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iron in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345164/comparing-functional-mri-protocols-for-small-iron-rich-basal-ganglia-nuclei-such-as-the-subthalamic-nucleus-at-7-t-and-3-t
#1
Gilles de Hollander, Max C Keuken, Wietske van der Zwaag, Birte U Forstmann, Robert Trampel
The basal ganglia (BG) form a network of subcortical nuclei. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the BG could provide insight in its functioning and the underlying mechanisms of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). However, fMRI of the BG with high specificity is challenging, because the nuclei are small and variable in their anatomical location. High resolution fMRI at field strengths of 7 Tesla (T) could help resolve these challenges to some extent. A set of MR protocols was developed for functional imaging of the BG nuclei at 3 T and 7 T...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343216/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-identifies-iron-oxide-labeled-human-neural-stem-cells-automated-computational-detection
#2
Mohsen Baghchechi, Amy Plaia, Mary Hamer, Nirmalya Ghosh, Stephen Ashwal, Andre Obenaus
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HII) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Human neural stem cell (hNSC) therapy provides new hope for the treatment of neonatal HII. These multipotent cells can aid in HII recovery by activating multiple reparative mechanisms including secretion of neurotrophic factors that enhance brain repair and plasticity. For clinical use of implanted hNSCs, methods are required to identify, quantify, track, and visualize migration and replication in an automated and reproducible fashion...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336375/tumortropic-adipose-derived-stem-cells-carrying-smart-nanotherapeutics-for-targeted-delivery-and-dual-modality-therapy-of-orthotopic-glioblastoma
#3
Wen-Chia Huang, I-Lin Lu, Wen-Hsuan Chiang, Yi-Wen Lin, Yuan-Chung Tsai, Hsin-Hung Chen, Chien-Wen Chang, Chi-Shiun Chiang, Hsin-Cheng Chiu
Chemotherapy is typically used to treat malignant brain tumors, especially for the tumors in surgically inaccessible areas. However, owing to the existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB), the tumor accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of clinical therapeutics is still of great concerns. To this end, we present herein a prominent therapeutic strategy adopting adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) capable of carrying nanotherapeutic payloads selectively toward brain tumors for thermo/chemotherapy. The nanoparticle (NP) payload was obtained from co-assembly of poly(γ-glutamic acid-co-distearyl γ-glutamate) with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), paclitaxel (PTX), and oleic acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs in aqueous solution...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334149/higher-striatal-iron-concentration-is-linked-to-frontostriatal-underactivation-and-poorer-memory-in-normal-aging
#4
Grégoria Kalpouzos, Benjamín Garzón, Rouslan Sitnikov, Carmel Heiland, Alireza Salami, Jonas Persson, Lars Bäckman
In the brain, intracellular iron is essential for cellular metabolism. However, an overload of free iron is toxic, inducing oxidative stress and cell death. Although an increase of striatal iron has been related to atrophy and impaired cognitive performance, the link between elevated iron and altered brain activity in aging remains unexplored. In a sample of 37 younger and older adults, we examined whether higher striatal iron concentration could underlie age-related differences in frontostriatal activity induced by mental imagery of motor and non-motor scenes, and poorer recall of the scenes...
February 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332093/pathogenic-implications-of-distinct-patterns-of-iron-and-zinc-in-chronic-ms-lesions
#5
Bogdan F Popescu, Josa M Frischer, Samuel M Webb, Mylyne Tham, Reginald C Adiele, Christopher A Robinson, Patrick D Fitz-Gibbon, Stephen D Weigand, Imke Metz, Susan Nehzati, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering, Wolfgang Brück, Simon Hametner, Hans Lassmann, Joseph E Parisi, Guo Yong, Claudia F Lucchinetti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oligodendrocytes, the CNS cells that stain most robustly for iron and myelin are the targets of injury. Metals are essential for normal CNS functioning, and metal imbalances have been linked to demyelination and neurodegeneration. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving synchrotron techniques, iron histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we compared the distribution and quantification of iron and zinc in MS lesions to the surrounding normal appearing and periplaque white matter, and assessed the involvement of these metals in MS lesion pathogenesis...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330828/early-postnatal-iron-deficiency-impacts-plasticity-in-the-dorsal-and-ventral-hippocampus-in-piglets
#6
Ellis Nelissen, Jochen De Vry, Alexandra Antonides, Dean Paes, Melissa Schepers, Franz Josef van der Staay, Jos Prickaerts, Tim Vanmierlo
In this study, we investigated whether alterations in plasticity markers such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) are underlying iron deficiency (ID)-induced cognitive impairments in iron depleted piglets. Newborn piglets were either fed an iron-depleted diet (21mg Fe/kg) or an iron-sufficient diet (88mg Fe/kg) for four weeks. Subsequently, eight weeks after iron repletion (190-240mg Fe/kg) we found a significant decrease in mature BDNF (14kDa) and proBDNF (18kDa and 24kDa) protein levels in the ventral hippocampus, whereas we found increases in the dorsal hippocampus...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326037/differences-on-brain-connectivity-in-adulthood-are-present-in-subjects-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-infancy
#7
Cecilia Algarin, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran, Sussanne Reyes, Cristian Morales, Betsy Lozoff, Patricio Peirano, Bharat Biswal
Iron deficiency continues to be the most prevalent micronutrient deficit worldwide. Since iron is involved in several processes including myelination, dopamine neurotransmission and neuronal metabolism, the presence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy relates to long-lasting neurofunctional effects. There is scarce data regarding whether these effects would extend to former iron deficient anemic human adults. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel technique to explore patterns of functional connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321581/neurobehavioural-toxicity-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-mice
#8
Vasanth Dhakshinamoorthy, Vijayprakash Manickam, Ekambaram Perumal
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) are widely used in various biomedical applications, extremely in neurotheranostics. Simultaneously, Fe2O3-NP usage is of alarming concern, as its exposure to living systems causes deleterious effects due to its redox potential. However, study on the neurobehavioural impacts of Fe2O3-NPs is very limited. In this regard, adult male mice were intraperitoneally administered with Fe2O3-NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 4 weeks. A significant change in locomotor behaviour and spatial memory was observed in Fe2O3-NP-treated animals...
March 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317386/hepatoprotective-effect-of-blocking-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-male-albino-rats-exposed-to-acute-and-repeated-restraint-stress
#9
Shaimaa Nasr Amin, Ahmed Amro El-Aidi, Maha Zickri, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Sherif Sabry Hassan
Stress affects multiple organs in the body in addition to the brain including the liver. We aimed to assess the effects of blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors by memantine on the liver in acute and repeated restraint stress. Forty two male albino rats divided into seven groups; control, Acute restraint stress (ARS), ARS+memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint +memantine and positive control groups. We measured serum iron, zinc, alanine transferase and Aspartame transferase, hepatic malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), glutathione peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase, metallothionein content, zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like Protein 14 mRNA expression, hepcidin expression...
March 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315884/complementary-feeding-micronutrients-and-developmental-outcomes-of-children
#10
Jacqueline F Gould
The period of complementary feeding (6-24 months of age) can be a challenging and vulnerable time for infant nutrition due to disproportionately high requirements for metabolic processes, rapid developmental processes, and limited gastric capacity. This is a period of crucial brain development where high caloric intake is necessary to allow synaptogenesis (creation of channels between neurons for communication), and maintenance of established synapses, myelination (laying the myelin sheath around neuronal axons) and everyday psychological functioning...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300826/astrocyte-hepcidin-is-a-key-factor-in-lps-induced-neuronal-apoptosis
#11
Lin-Hao You, Cai-Zhen Yan, Bing-Jie Zheng, Yun-Zhe Ci, Shi-Yang Chang, Peng Yu, Guo-Fen Gao, Hai-Yan Li, Tian-Yu Dong, Yan-Zhong Chang
Inflammatory responses involving microglia and astrocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). In addition, inflammation is tightly linked to iron metabolism dysregulation. However, it is not clear whether the brain inflammation-induced iron metabolism dysregulation contributes to the NDs pathogenesis. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of the systemic iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin, is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through the IL-6/STAT3 pathway in the cortex and hippocampus...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292181/synthesis-structure-characterization-and-evaluation-in-microglia-cultures-of-neuromelanin-analogues-suitable-for-modeling-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Emanuele Ferrari, Andrea Capucciati, Ilaria Prada, Fabio Andrea Zucca, Giulia D'Arrigo, Daniele Pontiroli, Maria Grazia Bridelli, Michela Sturini, Luigi Bubacco, Enrico Monzani, Claudia Verderio, Luigi Zecca, Luigi Casella
In the substantia nigra of human brain, neuromelanin (NM) released by degenerating neurons can activate microglia with consequent neurodegeneration, typical of Parkinson's disease (PD). Synthetic analogues of NM were prepared to develop a PD model reproducing the neuropathological conditions of the disease. Soluble melanin-protein conjugates were obtained by melanization of fibrillated β-lactoglobulin (fLG). The melanic portion of the conjugates contains either eumelanic (EufLG) or mixed eumelanic/pheomelanic composition (PheofLG), the latter better simulating natural NMs...
March 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285915/adamantyl-and-other-polycyclic-cage-based-conjugates-of-desferrioxamine-b-dfob-for-treating-iron-mediated-toxicity-in-cell-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Thomas J Telfer, Jeffrey R Liddell, Clare Duncan, Anthony R White, Rachel Codd
The death of dopaminergic neurons is a major pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Elevated iron within the substantia nigra of the PD brain is thought to catalyze this neuronal death through hydroxyl radical-derived oxidative damage. Removing this excess iron presents a potential therapeutic strategy for PD. Seventeen derivatives of the non-toxic iron chelator desferrioxamine B (DFOB) were prepared by the conjugation of adamantyl- (1-4, 8-12), deconstructed adamantyl units (5-7), norborna(e)ne- (13-16) or bicyclo[2...
March 2, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284907/minocycline-protects-rescues-and-prevents-knockdown-transgenic-parkin-drosophila-against-paraquat-iron-toxicity-implications-for-autosomic-recessive-juvenile-parkinsonism
#14
Hector Flavio Ortega-Arellano, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Autosomal recessive Juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutation in the PARKIN gene, and invariably associated with dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal loss and brain iron accumulation. Since current medical therapy is symptomatic and lacks significant disease-modifying effects, other treatment approaches are urgently needed it. In the present work, we investigate the role of minocycline (MC) in paraquat (PQ)/iron-induced neurotoxicity in the Drosophila TH>parkin-RNAi/+ (w[*]; UAS-parkin-RNAi; TH-GAL4) fly and have shown the following: (i) MC increased life span and restored the locomotor activity of knockdown (KD) transgenic parkin flies in comparison with the control (vehicle) group; (ii) MC at low (0...
March 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284604/identification-of-the-ferric-iron-utilization-gene-b739_1208-and-its-role-in-the-virulence-of-r-anatipestifer-ch-1
#15
MengYi Wang, PengYun Zhang, DeKang Zhu, MingShu Wang, RenYong Jia, Shun Chen, KunFeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, XiaoYue Chen, Francis Biville, AnChun Cheng, MaFeng Liu
Riemerella anatipestifer is an important bacterial pathogen in ducks and causes heavy economic losses in the duck industry. However, the pathogensis of this bacterium is poorly understood. In this study, a putative outer membrane hemin receptor gene B739_1208 in R. anatipestifer CH-1 was deleted to determine the relationship between iron uptake and virulence. The R. anatipestifer CH-1ΔB739_1208 mutants grew significantly more slowly than the wild-type bacteria in TSB liquid medium. Further characterization revealed that the R...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283108/higher-prevalence-of-restless-legs-syndrome-willis-ekbom-disease-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-is-related-to-spinal-cord-lesions
#16
M Minár, D Petrleničová, P Valkovič
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is connected with higher prevalence of secondary restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED). Aim of this study was to determine risk factor for developing symptoms of RLS in MS patients. METHODS: In cross-sectional study we examined 200 random MS patients. After obtaining informed consents, patients undervent a structured interview based on RLS and MS symptoms and characteristics, demographic, and health-related data...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281182/evaluation-of-magnetonanoparticles-conjugated-with-new-angiogenesis-peptides-in-intracranial-glioma-tumors-by-mri
#17
Erica Aparecida de Oliveira, Jelena Lazovic, Lea Guo, Horacio Soto, Bluma Linkowski Faintuch, Massoud Akhtari, Whitney Pope
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in progression of malignant gliomas. The development of glioma-specific labeling molecules that can aid detection and visualization of angiogenesis can help surgical planning and improve treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate if two peptides (GX1 and RGD-GX1) linked to angiogenesis can be used as an MR-imaging markers of angiogenesis. MR imaging was performed in U87 glioblastoma-bearing NOD-SCID mice at different time points between 15 and 120 min post-injection to visualize particle distribution...
March 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281098/effect-of-metal-chelators-on-the-aggregation-of-beta-amyloid-peptides-in-the-presence-of-copper-and-iron
#18
Foozhan Tahmasebinia, Saeed Emadi
Amyloid β (Aβ) fibrils and amorphous aggregates are found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and are implicated in the etiology of AD. The metal imbalance is also among leading causes of AD, owing to the fact that Aβ aggregation takes place in the synaptic cleft where Aβ, Cu(II) and Fe(III) are found in abnormally high concentrations. Aβ40 and Aβ42 are the main components of plaques found in afflicted brains. Coordination of Cu(II) and Fe(III) ions to Aβ peptides have been linked to Aβ aggregation and production of reactive oxygen species, two key events in the development of AD pathology...
April 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275562/a-comprehensive-literatures-update-of-clinical-researches-of-superparamagnetic-resonance-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Yì Xiáng J Wáng, Jean-Marc Idée
This paper aims to update the clinical researches using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent published during the past five years. PubMed database was used for literature search, and the search terms were (SPIO OR superparamagnetic iron oxide OR Resovist OR Ferumoxytol OR Ferumoxtran-10) AND (MRI OR magnetic resonance imaging). The literature search results show clinical research on SPIO remains robust, particularly fuelled by the approval of ferumoxytol for intravenously administration...
February 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275128/home-fortification-during-the-first-1000-d-improves-child-development-in-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-effectiveness-trial
#20
Susana L Matias, Malay K Mridha, Fahmida Tofail, Charles D Arnold, Md Showkat A Khan, Zakia Siddiqui, Md Barkat Ullah, Kathryn G Dewey
Background: Nutrition during the first 1000 d is critical for brain development.Objective: We evaluated the effects on child development of home fortification with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) for mothers and/or children or micronutrient powder (MNP) for children.Design: We conducted a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial with 4 arms: 1) LNSs during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum and LNSs for the offspring from 6 to 24 mo (LNS-LNS), 2) iron and folic acid (IFA) during pregnancy and the first 3 mo postpartum and LNSs for the children from 6 to 24 mo (IFA-LNS), 3) IFA (as above) and MNP for the offspring from 6 to 24 mo (IFA-MNP), and 4) IFA (as above) and no child supplement (IFA-Control)...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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