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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092659/rem-sleep-selectively-prunes-and-maintains-new-synapses-in-development-and-learning
#1
Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang, Wen-Biao Gan
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089652/hippocampal-prefrontal-connectivity-as-a-translational-phenotype-for-schizophrenia
#2
REVIEW
Florian Bähner, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Finding novel biological targets in psychiatry has been difficult, partly because current diagnostic categories are not defined by pathophysiology and difficult to model in animals. The study of species-conserved systems-level mechanisms implicated in psychiatric disease could be a promising strategy to address some of these difficulties. Altered hippocampal-prefrontal (HC-PFC) connectivity during working memory (WM) processing is a candidate for such a translational phenotype as it has been repeatedly associated with impaired cognition in schizophrenia patients and animal models for psychiatric risk factors...
January 12, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088728/the-association-between-insomnia-related-sleep-disruptions-and-cognitive-dysfunction-during-the-inter-episode-phase-of-bipolar-disorder
#3
Jennifer C Kanady, Adriane M Soehner, Alexandra B Klein, Allison G Harvey
Sleep disturbance and cognitive dysfunction are two domains of impairment during inter-episode bipolar disorder. Despite evidence demonstrating the importance of sleep for cognition in healthy and sleep-disordered samples, this link has been minimally examined in bipolar disorder. The present study tested the association between insomnia-related sleep disruptions and cognitive dysfunction during inter-episode bipolar disorder. Forty-seven participants with bipolar disorder and a comorbid insomnia diagnosis (BD-Insomnia) and 19 participants with bipolar disorder without sleep disturbance in the last six months (BD-Control) participated in the study...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088703/dopaminergic-rules-of-engagement-for-memory-in-drosophila
#4
REVIEW
Karla R Kaun, Adrian Rothenfluh
Dopamine is associated with a variety of conserved responses across species including locomotion, sleep, food consumption, aggression, courtship, addiction and several forms of appetitive and aversive memory. Historically, dopamine has been most prominently associated with dynamics underlying reward, punishment, or salience. Recent emerging evidence from Drosophila supports a role in all of these functions, as well as additional roles in the interplay between external sensation and internal states and forgetting of the very memories dopamine helped encode...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087334/the-short-and-long-term-proteomic-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-the-cortical-and-thalamic-synapses
#5
Attila Simor, Balázs András Györffy, Péter Gulyássy, Katalin Völgyi, Vilmos Tóth, Mihail Ivilinov Todorov, Viktor Kis, Zsolt Borhegyi, Zoltán Szabó, Tamás Janáky, László Drahos, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences for the involvement of sleep in synaptic functions. Despite the wide scientific interest on the effects of sleep on the synapse, there is a lack of systematic investigation of sleep-related changes in the synaptic proteome. We isolated parietal cortical and thalamic synaptosomes of rats after 8 h of total SD by gentle handling and 16 h after the end of deprivation to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of SD on the synaptic proteome, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079611/it-is-just-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder%C3%A2-or-is-it
#6
Dana C Won, Christian Guilleminault, Peter J Koltai, Stacey D Quo, Martin T Stein, Irene M Loe
Carly is a 5-year-old girl who presents for an interdisciplinary evaluation due to behaviors at school and home suggestive of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent report of preschool teacher concerns was consistent with ADHD. Psychological testing showed verbal, visual-spatial, and fluid reasoning IQ scores in the average range; processing speed and working memory were below average. Carly's behavior improved when her mother left the room, and she was attentive during testing with a psychologist...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072517/arthropod-innate-immune-systems-and-vector-borne-diseases
#7
Richard H G Baxter, Alicia Contet, Kathryn Krueger
Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue and Zika. Yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization and agglutination...
January 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060930/beyond-emotional-and-spatial-processes-cognitive-dysfunction-in-a-depressive-phenotype-produced-by-long-photoperiod-exposure
#8
Abigail K Barnes, Summer B Smith, Subimal Datta
Cognitive dysfunction in depression has recently been given more attention and legitimacy as a core symptom of the disorder. However, animal investigations of depression-related cognitive deficits have generally focused on emotional or spatial memory processing. Additionally, the relationship between the cognitive and affective disturbances that are present in depression remains obscure. Interestingly, sleep disruption is one aspect of depression that can be related both to cognition and affect, and may serve as a link between the two...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060091/midface-distraction-osteogenesis-using-a-modified-external-device-with-elastic-distraction-for-crouzon-syndrome
#9
Haizhou Tong, Lei Liu, Xiaojun Tang, Tao Song, Ningbei Yin, Zhiyong Zhang, Zhenmin Zhao
PURPOSE: Midface distraction osteogenesis has been popularized for the correction of midface hypoplasia associated with exophthalmos and obstructive sleep apnea in patients with Crouzon syndrome. The purpose of this study was to present the method of utilizing the modified external device with elastic distraction for the midface advancement in Crouzon syndrome, and the clinical outcomes and skeletal changes were analyzed. METHODS: Five consecutive patients with Crouzon syndrome underwent Le Fort III osteotomy with midface advancement using a modified external device with elastic distraction...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058092/the-evolving-view-of-astrocytes
#10
Philip G Haydon
Did you know that glial cells are more numerous than neurons in the brain? Scientists have found that one type of glial cell that is prevalent in the cortex-the astrocyte-communicates with its brethren, sends information to neurons, and controls blood flow to regions of brain activity. Because of all these properties, and since the cortex is believed responsible for cognition, the role of astrocytes in sleep, learning, and memory is being determined.
September 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051138/prior-knowledge-is-essential-for-the-beneficial-effect-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep
#11
Sabine Groch, Thomas Schreiner, Björn Rasch, Reto Huber, Ines Wilhelm
Prior knowledge speeds up system consolidation and accelerates integration of newly acquired memories into existing neocortical knowledge networks. By using targeted memory reactivations, we demonstrate that prior knowledge is also essential for successful reactivation and consolidation of memories during sleep, both on the behavioral and oscillatory level (i.e., theta and fast spindle activity). Thus, prior knowledge is a prerequisite for new memories to enter processes of system consolidation during sleep...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050973/behavioral-state-classification-in-epileptic-brain-using-intracranial-electrophysiology
#12
Vaclav Kremen, Juliano Duque, Benjamin Brinkmann, Brent Berry, Michal Kucewicz, Fatemeh Khadjevand, Jamie Van Gompel, Squire Stead, Erik St Louis, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Automated behavioral state classification can benefit next generation implantable epilepsy devices. In this study we explored the feasibility of automated awake (AW) and slow wave sleep (SWS) classification using wide bandwidth intracranial EEG (iEEG) in patients undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery. APPROACH: Data from seven patients (age 34+/-12, 4 women, 5 right handed) who underwent intracranial depth electrode implantation for iEEG monitoring were included...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049026/memory-consolidation-of-socially-relevant-stimuli-during-sleep-in-healthy-children-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-oppositional-defiant-disorder-what-you-can-see-in-their-eyes
#13
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Ina Molzow, Alexandra Förster, Nadine Siebenhühner, Maxime Gesch, Christian D Wiesner, Lioba Baving
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and being comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), results in deficits in face processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sleep in recognizing faces in children with ADHD+ODD. Sixteen healthy children and 16 children diagnosed with ADHD+ODD participated in a sleep and a wake condition. During encoding (sleep condition at 8p.m.; wake condition at 8a.m...
December 31, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045986/evidence-for-cognitive-aging-in-midlife-women-study-of-women-s-health-across-the-nation
#14
Arun S Karlamangla, Margie E Lachman, WeiJuan Han, MeiHua Huang, Gail A Greendale
Although cross-sectional studies suggest that cognitive aging starts in midlife, few longitudinal studies have documented within-individual declines in cognitive performance before the seventh decade. Learning from repeat testing, or practice effects, can mask the decline in younger cohorts. In women, the menopause transition also affects test performance and can confound estimates of underlying decline. We designed this study to determine if, after controlling for practice effects, the menopause transition, and the symptoms associated with it, there is evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045040/the-fall-of-sleep-k-complex-in-alzheimer-disease
#15
Luigi De Gennaro, Maurizio Gorgoni, Flaminia Reda, Giulia Lauri, Ilaria Truglia, Susanna Cordone, Serena Scarpelli, Anastasia Mangiaruga, Aurora D'atri, Giordano Lacidogna, Michele Ferrara, Camillo Marra, Paolo Maria Rossini
Although a slowing of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during wakefulness and -to some extent- sleep of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients (i.e., increased slow-frequency activity) was documented, recent findings in healthy elderly show a decreased 0.6-1 Hz slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM, which was associated to β-amyloid deposition and impaired hippocampal memory consolidation. We hypothesize that the apparent contradiction may be explained by the partial overlap between 0.6-1 Hz EEG activity and K-Complex (KC)...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044430/the-role-of-sleep-in-cognitive-processing-focusing-on-memory-consolidation
#16
REVIEW
Alexis M Chambers
Research indicates that sleep promotes various cognitive functions, such as decision-making, language, categorization, and memory. Of these, most work has focused on the influence of sleep on memory, with ample work showing that sleep enhances memory consolidation, a process that stores new memories in the brain over time. Recent psychological and neurophysiological research has vastly increased understanding of this process. Such work not only suggests that consolidation relies on plasticity-related mechanisms that reactivate and stabilize memory representations, but also that this process may be experimentally manipulated by methods that target which memory traces are reactivated during sleep...
January 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043900/assessment-of-mouse-cognitive-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-hippocampal-inflammation-following-a-repeated-and-intermittent-paradoxical-sleep-deprivation-procedure
#17
Mengmei Yin, Yali Chen, Hui Zheng, Tinglin Pu, Charles Marshall, Ting Wu, Ming Xiao
It has been reported that more than one fourth of the world's population suffers from sleep problems. However, there is not a stable and reliable animal model to mimic the persistent and periodic features of sleep disorders, and correspondingly, the feasibility and effectiveness of repeated behavioral tests remains to be determined. In the present study, we repetitively, and intermittently, treated mice with 3days and 7days of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD), using the modified multiple small-platforms-over-water method for 3 months...
December 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042077/symptom-burden-in-advanced-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#18
Nicholas Gough, Jonathan Koffman, Joy R Ross, Julia Riley, Ian Judson
CONTEXT: There is little information on symptom prevalence and severity in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Understanding symptom burden will aid clinical consultations, clarify which symptom interventions are needed and better define optimum timings of palliative and supportive care referrals. OBJECTIVES: To describe symptom prevalence and severity in patients undergoing different treatment options for advanced STS: [i] First-line palliative chemotherapy (FLC) [ii] Active surveillance (AS) pre and post-FLC and [iii] Palliative care (PC) alone...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041883/phase-locked-inhibition-but-not-excitation-underlies-hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-in-awake-mice-in%C3%A2-vivo
#19
Jian Gan, Shih-Ming Weng, Alejandro J Pernía-Andrade, Jozsef Csicsvari, Peter Jonas
Sharp wave-ripple (SWR) oscillations play a key role in memory consolidation during non-rapid eye movement sleep, immobility, and consummatory behavior. However, whether temporally modulated synaptic excitation or inhibition underlies the ripples is controversial. To address this question, we performed simultaneous recordings of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) and local field potentials (LFPs) in the CA1 region of awake mice in vivo. During SWRs, inhibition dominated over excitation, with a peak conductance ratio of 4...
December 22, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041797/sharp-wave-ripples-in-primates-are-enhanced-near-remembered-visual-objects
#20
Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
The hippocampus plays an important role in memory for events that are distinct in space and time. One of the strongest, most synchronous neural signals produced by the hippocampus is the sharp-wave ripple (SWR), observed in a variety of mammalian species during offline behaviors, such as slow-wave sleep [1-3] and quiescent waking and pauses in exploration [4-8], leading to long-standing and widespread theories of its contribution to plasticity and memory during these inactive or immobile states [9-14]. Indeed, during sleep and waking inactivity, hippocampal SWRs in rodents appear to support spatial long-term and working memory [4, 15-23], but so far, they have not been linked to memory in primates...
December 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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