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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775702/abnormal-sleep-architecture-and-hippocampal-circuit-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#1
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773210/cognitive-and-behavioral-effects-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Thiago da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Sabine Pompéia, Mônica Carolina Miranda
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a common respiratory sleep disorder in children that is believed to adversely affect both quality of life and cognition. The purpose of the present systematic review was to obtain evidence of the impact of OSA on children's cognitive/behavioral abilities from primary studies published in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2002 to 2016. Of the 649 articles found, only 34 met the eligibility criteria: studies that evaluated cognition, behavior, and/or academic achievement of children meeting clinical criteria for OSA to compare their data to those of healthy controls or normative data, provided that the samples did not present conditions that might affect cognition/behavior irrespective of OSA...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772442/cognitive-and-hippocampus-biochemical-changes-following-sleep-deprivation-in-the-adult-male-rat
#3
Ebrahim Nabaee, Mahnaz Kesmati, Ali Shahriari, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Mozhgan Torabi
Sleep deprivation (SD) influences physiological processes such as cognitive function. The balance of oxidant and antioxidant markers, neurotrophic factors and magnesium are affected by sleep deprivation but there is no difference between pre and post training sleep deprivation. This study was designed to investigate memory retrieval and biochemical factors such as oxidant and antioxidant enzyme, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and magnesium levels in the hippocampus following pre and post-training sleep deprivation...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771362/rates-of-cerebral-protein-synthesis-in-primary-visual-cortex-during-sleep-dependent-memory-consolidation-a-study-in-human-subjects
#4
Dante Picchioni, Kathleen C Schmidt, Kelly K McWhirter, Inna Loutaev, Adriana J Pavletic, Andrew M Speer, Alan J Zametkin, Ning Miao, Shrinivas Bishu, Kate M Turetsky, Anne S Morrow, Jeffrey L Nadel, Brittney C Evans, Diana M Vesselinovitch, Carrie A Sheeler, Thomas J Balkin, Carolyn B Smith
If protein synthesis during sleep is required for sleep-dependent memory consolidation, we might expect rates of cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) to increase during sleep in the local brain circuits that support performance on a particular task following training on that task. To measure circuit-specific brain protein synthesis during a daytime nap opportunity, we used the L-[1-(11)C]leucine positron emission tomography (PET) method with simultaneous polysomnography. We trained subjects on the visual texture discrimination task (TDT)...
May 15, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769252/frequency-of-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-presenting-to-tertiary-care-centre-in-pakistan-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#5
Shahid Mukhtar, Rashid Imran, Mohsin Zaheer, Huma Tariq
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD) presenting to a movement disorder clinic at a tertiary care centre in Pakistan, and how frequency of NMS is different in male and female patients. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary care centre. PARTICIPANTS: Out of 102 patients, 85 were included. Inclusion criteria were patients with PD diagnosed according to the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, age ≥18 years, able to give consent and have no difficulty in answering questions...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766217/involvement-of-extrasynaptic-glutamate-in-physiological-and-pathophysiological-changes-of-neuronal-excitability
#6
REVIEW
Balázs Pál
Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, as the majority of neurons use glutamate as neurotransmitter. It is also well known that this neurotransmitter is not restricted to synaptic clefts, but found in the extrasynaptic regions as ambient glutamate. Extrasynaptic glutamate originates from spillover of synaptic release, as well as from astrocytes and microglia. Its concentration is magnitudes lower than in the synaptic cleft, but receptors responding to it have higher affinity for it...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764971/retrieval-and-sleep-both-counteract-the-forgetting-of-spatial-information
#7
James W Antony, Ken A Paller
Repeatedly studying information is a good way to strengthen memory storage. Nevertheless, testing recall often produces superior long-term retention. Demonstrations of this testing effect, typically with verbal stimuli, have shown that repeated retrieval through testing reduces forgetting. Sleep also benefits memory storage, perhaps through repeated retrieval as well. That is, memories may generally be subject to forgetting that can be counteracted when memories become reactivated, and there are several types of reactivation: (i) via intentional restudying, (ii) via testing, (iii) without provocation during wake, or (iv) during sleep...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762867/shaping-memory-consolidation-via-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep
#8
REVIEW
Nicola Cellini, Alessandra Capuozzo
Recent studies have shown that the reactivation of specific memories during sleep can be modulated using external stimulation. Specifically, it has been reported that matching a sensory stimulus (e.g., odor or sound cue) with target information (e.g., pairs of words, pictures, and motor sequences) during wakefulness, and then presenting the cue alone during sleep, facilitates memory of the target information. Thus, presenting learned cues while asleep may reactivate related declarative, procedural, and emotional material, and facilitate the neurophysiological processes underpinning memory consolidation in humans...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757013/impact-of-a-behavioral-sleep-intervention-on-new-school-entrants-social-emotional-functioning-and-sleep-a-translational-randomized-trial
#9
Harriet Hiscock, Jon Quach, Kate Paton, Rebecca Peat, Lisa Gold, Sarah Arnup, Kah-Ling Sia, Elizabeth Nicolaou, Melissa Wake
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Determine the effects and costs of a brief behavioral sleep intervention, previously shown to improve child social-emotional functioning, sleep, and parent mental health, in a translational trial. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred thirty-four school entrant children from 47 primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, with parent-reported moderate to severe behavioral sleep problems. METHODS: intervention group received sleep hygiene practices and standardized behavioral strategies delivered by trained school nurses in 2013 and 2014...
May 14, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755332/neurofeedback-and-the-neural-representation-of-self-lessons-from-awake-state-and-sleep
#10
Andreas A Ioannides
Neurofeedback has been around for half a century, but despite some promising results it is not yet widely appreciated. Recently, some of the concerns about neurofeedback have been addressed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography adding their contributions to the long history of neurofeedback with electroencephalography. Attempts to address other concerns related to methodological issues with new experiments and meta-analysis of earlier studies, have opened up new questions about its efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744783/behavioral-interventions-to-eliminate-fear-responses
#11
REVIEW
Jingli Yue, Le Shi, Xiao Lin, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Fear memory underlies anxiety-related disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a fear-based disorder, characterized by difficulties in extinguishing the learned fear response and maintaining extinction. Currently, the first-line treatment for PTSD is exposure therapy, which forms an extinction memory to compete with the original fear memory. However, the extinguished fear often returns under numerous circumstances, suggesting that novel methods are needed to eliminate fear memory or facilitate extinction memory...
May 7, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737095/-prevalence-and-determinants-of-depressive-symptoms-in-middle-and-senior-aged-populations-with-visual-impairment
#12
Zhan Yang, Yin Liu, Wen-Jie Zhang, Ning-Xiu Li
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and determinants of depressive symptoms in visually impaired mid- and old-aged populations. METHODS: Data were extracted from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study database. A total of 1 462 mid- and old-aged respondents reported visual problems. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms...
January 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735380/people-s-beliefs-and-expectations-about-how-cognitive-skills-change-with-age-evidence-from-a-u-k-wide-aging-survey
#13
Eleftheria Vaportzis, Alan J Gow
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a U.K.-wide survey to collect information on people's beliefs, fears, perceptions, and attitudes to cognitive aging. METHODS: This community-based aging survey included 3,146 adults aged 40 years and over. RESULTS: Respondents believed memory might be the earliest cognitive skill to decline (mean: 59.4 years), followed by speed of thinking (mean: 64.9). Those in their 40s were more pessimistic, because they estimated cognitive changes would start up to 15 years earlier than respondents aged over 70...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725029/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-memory-and-kynurenic-acid-formation-following-acute-sleep-deprivation-in-rats
#14
Annalisa M Baratta, Silas A Buck, Austin D Buchla, Carly B Fabian, Shuo Chen, Jessica A Mong, Ana Pocivavsek
Inadequate sleep is a prevalent problem within our society that can result in cognitive dysfunction. Elevations in kynurenic acid (KYNA), a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation known to impact cognition, in the brain may constitute a molecular link between sleep loss and cognitive impairment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the impact of 6 hours of sleep deprivation on memory and KP metabolism (brain and plasma) in male and female rats. Sleep-deprived males were impaired in a contextual memory paradigm, and both sexes were impaired in a recognition memory paradigm...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723670/circuit-mechanisms-of-hippocampal-reactivation-during-sleep
#15
Paola Malerba, Maxim Bazhenov
The hippocampus is important for memory and learning, being a brain site where initial memories are formed and where sharp wave - ripples (SWR) are found, which are responsible for mapping recent memories to long-term storage during sleep-related memory replay. While this conceptual schema is well established, specific intrinsic and network-level mechanisms driving spatio-temporal patterns of hippocampal activity during sleep, and specifically controlling off-line memory reactivation are unknown. In this study, we discuss a model of hippocampal CA1-CA3 network generating spontaneous characteristic SWR activity...
April 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722088/declarative-virtual-water-maze-learning-and-emotional-fear-conditioning-in-primary-insomnia
#16
Marion Kuhn, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Bernd Feige, Nina Landmann, Kai Spiegelhalder, Chiara Baglioni, Johanna Hemmerling, Diana Durand, Lukas Frase, Stefan Klöppel, Dieter Riemann, Christoph Nissen
Healthy sleep restores the brain's ability to adapt to novel input through memory formation based on activity-dependent refinements of the strength of neural transmission across synapses (synaptic plasticity). In line with this framework, patients with primary insomnia often report subjective memory impairment. However, investigations of memory performance did not produce conclusive results. The aim of this study was to further investigate memory performance in patients with primary insomnia in comparison to healthy controls, using two well-characterized learning tasks, a declarative virtual water maze task and emotional fear conditioning...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717187/rest-related-consolidation-protects-the-fine-detail-of-new-memories
#17
Michael Craig, Michaela Dewar
Newly encoded memories are labile and consolidate over time. The importance of sleep in memory consolidation has been well known for almost a decade. However, recent research has shown that awake quiescence, too, can support consolidation: people remember more new memories if they quietly rest after encoding than if they engage in a task. It is not yet known how exactly this rest-related consolidation benefits new memories, and whether it affects the fine detail of new memories. Using a sensitive picture recognition task, we show that awake quiescence aids the fine detail of new memories...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713096/characterizing-the-effects-of-quetiapine-in-military-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Gerardo Villarreal, Mark B Hamner, Clifford Qualls, José M Cañive
Objectives: A previous randomized placebo-controlled trial in military veterans posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found that quetiapine improved global PTSD symptoms severity, depression and anxiety as well as the re-experiencing and hypearousal clusters. However, it is not known if individual symptoms had a preferential response to this medication. The goal of this study was to analyze the individual symptom response in this group of patients. Methods: Data from a previous trial was re-analyzed...
February 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710716/brain-inflammation-connects-cognitive-and-non-cognitive-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
M Clara Selles, Mauricio M Oliveira, Sergio T Ferreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main form of dementia in the elderly and affects greater than 47 million people worldwide. Care for AD patients poses very significant personal and economic demands on individuals and society, and the situation is expected to get even more dramatic in the coming decades unless effective treatments are found to halt the progression of the disease. Although AD is most commonly regarded as a disease of the memory, the entire brain is eventually affected by neuronal dysfunction or neurodegeneration, which brings about a host of other behavioral disturbances...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709569/the-effect-of-sleep-deprivation-on-emotional-memory-consolidation-in-participants-reporting-depressive-symptoms
#20
Marcus O Harrington, Karen M Nedberge, Simon J Durrant
Sleep has been shown to play a crucial role in the consolidation of emotionally salient memories. However, the influence of sleep, and Sleep Deprivation (SD), on emotional memory consolidation in depressive individuals remains elusive. For this experiment we recruited two groups of healthy students, one reporting mild-to-severe depressive symptoms, and another reporting minimal/no depressive symptoms (assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II). We measured recognition performance for positive, neutral and negative images before and after a 12 h overnight retention interval, during which participants either remained awake in the laboratory or returned home to sleep normally...
April 27, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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