commitment during development and for maintaining spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) self-renewal is important to understand the molecular basis of spermatogenesis process, and to develop new protocols for the production of the germline cells from other cell sources. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate single-cell RNA-sequencing data for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in 12 mouse-derived single SSCs (mSSCs) in compare with 16 mouse-derived single mesenchymal stem cells...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183785/ablation-of-gs%C3%AE-signaling-in-osteoclast-progenitor-cells-adversely-affects-skeletal-bone-maintenance
#9
REVIEW
Girish Ramaswamy, John Fong, Niambi Brewer, Hyunsoo Kim, Deyu Zhang, Yongwon Choi, Frederick S Kaplan, Eileen M Shore
Gsα, the alpha stimulatory subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins that activates downstream signaling through the adenylyl cyclase and cAMP/PKA pathway, plays an important role in bone development and remodeling. The role of Gsα in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation to osteoblasts has been demonstrated in several mouse models of Gsα inactivation. Previously, using mice with heterozygous germline deletion of Gsα (Gnas+/p-), we identified a novel additional role for Gsα in bone remodeling, and showed the importance of Gnas in maintaining bone quality by regulating osteoclast differentiation and function...
November 25, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181273/optimizing-peptide-epitope-based-autoantibody-detection-in-cancer-patients
#10
Maize Wang, Shirley H Lomeli, Wilbur A Franklin, Sarah Lee, Allan J Pantuck, Gang Zeng
Autoantibody (autoAb) response is an important arm of endogenously arising anti-tumor immune responses, and has received new attention as a cancer biomarker with the recent success of immune check-point inhibitor therapy. Our laboratory has been focusing on measuring autoAb against B-cell epitopes in order to bypass the necessity to purify a panel of recombinant proteins. In order to optimize peptide-based autoAb measurement and to increase sensitivities to cover more patients, we developed a new approach of using mixed peptides to conjugate on the same microsphere and compared its results with the use of a dominant peptide epitope using Luminex microbead-based multiplex assays...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171024/mir-19b-3p-induces-cell-proliferation-and-reduces-heterochromatin-mediated-senescence-through-plzf-in-goat-male-germline-stem-cells
#11
John Clotaire Daguia Zambe, Yuanxin Zhai, Zhe Zhou, Xiaomi Du, Yudong Wei, Fanglin Ma, Jinlian Hua
Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger PLZF, known as ZBTB16 or ZFP145 is a critical zinc finger protein of male germline stem cells (mGSCs), it's an essential transcriptional factor for goat testis development and spermatogenesis. Loss of PLZF results in progressive depletion of SSCs after the first wave of spermatogenesis leading to eventual spermatogenic arrest, apparently the result of a shift in the balance in SSC fate away from self-renewal and toward differentiation. Cumulating evidences have demonstrated that microRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific or stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis and acts as regulators on specific makers such as Stra8, ETV5, and PLZF...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165614/long-term-health-in-recipients-of-transplanted-in-vitro-propagated-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#12
Callista L Mulder, Lisa A E Catsburg, Yi Zheng, Cindy M de Winter-Korver, Saskia K M van Daalen, Madelon van Wely, Steven Pals, Sjoerd Repping, Ans M M van Pelt
STUDY QUESTION: Is testicular transplantation of in vitro propagated spermatogonial stem cells associated with increased cancer incidence and decreased survival rates in recipient mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cancer incidence was not increased and long-term survival rate was not altered after transplantation of in vitro propagated murine spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in busulfan-treated recipients as compared to non-transplanted busulfan-treated controls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Spermatogonial stem cell autotransplantation (SSCT) is a promising experimental reproductive technique currently under development to restore fertility in male childhood cancer survivors...
November 18, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136097/nonrandom-contribution-of-left-and-right-testes-to-germline-transmission-from-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#13
Mito Kanastu-Shinohara, Honda Naoki, Takashi Shinohara
Vast amounts of sperm are produced from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which continuously undergo self-renewal. We examined the possible effect of laterality in male germline transmission efficiency of SSCs using a spermatogonial transplantation technique. We transplanted the same number of wild-type and Egfp transgenic SSCs in the same or different testes of individual recipient mice and compared the fertility of each type of recipient by natural mating. Transgenic mice were born within 3 months after transplantation regardless of the transplantation pattern...
November 9, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130960/piwi-proteins-and-piwi-interacting-rna-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#14
Yi-Neng Han, Yuan Li, Sheng-Qiang Xia, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Jun-Hua Zheng, Wei Li
P-Element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a type of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and interact with PIWI proteins. piRNAs were primarily described in the germline, but emerging evidence revealed that piRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner among multiple human somatic tissue types as well and play important roles in transposon silencing, epigenetic regulation, gene and protein regulation, genome rearrangement, spermatogenesis and germ stem-cell maintenance. PIWI proteins were first discovered in Drosophila and they play roles in spermatogenesis, germline stem-cell maintenance, self-renewal, retrotransposons silencing and the male germline mobility control...
November 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113556/phospholipase-d-family-member-6-pld6-is-a-surface-marker-for-enrichment-of-undifferentiated-spermatogonia-in-the-pre-pubertal-boars
#15
Pengfei Zhang, Yuwei Qin, Yi Zheng, Wenxian Zeng
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have a functional ability to maintain self-renewal and sustain production of spermatozoa throughout the reproductive lifespan of a male. Studies on SSCs can thus better understandings of spermatogenesis and unravel the mechanisms for self-renewal and differentiation of male germline stem cells. However, the rarity of SSCs in the testis and the lack of reliable surface markers obstruct the related study and further application of SSCs. This is especially the case in livestock animals...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110637/constitutional-mutation-in-cdkn2a-is-associated-with-long-term-survivorship-in-multiple-myeloma-a-case-report
#16
Vallari Shah, Kevin D Boyd, Richard S Houlston, Martin F Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Multiple Myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells associated with significantly reduced survival. Long term survivorship from myeloma is very rare and despite advances in its treatment the disease is generally considered incurable. We report a patient diagnosed with myeloma carrying a germline mutation of a tumour suppressor gene who has effectively been cured. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old woman was diagnosed with IgG lambda myeloma in 1985. She was treated with melphalan chemotherapy followed by high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell rescue and since remained in complete remission despite not having received any additional therapy...
November 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110400/spaghetti-a-homolog-of-human-rpap3-rna-polymerase-ii-associated-protein-3-determines-the-fate-of-germline-stem-cells-in-drosophila-ovary
#17
Dongsheng Chen, Xiaoqian Tao, Lijuan Zhou, Fuling Sun, Mingzhong Sun, Xin Fang
The Drosophila ovary provides an attractive model for studying the extrinsic or intrinsic factors that regulate the fate of germline stem cells (GSCs). Using this model, we identified a new role for Drosophila spaghetti (spag), encoding a homolog of human RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3 (RPAP3), in regulating the fate of ovarian GSCs. Results from spag knockdown and genetic mosaic studies suggest that spag functions as an intrinsic factor for GSCs maintenance. Loss of Spag by, either spag RNAi or null mutation failed to trigger apoptosis in ovarian GSCs...
November 7, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100015/an-endosirna-based-repression-mechanism-counteracts-transposon-activation-during-global-dna-demethylation-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Rebecca V Berrens, Simon Andrews, Dominik Spensberger, Fátima Santos, Wendy Dean, Poppy Gould, Jafar Sharif, Nelly Olova, Tamir Chandra, Haruhiko Koseki, Ferdinand von Meyenn, Wolf Reik
Erasure of DNA methylation and repressive chromatin marks in the mammalian germline leads to risk of transcriptional activation of transposable elements (TEs). Here, we used mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to identify an endosiRNA-based mechanism involved in suppression of TE transcription. In ESCs with DNA demethylation induced by acute deletion of Dnmt1, we saw an increase in sense transcription at TEs, resulting in an abundance of sense/antisense transcripts leading to high levels of ARGONAUTE2 (AGO2)-bound small RNAs...
November 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097685/utf1-contributes-to-intergenerational-epigenetic-inheritance-of-pluripotency
#19
Qiuye Bao, Amir Morshedi, Fulu Wang, Sharma Bhargy, Konstantin Pervushin, Wei-Ping Yu, Peter Dröge
Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (Utf1) is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). Utf1 expression is directly controlled by pluripotency factors Oct4 and Sox2, which form a ternary complex with the Utf1 enhancer. The Utf1 protein plays a role in chromatin organization and epigenetic control of bivalent gene expression in ESCs in vitro, where it promotes effective cell differentiation during exit from pluripotency. The function of Utf1 in PGCs in vivo, however, is not known...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091993/germline-competency-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-depends-on-eomesodermin
#20
Di Chen, Wanlu Liu, Anastasia Lukianchikov, Grace Hancock, Jill Zimmerman, Matthew Lowe, Rachel Kim, Zoran Galic, Naoko Irie, M Azim Surani, Steven E Jacobsen, Amander T Clark
In humans, germline competency and the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) are thought to occur in a restricted developmental window during early embryogenesis. Despite the importance of specifying the appropriate number of PGCs for human reproduction, the molecular mechanisms governing PGC formation remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared PGC-like cell (PGCLC) differentiation from eighteen independently derived human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, and discovered that the expression of primitive streak genes were positively associated with hESC germline competency...
October 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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