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germline stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470523/a-late-but-fitter-revertant-cell-explains-the-high-frequency-of-revertant-mosaicism-in-epidermolysis-bullosa
#1
Peter C van den Akker, Anna M G Pasmooij, Hans Joenje, Robert M W Hofstra, Gerard J Te Meerman, Marcel F Jonkman
Revertant mosaicism, or "natural gene therapy", is the phenomenon in which germline mutations are corrected by somatic events. In recent years, revertant mosaicism has been identified in all major types of epidermolysis bullosa, the group of heritable blistering disorders caused by mutations in the genes encoding epidermal adhesion proteins. Moreover, revertant mosaicism appears to be present in all patients with a specific subtype of recessive epidermolysis bullosa. We therefore hypothesized that revertant mosaicism should be expected at least in all patients with recessive forms of epidermolysis bullosa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467241/polar-cell-fate-stimulates-wolbachia-intracellular-growth
#2
Ajit D Kamath, Mark A Deehan, Horacio M Frydman
Bacteria are critical partners in the development and evolution of vertebrates and invertebrates. A large fraction of insects harbor Wolbachia , a bacterial endosymbiont that manipulate host reproduction to favor their spreading. Since they are maternally inherited, Wolbachia are under selective pressure to reach the female germline and infect the offspring. However, Wolbachia infection is not limited to the germline. Somatic cell types, including stem cell niches, have higher Wolbachia loads compared to the surrounding tissue...
February 21, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456083/placeholder-nucleosomes-underlie-germline-to-embryo-dna-methylation-reprogramming
#3
Patrick J Murphy, Shan Fu Wu, Cody R James, Candice L Wike, Bradley R Cairns
The fate and function of epigenetic marks during the germline-to-embryo transition is a key issue in developmental biology, with relevance to stem cell programming and transgenerational inheritance. In zebrafish, DNA methylation patterns are programmed in transcriptionally quiescent cleavage embryos; paternally inherited patterns are maintained, whereas maternal patterns are reprogrammed to match the paternal. Here, we provide the mechanism by demonstrating that "Placeholder" nucleosomes, containing histone H2A variant H2A...
February 9, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453392/a-novel-flatworm-specific-gene-implicated-in-reproduction-in-macrostomum-lignano
#4
Magda Grudniewska, Stijn Mouton, Margriet Grelling, Anouk H G Wolters, Jeroen Kuipers, Ben N G Giepmans, Eugene Berezikov
Free-living flatworms, such as the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, are extensively used as model organisms to study stem cells and regeneration. The majority of flatworm studies so far focused on broadly conserved genes. However, investigating what makes these animals different is equally informative for understanding its biology and might have biomedical value. We re-analyzed the neoblast and germline transcriptional signatures of the flatworm M. lignano using an improved transcriptome assembly and show that germline-enriched genes have a high fraction of flatworm-specific genes...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435941/the-mir-302-mediated-induction-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipsc-multiple-synergistic-reprogramming-mechanisms
#5
Shao-Yao Ying, William Fang, Shi-Lung Lin
Pluripotency represents a unique feature of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). To generate ESC-like-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells, the cell genome needs to be reset and reprogrammed to express the ESC-specific transcriptome. Numerous studies have shown that genomic DNA demethylation is required for epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei to form iPSCs; yet, the mechanism remains largely unclear. In ESCs, the reprogramming process goes through two critical stages: germline and zygotic demethylation, both of which erase genomic DNA methylation sites and hence allow for different gene expression patterns to be reset into a pluripotent state...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428901/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-participates-in-non-coding-rna-pathways
#6
En-Hui Li, Xin Zhao, Ce Zhang, Wei Liu
Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by mutations of the Fragile X mental retardation 1(FMR1) gene, resulting in either the loss or abnormal expression of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Recent research showed that FMRP participates in non-coding RNA pathways and plays various important roles in physiology, thereby extending our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the Fragile X syndrome. Initial studies showed that the Drosophila FMRP participates in siRNA and miRNA pathways by interacting with Dicer, Ago1 and Ago2, involved in neural activity and the fate determination of the germline stem cells...
February 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428796/long-noncoding-rna-growth-arrest-specific-5-promotes-proliferation-and-survival-of-female-germline-stem-cells-in-vitro
#7
Jie Wang, Xiaowen Gong, Geng G Tian, Changliang Hou, Xiaoqin Zhu, Xiuying Pei, Yanrong Wang, Ji Wu
Female germline stem cells (FGSCs) are proposed to be a key factor for ameliorating female infertility. Previously we have shown that neonatal and adult FGSCs could be isolated and purified from mouse ovarian tissues. The long noncoding (lnc) RNA growth arrest-specific 5 sequence (GAS5) transcribed from mammalian genomes plays important regulatory roles in various developmental processes. However, there is no study on the relationship between GAS5 and FGSC development in vitro. In this study, we showed that GAS5 was highly expressed in the neonatal mouse ovary and was located in both FGSCs and oocytes...
February 8, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426405/bta-mir-2411-attenuates-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-replication-via-directly-suppressing-pelota-protein-in-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cells
#8
Huijun Shi, Qiang Fu, Shengnan Li, Xinyan Hu, Ruixin Tian, Gang Yao, Hongqiong Zhao, Jinquan Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ∼22 nt noncoding RNAs that control the translation initiation and stability of target genes in a sequence-specific manner and, thus, play important regulatory roles in animals and plants. Homologs of Dom34, called Pelota or PELO, are broadly conserved in eukaryotes and archaea. Biochemical and genetic studies indicate that eukaryotic Dom34/Pelota plays an important role in cell division, differentiation of germline stem cells, and stem cell self-renewal by controlling the expression of specific genes at the translational level...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414415/generation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line-with-heterozygous-rb1-deletion-by-cripsr-cas9-nickase
#9
Jian Tu, Zijun Huo, Mo Liu, Donghui Wang, An Xu, Ruoji Zhou, Dandan Zhu, Julian Gingold, Jingnan Shen, Ruiying Zhao, Dung-Fang Lee
The Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor, a member of the Retinoblastoma gene family, functions as a pocket protein for the functional binding of E2F transcription factors. About 1/3 of retinoblastoma patients harbor a germline RB1 mutation or deletion, leading to the development of retinoblastoma. Here, we demonstrate generation of a heterozygous deletion of the RB1 gene in the H1 human embryonic stem cell line using CRISPR/Cas9 nickase genome editing. The RB1 heterozygous knockout H1 cell line shows a normal karyotype, maintains a pluripotent state, and is capable of differentiation to the three germline layers...
February 2, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389999/chinmo-prevents-transformer-alternative-splicing-to-maintain-male-sex-identity
#10
Lydia Grmai, Bruno Hudry, Irene Miguel-Aliaga, Erika A Bach
Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx). Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl) causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra) to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs) of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary...
February 1, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389895/ovarian-cancers-genetic-abnormalities-tumor-heterogeneity-and-progression-clonal-evolution-and-cancer-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Ugo Testa, Eleonora Petrucci, Luca Pasquini, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi
Four main histological subtypes of ovarian cancer exist: serous (the most frequent), endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell; in each subtype, low and high grade. The large majority of ovarian cancers are diagnosed as high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGS-OvCas). TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HGS-OvCas; about 50% of these tumors displayed defective homologous recombination due to germline and somatic BRCA mutations, epigenetic inactivation of BRCA and abnormalities of DNA repair genes; somatic copy number alterations are frequent in these tumors and some of them are associated with prognosis; defective NOTCH, RAS/MEK, PI3K and FOXM1 pathway signaling is frequent...
February 1, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384219/pirna-19128-regulates-spermatogenesis-by-silencing-of-kit-in-chicken
#12
Qixin Guo, Lu Xu, Yulin Bi, Lingling Qiu, Yin Chen, Lingling Kong, Rui Pan, Guobin Chang
Spermatogenesis is a complex process. Some studies have shown that Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play an important role in spermatogenesis. To verify the evaluate between piRNAs and PIWI proteins in chicken and its possible role in spermatogenesis and reproductive stem cell proliferation and differentiation, we performed immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing analyses and determined the expression profiles of small RNAs in primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), spermatogonia (Sa) cells and spermatozoa...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380011/effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-ovarian-follicular-development-and-female-germline-stem-cells
#13
Xiaoqin Zhu, Geng G Tian, Baoli Yu, Yanzhou Yang, Ji Wu
Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most frequently detected emerging pollutants in the environment, has been implicated in adverse effects in male and female reproduction at extremely low concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the effects and potential mechanism of BPA on mouse ovarian follicular development and female germline stem cells (FGSCs). Female CD-1 adult mice were administered gradient concentrations of BPA (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal injection. We found that the number of atretic ovarian follicles was significantly increased at high BPA concentrations...
January 29, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372468/characterization-of-female-germline-stem-cells-from-adult-mouse-ovaries-and-the-role-of-rapamycin-on-them
#14
Hong Yang, Xi Yao, Furong Tang, Yudong Wei, Jinlian Hua, Sha Peng
Germline stem cells (GSCs) play an indispensable role in establishing the fertility of an organism. The isolation and culture of adult female GSCs (FGSCs) have provided a robust foundation to study the development of female germ cells in rodents. However, many problems still need to be identified, such as the origin and location of FGSCs and the specific markers for screening. In this study, we acquired FGSCs that stably expressed Oct4 from Oct4 promoter-GFP transgenic mouse ovarian surface epithelium and cortical layer, and identified the cells possessing the representative features including the expression of GSCs marker genes and the potentiality of differentiation into all three germ layers in vitro...
January 25, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370168/a-switch-in-the-mode-of-wnt-signaling-orchestrates-the-formation-of-germline-stem-cell-differentiation-niche-in-drosophila
#15
Maitreyi Upadhyay, Michael Kuna, Sara Tudor, Yesenia Martino Cortez, Prashanth Rangan
Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation into gametes is regulated by both intrinsic factors in the germ line as well as extrinsic factors from the surrounding somatic niche. dWnt4, in the escort cells of the adult somatic niche promotes GSC differentiation using the canonical β-catenin-dependent transcriptional pathway to regulate escort cell survival, adhesion to the germ line and downregulation of self-renewal signaling. Here, we show that in addition to the β-catenin-dependent canonical pathway, dWnt4 also uses downstream components of the Wnt non-canonical pathway to promote escort cell function earlier in development...
January 25, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362481/enhancer-of-polycomb-maintains-germline-activity-and-genome-integrity-in-drosophila-testis
#16
Lijuan Feng, Zhen Shi, Jing Xie, Binbin Ma, Xin Chen
Tissue homeostasis depends on the ability of tissue-specific adult stem cells to maintain a balance between proliferation and differentiation, as well as ensure DNA damage repair. Here, we use the Drosophila male germline stem cell system to study how a chromatin factor, enhancer of polycomb [E(Pc)], regulates the proliferation-to-differentiation (mitosis-to-meiosis) transition and DNA damage repair. We identified two critical targets of E(Pc). First, E(Pc) represses CycB transcription, likely through modulating H4 acetylation...
January 23, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361571/stereotypical-architecture-of-the-stem-cell-niche-is-spatiotemporally-established-by-mir-125-dependent-coordination-of-notch-and-steroid-signaling
#17
Andriy S Yatsenko, Halyna R Shcherbata
Stem cell niches act as signaling platforms that regulate stem cell self-renewal and sustain stem cells throughout life; however, the specific developmental events controlling their assembly are not well understood. Here we show that during Drosophila ovarian germline stem cell niche formation, the status of Notch signaling in the cell can be reprogrammed. This is controlled via steroid-induced miR-125, which targets a negative regulator of Notch signaling, Tom. Thus, miR-125 acts as a spatiotemporal coordinator between paracrine Notch and endocrine steroid signaling...
January 22, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361569/wnt6-maintains-anterior-escort-cells-as-an-integral-component-of-the-germline-stem-cell-niche
#18
Xiaoxi Wang, Andrea Page-McCaw
Stem cells reside in a niche, a complex cellular and molecular environment. In Drosophila ovaries, germline stem cells depend on cap cells for self-renewing signals and physical attachment. Germline stem cells also contact the anterior escort cells, and here we report that anterior escort cells are absolutely required for germline stem cell maintenance. When escort cells die from impaired Wnt signaling or hid expression, the loss of anterior escort cells causes consequent loss of germline stem cells. Anterior escort cells function as an integral niche component by promoting DE-cadherin anchorage and by transiently expressing the Dpp ligand to promote full-strength BMP signaling in germline stem cells...
January 18, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359419/pluripotency-deconstructed
#19
REVIEW
Masaki Kinoshita, Austin Smith
Pluripotency denotes the flexible capacity of single cells to give rise to all somatic lineages and typically also the germline. Mouse ES cells and post-implantation epiblast-derived stem cells (EpiSC) are widely used pluripotent cell culture systems. These two in vitro stem cell types have divergent characteristics. They are considered as representative of distinct developmental stages, distinguished by using the terms "naïve" and "primed". A binary description is an over-simplification, however. Here, we discuss an intermediate stage of pluripotency that we term "formative"...
January 23, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358652/the-sea-lamprey-germline-genome-provides-insights-into-programmed-genome-rearrangement-and-vertebrate-evolution
#20
Jeramiah J Smith, Nataliya Timoshevskaya, Chengxi Ye, Carson Holt, Melissa C Keinath, Hugo J Parker, Malcolm E Cook, Jon E Hess, Shawn R Narum, Francesco Lamanna, Henrik Kaessmann, Vladimir A Timoshevskiy, Courtney K M Waterbury, Cody Saraceno, Leanne M Wiedemann, Sofia M C Robb, Carl Baker, Evan E Eichler, Dorit Hockman, Tatjana Sauka-Spengler, Mark Yandell, Robb Krumlauf, Greg Elgar, Chris T Amemiya
The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) serves as a comparative model for reconstructing vertebrate evolution. To enable more informed analyses, we developed a new assembly of the lamprey germline genome that integrates several complementary data sets. Analysis of this highly contiguous (chromosome-scale) assembly shows that both chromosomal and whole-genome duplications have played significant roles in the evolution of ancestral vertebrate and lamprey genomes, including chromosomes that carry the six lamprey HOX clusters...
January 22, 2018: Nature Genetics
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