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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938081/sleep-in-insects
#1
Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Sleep is essential for proper brain function in mammals and insects. During sleep, animals are disconnected from the external world; they show high arousal thresholds and changed brain activity. Sleep deprivation results in a sleep rebound. Research using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us understand the genetic and neuronal control of sleep. Genes involved in sleep control code for ion channels, factors influencing neurotransmission and neuromodulation, and proteins involved in the circadian clock...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937858/our-mother-s-mitochondria-and-our-mind
#2
Peter Kramer, Paola Bressan
Most of the energy we get to spend is furnished by mitochondria, minuscule living structures sitting inside our cells or dispatched back and forth within them to where they are needed. Mitochondria produce energy by burning down what remains of our meal after we have digested it, but at the cost of constantly corroding themselves and us. Here we review how our mitochondria evolved from invading bacteria and have retained a small amount of independence from us; how we inherit them only from our mother; and how they are heavily implicated in learning, memory, cognition, and virtually every mental or neurological affliction...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936183/consciousness-across-sleep-and-wake-discontinuity-and-continuity-of-memory-experiences-as-a-reflection-of-consolidation-processes
#3
Caroline L Horton
The continuity hypothesis (1) posits that there is continuity, of some form, between waking and dreaming mentation. A recent body of work has provided convincing evidence for different aspects of continuity, for instance that some salient experiences from waking life seem to feature in dreams over others, with a particular role for emotional arousal as accompanying these experiences, both during waking and while asleep. However, discontinuities have been somewhat dismissed as being either a product of activation-synthesis, an error within the consciousness binding process during sleep, a methodological anomaly, or simply as yet unexplained...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934526/mechanisms-of-memory-retrieval-in-slow-wave-sleep
#4
Scott A Cairney, Justyna M Sobczak, Shane Lindsay, M Gareth Gaskell
Study Objectives: Memories are strengthened during sleep. The benefits of sleep for memory can be enhanced by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues; a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Prior studies have not assessed the nature of the retrieval mechanisms underpinning TMR: the matching process between auditory stimuli encountered during sleep and previously encoded memories. We carried out two experiments to address this issue. Methods: In Experiment 1, participants associated words with verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli before an overnight interval in which subsets of these stimuli were replayed in slow-wave sleep...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933896/the-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-item-and-associative-recognition-memory
#5
Roger Ratcliff, Hans P A Van Dongen
Sleep deprivation adversely affects the ability to perform cognitive tasks, but theories range from predicting an overall decline in cognitive functioning because of reduced stability in attentional networks to specific deficits in various cognitive domains or processes. We measured the effects of sleep deprivation on two memory tasks, item recognition ("was this word in the list studied") and associative recognition ("were these two words studied in the same pair"). These tasks test memory for information encoded a few minutes earlier and so do not address effects of sleep deprivation on working memory or consolidation after sleep...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932777/dataset-on-the-associations-between-sleep-quality-duration-and-cognitive-performance-in-cognitively-healthy-older-adults
#6
A Tsapanou, Y Gu, D M O'Shea, M Yannakoulia, M H Kosmidis, E Dardiotis, G Hadjigeorgiou, P Sakka, Y Stern, N Scarmeas
In the present data, we provide the details of the cross-sectional study examining the associations between sleep quality/sleep duration and cognitive performance. Data are from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). A total of 1484 older adults (65 y.o. or older) took part in the study. Sleep measurements were drawn from the sleep scale of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Cognition was used as a z-score drawn by different tests. The domains examined were: executive function, visuo-spatial ability, language, attention- speed of processing, as well as the composite z-score of all the cognitive domains (including memory)...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931469/restorative-effects-of-curcumin-on-sleep-deprivation-induced-memory-impairments-and-structural-changes-of-the-hippocampus-in-a-rat-model
#7
Ali Noorafshan, Fatemeh Karimi, Ali-Mohammad Kamali, Saied Karbalay-Doust, Mohammad Nami
The present study examined the consequences of rapid eye-movement sleep-deprivation (REM-SD) with or without curcumin treatment. The outcome measures comprised quantitative features in the three-dimensional reconstructed (3DR) CA1 and dentate gyrus in experimental and control animals using stereological procedures. Male rats were arbitrarily assigned to nine groups based on the intervention and treatment administered including: 1-cage control+distilled water, 2-cage control+curcumin (100mg/kg/day), 3-cage control+olive oil, 4-REM-SD+distilled water, 5-REM-SD+curcumin, 6-REM-SD+olive oil, 7-grid-floor control+distilled water, 8-grid-floor control+curcumin, and 9-grid-floor control+olive oil...
September 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928479/decline-of-long-range-temporal-correlations-in-the-human-brain-during-sustained-wakefulness
#8
Christian Meisel, Kimberlyn Bailey, Peter Achermann, Dietmar Plenz
Sleep is crucial for daytime functioning, cognitive performance and general well-being. These aspects of daily life are known to be impaired after extended wake, yet, the underlying neuronal correlates have been difficult to identify. Accumulating evidence suggests that normal functioning of the brain is characterized by long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in cortex, which are supportive for decision-making and working memory tasks. Here we assess LRTCs in resting state human EEG data during a 40-hour sleep deprivation experiment by evaluating the decay in autocorrelation and the scaling exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis from EEG amplitude fluctuations...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927742/the-effect-of-sex-and-menstrual-phase-on-memory-formation-during-nap
#9
Sara C Mednick, Negin Sattari, Elizabeth A McDevitt, Dagmara Panas, Mohammad Niknazar, Maryam Ahmadi, Mohsen Naji, Fiona Baker
Memory formation can be influenced by sleep and sex hormones in both men and women, and by the menstrual cycle in women. Though many studies have shown that sleep benefits the consolidation of memories, it is not clear whether this effect differs between men and women in general or according to menstrual phase in women. The present study investigated the effect of sex and menstrual cycle on memory consolidation of face-name associations (FNA) following a daytime nap. Recognition memory was tested using a face-name paired associates task with a polysomnographic nap between morning and evening testing...
September 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924264/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-functioning-in-adolescents-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-a-population-based-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-study
#10
S S Frye, J Fernandez-Mendoza, S L Calhoun, J Gaines, M D Sawyer, F He, D Liao, A N Vgontzas, E O Bixler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with neurocognitive and behavioral problems in young children; however, this association is less studied in adolescents. Evidence suggests that obesity plays a key role in the development of SDB, although its relative association with neurobehavioral functioning remains unclear. We examined whether SDB and obesity are associated with neurocognitive and behavior problems in adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 421 adolescents (17...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922535/power-and-coherence-of-cortical-high-frequency-oscillations-during-wakefulness-and-sleep
#11
Matías Cavelli, Daniel Rojas-Líbano, Natalia Schwarzkopf, Santiago Castro-Zaballa, Joaquín Gonzalez, Alejandra Mondino, Noelia Santana, Luciana Benedetto, Atilio Falconi, Pablo Torterolo
Recently, a novel type of fast cortical oscillatory activity that occurs between 110 and 160 Hz (high-frequency oscillations (HFO)) was described. HFO are modulated by the theta rhythm in hippocampus and neocortex during active wakefulness and REM sleep. Since theta-HFO coupling increases during REM, a role for HFO in memory consolidation has been proposed. However, global properties like the cortex-wide topographic distribution, and the cortico-cortical coherence remain unknown. In the present study, we recorded the electroencephalogram during sleep and wakefulness in the rat, and analyzed the spatial extent of the HFO band power and coherence...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922421/effects-of-acute-administration-of-donepezil-or-memantine-on-sleep-deprivation-induced-spatial-memory-deficit-in-young-and-aged-non-human-primate-grey-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus
#12
Anisur Rahman, Yves Lamberty, Esther Schenker, Massimo Cella, Solène Languille, Régis Bordet, Jill Richardson, Fabien Pifferi, Fabienne Aujard
The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM) provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#13
ZhiYong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells and require initial excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921043/slow-wave-activity-and-executive-dysfunction-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#14
Jessica A Christiansz, Chloe R Lappin, Aidan J Weichard, Gillian M Nixon, Margot J Davey, Rosemary S C Horne, Sarah N Biggs
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine slow wave activity (SWA), a marker of homeostatic regulation, as a potential mechanism linking sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with executive dysfunction in children. METHODS: Executive function domains of working memory, spatial planning, information processing, and sustained attention were assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in children (N = 40; 5-12 years) referred for clinical diagnosis of SDB...
September 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919464/corticothalamic-network-dysfunction-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Rohan Jagirdar, Jeannie Chin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and a prominent loss of hippocampal-dependent memory. Therefore, much focus has been placed on understanding the function and dysfunction of the hippocampus in AD. However, AD is also accompanied by a number of other debilitating cognitive and behavioral alterations including deficits in attention, cognitive processing, and sleep maintenance. The underlying mechanisms that give rise to impairments in such diverse behavioral domains are unknown, and identifying them would shed insight into the multifactorial nature of AD as well as reveal potential new therapeutic targets to improve overall function in AD...
September 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912686/roles-of-microglial-phagocytosis-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sleep-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Agnes Nadjar, Henna-Kaisa M Wigren, Marie-Eve Tremblay
Sleep serves crucial learning and memory functions in both nervous and immune systems. Microglia are brain immune cells that actively maintain health through their crucial physiological roles exerted across the lifespan, including phagocytosis of cellular debris and orchestration of neuroinflammation. The past decade has witnessed an explosive growth of microglial research. Considering the recent developments in the field of microglia and sleep, we examine their possible impact on various pathological conditions associated with a gain, disruption, or loss of sleep in this focused mini-review...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912034/sleep-deprivation-induces-spatial-memory-impairment-by-altered-hippocampus-neuroinflammatory-responses-and-glial-cells-activation-in-rats
#17
Meetu Wadhwa, Punita Kumari, Garima Chauhan, Koustav Roy, Shahnawaz Alam, Krishna Kishore, Koushik Ray, Usha Panjwani
We aimed to investigate the glial cells activation as a potential mechanism involved in the sleep deprivation (SD) induced cognitive impairment through changes in inflammatory cytokines. We analyzed the spatial memory, inflammatory cytokine levels, and gliosis during SD. SD induced spatial memory impairment, imbalance of inflammatory (increased pro- and decreased anti-) cytokines in both hippocampus and plasma in association with glial cells activation in the hippocampus of sleep-deprived rats were observed...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911339/emerging-treatments-for-the-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia
#18
Abhinav Anand, Puneet Khurana, Jasneet Chawla, Neha Sharma, Navneet Khurana
Dementia is referred to a loss of memory and decline in other mental abilities at levels critical enough to hinder performance of daily activities. It can be of several types, depending on the underlying pathophysiology. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are various, but the most clinically significant are depression, apathy, and anxiety. Other BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, elation, hallucinations, and alterations in sleep and appetite. About 90% of sufferers of dementia are affected by BPSD during the course of the illness...
September 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910623/laminar-organization-of-encoding-and-memory-reactivation-in-the-parietal-cortex
#19
Aaron A Wilber, Ivan Skelin, Wei Wu, Bruce L McNaughton
Egocentric neural coding has been observed in parietal cortex (PC), but its topographical and laminar organization is not well characterized. We used multi-site recording to look for evidence of local clustering and laminar consistency of linear and angular velocity encoding in multi-neuronal spiking activity (MUA) and in the high-frequency (300-900 Hz) component of the local field potential (HF-LFP), believed to reflect local spiking activity. Rats were trained to run many trials on a large circular platform, either to LED-cued goal locations or as a spatial sequence from memory...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904508/changes-in-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia
#20
Hui Guo, Meijie Wei, Wantao Ding
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological evidence is not sufficient concerning whether there is cognitive impairment in patients with primary insomnia. Further study is needed in this regard. AIMS: To measure the changes in cognitive functioning in patients with primary insomnia. METHODS: 40 patients with insomnia (insomnia group) and 48 normal sleepers (control group) were tested using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), episodic memory test, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
June 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
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