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iron in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906284/multi-parametric-quantitative-mri-reveals-three-different-white-matter-subtypes
#1
Jack R Foucher, Olivier Mainberger, Julien Lamy, Mathieu D Santin, Alexandre Vignaud, Mathilde M Roser, Paulo L de Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows slight spatial variations in brain white matter (WM). We used quantitative multi-parametric MRI to evaluate in what respect these inhomogeneities could correspond to WM subtypes with specific characteristics and spatial distribution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six controls (12 women, 38 ±9 Y) took part in a 60-min session on a 3T scanner measuring 7 parameters: R1 and R2, diffusion tensor imaging which allowed to measure Axial and Radial Diffusivity (AD, RD), magnetization transfer imaging which enabled to compute the Macromolecular Proton Fraction (MPF), and a susceptibility-weighted sequence which permitted to quantify R2* and magnetic susceptibility (χm)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897645/iron-deposition-quantification-applications-in-the-brain-and-liver
#2
Fuhua Yan, Naying He, Huimin Lin, Ruokun Li
Iron has long been implicated in many neurological and other organ diseases. It is known that over and above the normal increases in iron with age, in certain diseases there is an excessive iron accumulation in the brain and liver. MRI is a noninvasive means by which to image the various structures in the brain in three dimensions and quantify iron over the volume of the object of interest. The quantification of iron can provide information about the severity of iron-related diseases as well as quantify changes in iron for patient follow-up and treatment monitoring...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894887/developmental-variation-in-regional-brain-iron-and-its-relation-to-cognitive-functions-in-childhood
#3
Jasmine L Hect, Ana M Daugherty, Klodia M Hermez, Moriah E Thomason
Non-heme iron is a vital metabolic cofactor for many core processes of brain development including myelination, dendritogenesis, and neurotransmitter synthesis, and accumulates in the brain with age. However, little is known about development-related differences in brain iron and its association with emerging cognitive abilities during formative years. In this study, we estimated brain iron via R2* relaxometry in children ages 7-16 (N = 57; 38 females) and examined its relation to age-related differences in cognitive ability...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890780/dexamethasone-loaded-pegylated-vertically-aligned-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-for-potential-ischemic-stroke-intervention
#4
Patrick P Komane, Pradeep Kumar, Thashree Marimuthu, Lisa C du Toit, Pierre P D Kondiah, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
The complete synthesis, optimization, purification, functionalization and evaluation of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) was reported for potential application in dexamethasone delivery to the ischemic brain tissue. The conditions for high yield were optimized and carbon nanotubes functionalized and PEGylated prior to dexamethasone loading. Morphological changes were confirmed by SEM and TEM. Addition of functional groups to MWCNTs was demonstrated by FTIR. Thermal stability reduced following MWCNTs functionalization as demonstrated in TGA...
June 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890327/the-influence-of-brain-iron-and-myelin-on-magnetic-susceptibility-and-effective-transverse-relaxation-a-biochemical-and-histological-validation-study
#5
Simon Hametner, Verena Endmayr, Andreas Deistung, Pilar Palmrich, Max Prihoda, Evelin Haimburger, Christian Menard, Xiang Feng, Thomas Haider, Marianne Leisser, Ulrike Köck, Alexandra Kaider, Romana Höftberger, Simon Robinson, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Hans Lassmann, Hannes Traxler, Siegfried Trattnig, Günther Grabner
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) mapping are both highly sensitive to variations in brain iron content. Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies report changes of susceptibilities and relaxation rates in various neurological diseases which are often equated with changes in regional brain iron content. However, these mentioned metrics lack specificity for iron, since they are also influenced by the presence of myelin. In this study, we assessed the extent to which QSM and R2* reflect iron concentration as well as histological iron and myelin intensities...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889872/pharmaceutical-iron-formulations-do-not-cross-a-model-of-the-human-blood-brain-barrier
#6
Brian Chiou, Emma H Neal, Aaron B Bowman, Ethan S Lippmann, Ian A Simpson, James R Connor
Whether iron formulations used therapeutically for a variety of conditions involving iron deficiency can deliver iron to the brain is a significant clinical question given the impact that iron loading has on the brain in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examine the ability of 5 pharmaceutical iron formulations that are given intravenously for treatment of iron deficiency to cross an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. The model uses human brain endothelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887277/do-executive-function-and-theory-of-mind-predict-pragmatic-abilities-following-traumatic-brain-injury-an-analysis-of-sincere-deceitful-and-ironic-communicative-acts
#7
F M Bosco, I Gabbatore, R Angeleri, M Zettin, A Parola
Quality of life and social integration are strongly influenced by the ability to communicate and previous research has shown that pragmatic ability can be specifically impaired in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, TBI usually results in damage to the frontotemporal lobes with a consequent impairment of cognitive functions, i.e., attention, memory, executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). The role of the underlying cognitive deficits in determining the communicative-pragmatic difficulties of an individual with TBI is not yet completely clear...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885857/from-epidemiology-to-treatment-aspirin-s-prevention-of-brain-and-breast-cancer-and-cardioprotection-may-associate-with-its-metabolite-gentisic-acid
#8
Meric A Altinoz, Ilhan Elmaci, Salih Cengiz, Ebru Emekli-Alturfan, Aysel Ozpinar
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies indicate that aspirin consumption reduces the risk of tumors, which is especially relevant for colonic adenoma and carcinoma. Similar observations were made for glial brain tumors and breast cancers, yet the results are inconsistent. Gentisic acid (GA) is a minor catabolite of aspirin; yet humans carrying CYP2C9-variants incapable to catabolize aspirin to GA do not benefit from aspirin in prevention against colonic adenoma. GA blocks binding of Fibroblastic Growth Factor to its receptor and its sulphonate metabolite dobesilic acid blocks growth of C6 glioblastoma in vivo...
June 7, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885472/neurotoxicity-assessment-of-oleic-acid-coated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#9
Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, Gözde Kiliç, Joao Paulo Teixeira, Eduardo Pásaro, Blanca Laffon, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) awaken a particular interest for biomedical applications due to their unique physicochemical properties, especially superparamagnetism, and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. ION surface can be coated to improve their properties and facilitate functionalization. Still, coating may affect toxicity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible effects of oleic acid-coated ION (O-ION) on human neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y). A set of assays was conducted in complete and serum-free culture media for 3 and 24 h to assess O-ION cytotoxic effects - cell membrane disruption, cell cycle alteration and cell death induction -, and genotoxic effects - primary DNA damage, H2AX phosphorylation and micronuclei induction -, considering also DNA repair competence and iron ion release...
June 6, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883571/magnetic-nanoparticles-associated-peg-plga-block-copolymer-targeted-with-anti-transferrin-receptor-antibodies-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Ningning Cui, Hui Lu, Meng Li
A facile brain drug delivery system for Alzheimer's disease, the Magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles loaded with polyethylene glycol-polylactide-polyglycolide co-polymer nanocomposite was fabricated with anti-transferrin monoclonal antibody (OX26) receptor in this present research work with its in vitro delivery properties evaluated by using clioquinol. TEM microscopic analysis confirmed the presence of active MNPs on the surface of OX26-PEG/PLGA nanocomposite matrix. The results of in vitro cell cytocompatibility studies of MNPs incorporated OX26-PEG/PLGA matrix showed a more favorable environment and increasing cell viability in normal human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells than that of raw MNPs and PEG/PLGA co-polymer matrix...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882247/dual-modal-nir-fluorophore-conjugated-magnetic-nanoparticle-for-imaging-amyloid-%C3%AE-species-in-vivo
#11
Yinhui Li, Di Xu, Hei-Nga Chan, Chung-Yan Poon, See-Lok Ho, Hung-Wing Li, Man Shing Wong
Senile plaques, the extracellular deposit of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the neuropathological hallmarks found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. The current method of brain imaging of amyloid plaques based on positron emission tomography (PET) is expensive and invasive with low spatial resolution. Thus, the development of sensitive and nonradiative amyloid-β (Aβ)-specific contrast agents is highly important and beneficial to achieve early AD detection, monitor the disease progression, and evaluate the effectiveness of potential AD drugs...
June 7, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879817/hematological-and-vasodilator-characteristics-for-high-altitude-acclimatization-in-holstein-heifers-ascended-to-high-altitude
#12
Shuxiang Wang, Arash Azarfar, YaJing Wang, Zhijun Cao, Quangui Shi, Shengli Li
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate hematological and vasodilator characteristics for high altitude acclimatization in Holstein heifers ascended to high altitude. Methods: Holstein heifers resided at low altitude (LH; Beijing, China 43 meter), and Holstein heifers ascended to high altitude (Lhasa city, Tibet; 3,658 meter) after one year exposure including hypoxia acclimated Holstein heifers (AH; with mean pulmonary arterial pressure mPAP < 41 mmHg) and Holstein heifers affected by high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH; with mPAP > 49 mmHg) and crossbred cattle (CB; Holstein × Tibet cattle) born and resided in Tibet were selected to compare parameters of blood gas, blood cells and vasodilators...
May 31, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879529/minocycline-attenuates-brain-injury-and-iron-overload-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-aged-female-rats
#13
REVIEW
Shuhui Dai, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Nemanja Novakovic, Zhou Fei, Guohua Xi
Brain iron overload is involved in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). There is evidence that systemic administration of minocycline reduces brain iron level and improves neurological outcome in experimental models of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. However, there is evidence in cerebral ischemia that minocycline is not protective in aged female animals. Since most ICH research has used male models, this study was designed to provide an overall view of ICH-induced iron deposits at different time points (1 to 28 days) in aged (18-month old) female Fischer 344 rat ICH model and to investigate the neuroprotective effects of minocycline in those rats...
June 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879439/conventional-and-electronic-cigarettes-dysregulate-the-expression-of-iron-transporters-and-detoxifying-enzymes-at-the-brain-vascular-endothelium-in-vivo-evidence-of-a-gender-specific-cellular-response-to-chronic-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#14
Mohammad A Kaisar, Farzane Sivandzade, Aditya Bhalerao, Luca Cucullo
It is well established that tobacco smoking is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative and dose dependent manner primarily related to the tobacco smoke (TS) content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and oxidative stress (OS) -driven inflammation. Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes (e-Cigs) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury. Likewise, chronic e-Cig vaping could be prodromal to vascular endothelial dysfunctions...
June 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878659/joint-disease-in-haemophilia-pathophysiology-pain-and-imaging
#15
REVIEW
L F D van Vulpen, K Holstein, C Martinoli
Haemarthroses cause major morbidity in patients with haemophilia. Blood has devastating effects on all joint components, resulting in synovitis, osteochondral degeneration and ultimately end-stage haemophilic arthropathy. Key players in this process are iron and inflammation. Preventing joint bleeds is of utmost importance to maintain joint health as targeted therapies directed against blood-induced inflammation and iron-mediated processes are lacking. Joint bleeds result in acute pain as well as chronic pain due to synovitis or arthropathy...
May 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872633/parkinson-s-disease-related-signal-change-in-the-nigrosomes-1-5-and-the-substantia-nigra-using-t2-weighted-7t-mri
#16
Stefan Theodor Schwarz, Olivier Mougin, Yue Xing, Anna Blazejewska, Nin Bajaj, Dorothee P Auer, Penny Gowland
Improved markers for the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) are required. Previous work has proven that iron dependent MRI scans can detect the largest Nigrosome (N1) within the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta and changes in PD. Histopathological studies have shown that N1 is particularly affected in early PD whereas the other nigrosomes (N2-N5) and the surrounding iron-rich SN are affected later. In this study we aimed to determine whether MRI can detect the smaller nigrosomes (N2-N5) and whether graded signal alterations can be detected on T2*-weighted MRI at different disease stages consistent with histopathological changes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868452/changes-of-deep-gray-matter-magnetic-susceptibility-over-2-years-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-healthy-control-brain
#17
Jesper Hagemeier, Robert Zivadinov, Michael G Dwyer, Paul Polak, Niels Bergsland, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Joshua Zalis, Andreas Deistung, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Ferdinand Schweser
In multiple sclerosis, pathological changes of both tissue iron and myelin occur, yet these factors have not been characterized in a longitudinal fashion using the novel iron- and myelin-sensitive quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) MRI technique. We investigated disease-relevant tissue changes associated with myelin loss and iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis deep gray matter (DGM) over two years. One-hundred twenty (120) multiple sclerosis patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this prospective study...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868447/anatomic-metabolic-brain-markers-of-the-m-3243a-g-mutation-a-multi-parametric-7t-mri-study
#18
Roy A M Haast, Dimo Ivanov, Rutger J T IJsselstein, Suzanne C E H Sallevelt, Jacobus F A Jansen, Hubert J M Smeets, Irenaeus F M de Coo, Elia Formisano, Kâmil Uludağ
One of the most common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, the A to G transition at base pair 3243, has been linked to changes in the brain, in addition to commonly observed hearing problems, diabetes and myopathy. However, a detailed quantitative description of m.3243A>G patients' brains has not been provided so far. In this study, ultra-high field MRI at 7T and volume- and surface-based data analyses approaches were used to highlight morphology (i.e. atrophy)-, microstructure (i.e. myelin and iron concentration)- and metabolism (i...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865069/quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregates-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-7t-mr
#19
Solveig Tiepolt, Andreas Schäfer, Michael Rullmann, Elisabeth Roggenhofer, Hermann-Josef Gertz, Matthias L Schroeter, Marianne Patt, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Thies H Jochimsen, Robert Turner, Osama Sabri, Henryk Barthel
BACKGROUND: PET imaging is an established technique to detect cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in vivo. Some preclinical and postmortem data report an accumulation of redox-active iron near Aβ plaques. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) at high-field MRI enables iron deposits to be depicted with high spatial resolution. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to examine whether iron and Aβ plaque accumulation is related and thus, whether 7T MRI might be an additive diagnostic tool to Aβ PET imaging...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865061/iron-and-alzheimer-s-disease-an-update-on-emerging-mechanisms
#20
Darius J R Lane, Scott Ayton, Ashley I Bush
Iron is a crucial transition metal for life and is the most abundant transition metal in the brain. However, iron's biological utility as an effective redox cycling metal also endows it with the potential to catalyze production of noxious free radicals. This "Janus-faced" nature of iron demands a tight regulation of cellular its metabolism. This regulation is crucial in the CNS, where iron plays myriad keystone roles in CNS processes, including mitochondrial energy transduction, enzyme catalysis, mitochondrial function, myelination, neurotransmitter anabolism and catabolism...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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