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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547540/investigation-of-anti-neuronal-antibodies-in-status-epilepticus-of-unknown-etiology-a-prospective-study
#1
Murat Mert Atmaca, Erdem Tuzun, Ece Erdag, Nerses Bebek, Betul Baykan, Candan Gurses
There have been recent reports of antibody-mediated status epilepticus. The objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence of neuronal autoantibodies in patients with status epilepticus (SE) with unresolved etiology. The presence of neuronal autoantibodies was investigated prospectively in adult patients with SE who presented to our clinic between February 2012 and December 2013 with unresolved etiology. Clinical and electrophysiologic features of seropositive patients were recorded. Also, seronegative and seropositive patient groups were compared in terms of demographic and clinical features, treatment responses, and outcomes...
May 25, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546770/reduced-gabaergic-neuronal-activity-in-zona-incerta-causes-neuropathic-pain-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-chronic-constriction-injury-model
#2
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Young Seok Park
PURPOSE: The zona incerta (ZI) is below the ventral tier of the thalamus and has a strong influence selectively in higher-order thalamic relays. Although neuropathic pain has been suggested to result from reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABAergic signaling in the ZI, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, the role of GABA and GABAergic signaling was investigated in the ZI in neuropathic pain using sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-unit neuronal activity was recorded, and microdialysis was performed in the ZI of CCI rats and sham-treated rats in vivo...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535436/microcystin-lr-induces-changes-in-the-gaba-neurotransmitter-system-of-zebrafish
#3
Wei Yan, Li Li, Guangyu Li, Sujuan Zhao
It has been reported that exposure to microcystins altered adult zebrafish swimming performance parameters, but the possible mechanisms of action remain unknown. Neuronal activity depends on the balance between the number of excitatory and inhibitory processes which are associated with neurotransmitters. In the present study, zebrafish embryos (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L (microcystin-LR) MCLR for 90day until reaching sexual maturity. To investigate the effects of MCLR on the neurotransmitter system, mRNA levels involved in amino acid g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate metabolic pathways were tested using quantitative real-time PCR...
May 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534652/a-review-of-the-evidence-of-zolpidem-efficacy-in-neurological-disability-after-brain-damage-due-to-stroke-trauma-and-hypoxia-a-justification-of-further-clinical-trials
#4
J A Sutton, R P Clauss
During 15 years, 23 clinical reports and 6 studies have demonstrated associations between sub-sedative doses of zolpidem and recoveries from brain damage due to strokes, trauma and hypoxia. Clinical findings include unexpected awakenings from vegetative states and regressions of stroke symptoms after dosing that disappear during elimination and reappear on repeat dosing. Initially single-photon emission computed tomography scans showed improved perfusion within, around and distant from infarctions. Then positron emission tomography scans and electroencephalography detected renewed metabolic and neuronal activity...
May 23, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524180/aberrant-epigenetic-regulation-of-gabrp-associates-with-aggressive-phenotype-of-ovarian-cancer
#5
Hye Youn Sung, San-Duk Yang, Woong Ju, Jung-Hyuck Ahn
Metastasis is a major cause of therapeutic failure in ovarian cancer. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer metastasis, we previously established a metastatic xenograft mouse model using human ovarian carcinoma SK-OV-3 cells. Using gene expression profiling, we found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor π subunit (GABRP) expression was upregulated (>4-fold) in metastatic tissues from our xenograft mice compared with SK-OV-3 cells. Importantly, GABRP knockdown diminished the migration and invasion of SK-OV-3 cells, and reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation while overexpression of GABRP exhibited significantly increased cell migration, invasion and ERK activation...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523095/therapeutic-advantage-of-the-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-the-gaba-b-receptor
#6
EDITORIAL
Ahmed F Abdel-Magid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522222/neurochemical-correlates-of-functional-plasticity-in-the-mature-cortex-of-the-brain-of-rodents
#7
REVIEW
Ewa Siucinska
It is commonly accepted that increase of input to sensory structures in mammals is known to produce marked changes in cortical recipient areas. This paper reviews the data concerning manifestations of changes in primary somatosensory cortex of adult animals caused by classical conditioning with reinforcement: aversive (whisker-shock) and appetitive (whisker-water) trainings. These include: anatomical, electrophysiological responses, receptor autoradiography, expression of GABA, GAD at mRNA and protein levels, expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta and inhibitory synaptogenesis in the hollows of "trained" barrels of the adult mouse...
May 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521906/spinal-cord-regeneration-by-modulating-bone-marrow-with-neurotransmitters-and-citicholine-analysis-at-micromolecular-level
#8
Cheramadathukudiyil Skaria Paulose, Ponnezhathu Sebastian John, Romeo Chinthu, Puthenveetil Raju Akhilraj, Thoppil Raveendran Anju
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. METHODS: Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514338/-a-comparative-chemoreactome-analysis-of-mexidol
#9
I Yu Torshin, O A Gromova, I S Sardaryan, L E Fedotova
AIM: To compare mexidol with control molecules (choline alfoscerate, piracetam, glycine, semax) using chemoreactome analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The chemical structure of mexidol was compared to molecule metabolites extracted from the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and a drug database. More than 40 000 of metabolites from HMDB were used as a model of human metabolome. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The chemoreactome analysis showed that mexidol may be (1) an agonist of acetylcholine and GABA-A receptors; (2) an anti-inflammatory agent, the effects of which are carried out by inhibiting the synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins; (3) a neurotrophic agent with neuroprotective properties; (4) a coagulation inhibitor; (5) a diabetes medication and (6) a hypolipidemic agent...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509116/tonic-regulation-of-stationary-asynchronous-firing-of-a-neural-network
#10
D A Adamchik, V B Kazantsev
The impact of tonic conductance upon population activity was investigated. An extra tonic transmembrane current through GABA-activated extrasynaptic GABA A -receptors was found to control stationary asynchronous firing both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative regulation consisted in alterating a current level of stationary population activity while qualitative regulation manifested itself in appearance of resilient asynchronous spiking in case GABA reversal potential exceeded a certain threshold...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505538/synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-neurosteroid-photoaffinity-ligands
#11
Pavel Y Savechenkov, David C Chiara, Rooma Desai, Alexander T Stern, Xiaojuan Zhou, Alexis M Ziemba, Andrea L Szabo, Yinghui Zhang, Jonathan B Cohen, Stuart A Forman, Keith W Miller, Karol S Bruzik
Neuroactive steroids are potent positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors (GABAAR), but the locations of their GABAAR binding sites remain poorly defined. To discover these sites, we synthesized two photoreactive analogs of alphaxalone, an anesthetic neurosteroid targeting GABAAR, 11β-(4-azido-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoyloxy)allopregnanolone, (F4N3Bzoxy-AP) and 11-aziallopregnanolone (11-AziAP). Both photoprobes acted with equal or higher potency than alphaxalone as general anesthetics and potentiators of GABAAR responses, left-shifting the GABA concentration - response curve for human α1β3γ2 GABAARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and enhancing [(3)H]muscimol binding to α1β3γ2 GABAARs expressed in HEK293 cells...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502217/hippocampal-low-frequency-stimulation-inhibits-afterdischarge-and-increases-gaba-a-receptor-expression-in-amygdala-kindled-pharmacoresistant-epileptic-rats
#12
Guofeng Wu, Likun Wang, Zhen Hong, Siying Ren, Feng Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of hippocampal low-frequency stimulation (Hip-LFS) on amygdala afterdischarge and GABA (A) receptor expression in pharmacoresistant epileptic (PRE) rats. METHODS: A total of 110 healthy adult male Wistar rats were used to generate a model of epilepsy by chronic stimulation of the amygdala. Sixteen PRE rats were selected from 70 amygdala-kindled rats by testing their response to Phenytoin and Phenobarbital, and they were randomly assigned to a pharmacoresistant stimulation group (PRS group, 8 rats) or a pharmacoresistant control group (PRC group, 8 rats)...
May 14, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499915/early-life-stress-and-later-peer-distress-on-depressive-behavior-in-adolescent-female-rats-effects-of-a-novel-intervention-on-gaba-and-d2-receptors
#13
Jodi L Lukkes, Shirisha Meda, Britta S Thompson, Nadja Freund, Susan L Andersen
Early life adversity (ELA) increases the risk of depression during adolescence that may result from a decline in parvalbumin (PVB) secondary to increased neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated depressive-like behavior following exposure to two different types of stressors that are relevant for their developmental period: 1) chronic ELA (maternal separation; MS) and 2) an acute emotional stressor during adolescence (witnessing their peers receive multiple shocks; WIT), and their interaction. We also determined whether reducing inflammation by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition would prevent the onset of depressive-like behavior...
May 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496108/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-promotes-retinal-ganglion-cell-function-via-modulating-gabaergic-presynaptic-activity-in-a-chronic-glaucomatous-model
#14
Xujiao Zhou, Yun Cheng, Rong Zhang, Gang Li, Boqi Yang, Shenghai Zhang, Jihong Wu
Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) agonists can prevent glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the neuroprotective effects and the mechanism of action of PNU-282987, an α7-nAChR agonist, in a chronic in vivo rat glaucoma model are poorly understood. We found that elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) downregulated retinal α7-nAChR expression. Electroretinography revealed that the amplitude of the photopic negative response (PhNR) decreased in parallel with the loss of RGCs caused by elevated IOP...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487743/delirium-and-high-creatine-kinase-and-myoglobin-levels-related-to-synthetic-cannabinoid-withdrawal
#15
Ahmet Bulent Yazici, Esra Yazici, Atila Erol
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are included in a group of drugs called new psychoactive substances. Effects of SCs on the central nervous system are similar to other cannabinoids, but 2-100 times more potent than marijuana. Thus, addiction and withdrawal symptoms are more severe than natural cannabinoids. Withdrawal symptoms of SCs were reported in the literature previously. But there is no report about SC withdrawal delirium and its treatment. Several studies reported that agonists of CB1 receptors play a role in GABA and glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is similar to the effects of alcohol on GABA and glutamatergic receptors...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487385/immune-related-gene-expression-profiling-after-pd-1-blockade-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-melanoma
#16
Aleix Prat, Alejandro Navarro, Laia Paré, Noemí Reguart, Patricia Galvan, Tomás Pascual, Alex Martínez, Paolo Nuciforo, Laura Comerma, Llucia Alos, Nuria Pardo, Susana Cedrés, Cheng Fan, Joel S Parker, Lydia Gaba, Ivan Victoria, Nuria Viñolas, Ana Vivancos, Ana Arance, Enriqueta Felip
Antibody targeting of the immune checkpoint receptor PD1 produces therapeutic activity in a variety of solid tumors, but most patients exhibit partial or complete resistance to treatment for reasons that are unclear. In this study, we evaluated tumor speciments from 65 patients with melanoma, lung non-squamous, squamous cell lung or head and neck cancers who were treated with the approved PD1 targeting antibodies pembrolizumab or nivolumab. Tumor RNA before anti-PD1 therapy was analyzed on the nCounter system using the PanCancer 730-Immune Panel, and we identified 23 immune-related genes or signatures linked to response and progression-free survival (PFS)...
May 9, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479740/effect-of-shankhpushpi-on-alcohol-addiction-in-mice
#17
Mahi Heba, Sana Faraz, Sugato Banerjee
Alcohol addiction is a worldwide problem. It has mainly two components: dependence and withdrawal. Characteristic properties of most anti-addictive compounds include anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and nootropic actions. Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis. Convolvulaceae), known ethnopharmacologically as brain tonic, possess all the properties mentioned above. Here, we screen shankhpushpi for possible anti-addictive potential. Effect of shankhpushpi churna was measured on ethanol withdrawal anxiety using elevated plus maze...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472809/developmental-changes-in-expression-of-gabaa-receptor-subunits-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-3-in-the-pig-brain
#18
Stephanie M Miller, Viskasari P Kalanjati, Paul B Colditz, Stella Tracey Björkman
GABA is a major neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. In the mature brain GABA exerts inhibitory actions via the GABAA receptor (GABAAR); however, in the immature brain GABA provides much of the excitatory drive. We examined the expression of 3 predominant GABAA α-subunit proteins in the pig brain at various pre- and postnatal ages. Brain tissue was collected from piglets born via caesarean section at preterm ages 91, 97, 100, and 104 days' gestational age (GA), at term equivalent (114 days' GA, caesarean section) and at term, postnatal day 0 (P0) (spontaneous delivery, term = 115 days)...
May 5, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466358/differential-surface-density-and-modulatory-effects-of-presynaptic-gabab-receptors-in-hippocampal-cholecystokinin-and-parvalbumin-basket-cells
#19
Sam A Booker, Daniel Althof, Claudius E Degro, Masahiko Watanabe, Ákos Kulik, Imre Vida
The perisomatic domain of cortical neurons is under the control of two major GABAergic inhibitory interneuron types: regular-spiking cholecystokinin (CCK) basket cells (BCs) and fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) BCs. CCK and PV BCs are different not only in their intrinsic physiological, anatomical and molecular characteristics, but also in their presynaptic modulation of their synaptic output. Most GABAergic terminals are known to contain GABAB receptors (GABABR), but their role in presynaptic inhibition and surface expression have not been comparatively characterized in the two BC types...
May 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466071/temporal-regulation-of-gabaa-receptor-subunit-expression-role-in-synaptic-and-extrasynaptic-communication-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#20
James C Walton, John K McNeill, Khallyl A Oliver, H Elliott Albers
Recent molecular studies suggest that the expression levels of δ and γ2 GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits regulate the balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA neurotransmission in multiple brain regions. We investigated the expression of GABAAδ and GABAAγ2 and the functional significance of a change in balance between these subunits in a robust local GABA network contained within the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN). Muscimol, which can activate both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs, injected into the SCN during the day phase advanced the circadian pacemaker, whereas injection of the extrasynaptic GABAA superagonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP) had no effect on circadian phase...
March 2017: ENeuro
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