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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679161/present-and-future-of-ultra-high-field-mri-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Graziella Donatelli, Roberto Ceravolo, Daniela Frosini, Michela Tosetti, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Mirco Cosottini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With a high signal-to-noise ratio, unparalleled spatial resolution, and improved contrasts, ultra-high field MR (≥ 7 T) has great potential in depicting the normal radiological anatomy of smaller structures in the brain and can also provide more information about morphological, quantitative, and metabolic changes associated with a wide range of brain disorders. By focusing attention on specific brain regions believed to be associated with early pathological change, or by more closely inspecting recognized foci of brain pathology, ultra-high field MR can improve the accuracy and sensitivity of neuroimaging...
April 20, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678591/ferroptosis-is-newly-characterized-form-of-neuronal-cell-death-in-response-to-arsenite-exposure
#2
Qianghu Tang, LuLu Bai, Zhen Zou, Pan Meng, Yinyin Xia, Shuqun Cheng, Shaoyu Mu, Jianrong Zhou, Xuefeng Wang, Xia Qin, Xianqing Cao, Xuejun Jiang, Chengzhi Chen
Ferroptosis is a novel iron-dependent form of cell death implicated in brain pathology. However, whether arsenite is an inducer of ferroptosis in the neurons remains completely unknown. In this study, the seven-week-old healthy C57BL/6 J male mice were treated with environmental related doses (0.5, 5 and 50 mg/L) of arsenite for 6 months via drinking water, and the ferroptosis-related indicators were further determined. Our results demonstrated for the first time that, arsenite exposure significantly reduced the number of neuron and caused the pathological changes of mitochondria in the cerebral cortex of mice...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672865/dietary-iron-fortification-normalizes-fetal-hematology-hepcidin-and-iron-distribution-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#3
Shane M Huebner, Kaylee K Helfrich, Nipun Saini, Sharon E Blohowiak, Adrienne A Cheng, Pamela J Kling, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes neurodevelopmental disability. Clinical and animal studies show gestational iron deficiency exacerbates PAE's behavioral and growth deficits. In rat, PAE manifests an inability to establish iron homeostasis, increasing hepcidin (maternal and fetal) and fetal liver iron while decreasing brain iron and promoting anemia. Here, we hypothesize dietary iron fortification during pregnancy may mitigate alcohol's disruption of fetal iron homeostasis...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665379/superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-loaded-lipid-nanocarriers-incorporated-in-thermosensitive-in-situ-gel-for-magnetic-brain-targeting-of-clonazepam
#4
Haidy Abbas, Hanan Refai, Nesrine El Sayed
The objective of the study was to target clonazepam (CZ) to the brain through the intranasal olfactory mucosa using nanolipid carriers loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) to allow nanocarrier guidance and retention with an external magnetic field. For improved delivery the nanolipid carriers were incorporated in a thermosensitive mucoadhesive in situ gel. Different nanolipid carriers including solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were prepared and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663939/brain-iron-distribution-after-multiple-doses-of-ultra-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-particles-in-rats
#5
Andrew W Gorman, Kofi M Deh, Caspar M Schwiedrzik, Julie R White, Ernest Victor Groman, Clark A Fisher, Kelly M Gillen, Pascal Spincemaille, Skye Rasmussen, Martin R Prince, Henning U Voss, Winrich A Freiwald, Yi Wang
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of high cumulative doses of ultra-small paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) used in neuroimaging studies. We intravenously administered 8 mg/kg of 2 USPIO compounds daily for 4 wk to male Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:SD). Multiecho gradient-echo MRI, serum iron levels, and histology were performed at the end of dosing and after a 7-d washout period. R2* maps and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) were generated from multiecho gradient-echo data. R2* maps and QSM showed iron accumulation in brain ventricles on MR images acquired at the 4- and 5-wk time points...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659961/multi-copper-ferroxidase-deficient-mice-have-increased-brain-iron-concentrations-and-learning-and-memory-deficits
#6
Jiashuo Zheng, Ruiwei Jiang, Min Chen, Zaitunamu Maimaitiming, Junzhuo Wang, Gregory J Anderson, Chris D Vulpe, Joshua L Dunaief, Huijun Chen
Background: The accumulation of iron occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurodegenerative diseases. Although multi-copper ferroxidases (MCFs) play an important role in cellular iron metabolism and homeostasis, the mechanism of MCFs in the CNS remains unclear. Objective: The aim was to study the role of MCFs in CNS iron metabolism and homeostasis by using hephaestin/ceruloplasmin (Heph/Cp) double knockout (KO) mice. Methods: Heph/Cp double KO male mice were generated by crossing both single KO mice...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644335/neuromelanin-detection-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-and-its-promise-as-a-biomarker-for-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
David Sulzer, Clifford Cassidy, Guillermo Horga, Un Jung Kang, Stanley Fahn, Luigi Casella, Gianni Pezzoli, Jason Langley, Xiaoping P Hu, Fabio A Zucca, Ioannis U Isaias, Luigi Zecca
The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs after pathogenesis is advanced and many substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons have already died. Now that therapies to block this neuronal loss are under development, it is imperative that the disease be diagnosed at earlier stages and that the response to therapies is monitored. Recent studies suggest this can be accomplished by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of neuromelanin (NM), the characteristic pigment of SN dopaminergic, and locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643211/microbial-decay-analysis-challenges-interpretation-of-putative-organ-systems-in-cambrian-fuxianhuiids
#8
Jianni Liu, Michael Steiner, Jason A Dunlop, Degan Shu
The Chengjiang fossil Lagerstätte (Cambrian Stage 3) from Yunnan, southern China is renowned for its soft-tissue preservation. Accordingly structures in fuxianhuiids, radiodontans and great appendage arthropods have been interpreted as the nervous and cardiovascular systems, including brains, hearts and blood vessels. That such delicate organ systems survive the fossilization process seems remarkable; given that this mode of preservation involves major taphonomic changes, such as flattening, microbial degradation, chemical alteration and replacement...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643036/-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-brain-iron-deposition-comparison-between-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-and-transverse-relaxation-rate-r2-mapping
#9
Ji-Jing Guan, Yan-Qiu Feng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*) mapping in the measurement of brain iron deposition. METHODS: Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) phantoms and mouse models of Parkinson's disease (PD) related to iron deposition in the substantia nigra (SN) underwent 7.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scans (Bruker, 70/16) with a multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence, and the acquired data were processed to obtain QSM and R2*...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625173/brain-mitochondrial-iron-accumulates-in-huntington-s-disease-mediates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-can-be-removed-pharmacologically
#10
Sonal Agrawal, Julia Fox, Baskaran Thyagarajan, Jonathan Fox
Mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction is involved in neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD). Iron is critical for normal mitochondrial bioenergetics but can also contribute to pathogenic oxidation. The accumulation of iron in the brain occurs in mouse models and in human HD. Yet the role of mitochondria-related iron dysregulation as a contributor to bioenergetic pathophysiology in HD is unclear. We demonstrate here that human HD and mouse model HD (12-week R6/2 and 12-month YAC128) brains accumulated mitochondrial iron and showed increased expression of iron uptake protein mitoferrin 2 and decreased iron-sulfur cluster synthesis protein frataxin...
April 3, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624734/predominant-role-of-microglia-in-brain-iron-retention-in-sanfilippo-syndrome-a-pediatric-neurodegenerative-disease
#11
Vincent Puy, Walaa Darwiche, Stéphanie Trudel, Cathy Gomila, Christelle Lony, Laurent Puy, Thibaud Lefebvre, Sandrine Vitry, Agnès Boullier, Zoubida Karim, Jérôme Ausseil
Neuroinflammation and iron accumulation are hallmarks of a variety of adult neurodegenerative diseases. In Sanfilippo syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type III, MPSIII, a pediatric neurodegenerative disease that shares some features with adult neurodegenerative diseases), the progressive accumulation of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides (HSOs) induces microglia and astrocytes to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to severe neuroinflammation. The objectives of the present study were (1) to measure the local iron concentration and to assess iron metabolism in the brain of a MPSIIIB murine model and (2) to identify the brain cells involved in this accumulation...
April 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623644/intranasal-instillation-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-induces-inflammation-and-perturbation-of-trace-elements-and-neurotransmitters-but-not-behavioral-impairment-in-rats
#12
Dalel Askri, Souhir Ouni, Said Galai, Josiane Arnaud, Benoit Chovelon, Sylvia G Lehmann, Nathalie Sturm, Mohsen Sakly, Michel Sève, Salem Amara
Over the last decades, engineered nanomaterials have been widely used in various applications due to their interesting properties. Among them, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used as theranostic agents for cancer, and also as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. With the increasing production and use of these IONPs, there is an evident raise of IONP exposure and subsequently a higher risk of adverse outcome for humans and the environment. In this work, we aimed to investigate the effects of sub-acute IONP exposure on Wistar rat, particularly (i) on the emotional and learning/memory behavior, (ii) on the hematological and biochemical parameters, (iii) on the neurotransmitter content, and (vi) on the trace element homeostasis...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620288/differentiation-of-genetically-modified-canine-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-into-neural%C3%A2-like-cells
#13
Xing-Long Liu, Qing-Quan Zu, Bin Wang, Shan-Shan Lu, Xiao-Quan Xu, Sheng Liu, Hai-Bin Shi
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to improve outcomes in various types of nervous system diseases, primarily based on their neural regenerative differentiation ability and paracrine effect on different neuroprotective cytokines. Genetically modified MSCs may enhance the paracrine effect and may further improve the cell‑based therapeutic outcome of nervous system diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging has been used to monitor distribution and migration of cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619158/a-pilot-trial-of-deferiprone-in-pantothenate-kinase-associated-neurodegeneration-patients
#14
Mohammad Rohani, Saeed Razmeh, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Elham Alizadeh, Maryam Orooji
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is the most common form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, it is an autosomal recessive disease due to mutation in PANK 2 on chromosome 20, which causes the accumulation of iron in basal ganglia and production of free radicals that cause degeneration of the cells. Deferiprone is an iron chelator that was used in treatment of thalassemia patients, it can cross the blood-brain barrier and reverse the iron deposition in the brain. Five patients with genetically confirmed PKAN received 15 mg/kg deferiprone twice daily...
December 11, 2017: Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617109/targeted-brain-delivery-of-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-29-modified-deferoxamine-loaded-nanoparticles-reverses-functional-deficits-in-parkinsonian-mice
#15
Linhao You, Jing Wang, Tianqing Liu, Yinlong Zhang, Xuexiang Han, Ting Wang, Shanshan Guo, Tianyu Dong, Junchao Xu, Gregory J Anderson, Qiang Liu, Yan-Zhong Chang, Xin Lou, Guangjun Nie
Excess iron deposition in the brain often causes oxidative stress-related damage and necrosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and has been reported to be one of the major vulnerability factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). Iron chelation therapy using deferoxamine (DFO) may inhibit this nigrostriatal degeneration and prevent the progress of PD. However, DFO shows very short half-life in vivo and hardly penetrates the blood brain barrier (BBB). Hence, it is of great interest to develop DFO formulations for safe and efficient intracerebral drug delivery...
April 4, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613921/markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-are-associated-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-tanzanian-children
#16
Analee J Etheredge, Karim Manji, Mark Kellogg, Hao Tran, Enju Liu, Christine M McDonald, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Wafaie Fawzi, David Bellinger, Andrew T Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to enteropathogens may result in environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical condition associated with poor child growth. Growth faltering is strongly associated with poor neurodevelopment, and occurs during sensitive periods of postnatal brain development. We investigated the role of novel EED biomarkers, systemic inflammation, and micronutrient status on neurodevelopment in Tanzanian children. METHODS: Non-stunted subjects with 6-week and 6-month blood samples and neurodevelopmental measures (n = 107) were included in this study...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611081/impact-of-robot-assisted-spine-surgery-on-health-care-quality-and-neurosurgical-economics-a-systemic-review
#17
REVIEW
Brian Fiani, Syed A Quadri, Mudassir Farooqui, Alessandra Cathel, Blake Berman, Jerry Noel, Javed Siddiqi
Whenever any new technology is introduced into the healthcare system, it should satisfy all three pillars of the iron triangle of health care, which are quality, cost-effectiveness, and accessibility. There has been quite advancement in the field of spine surgery in the last two decades with introduction of new technological modalities such as CAN and surgical robotic devices. MAZOR SpineAssist/Renaissance was the first robotic system to be approved for the use in spine surgeries in the USA in 2004. In this review, the authors sought to determine if the current literature supports this technology to be cost-effective, accessible, and improve the quality of care for individuals and populations by increasing the likelihood of desired health outcomes...
April 3, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610275/inflammation-induced-iron-transport-and-metabolism-by-brain-microglia
#18
Ryan C McCarthy, Jose Carlo Sosa, Andrew M Gardeck, Andrew S Baez, Chih-Hao Lee, Marianne Wessling-Resnick
Microglia are immune cells of the central nervous system and are implicated in brain inflammation. However, how brain microglia modulate transport and metabolism of the essential metal iron in response to pro- and anti-inflammatory environmental cues is unclear. Here, we characterized uptake of transferrin (Tf)-bound iron (TBI) and non-Tf-bound iron (NTBI) by immortalized microglial (IMG) cells. We found that these cells preferentially take up NTBI in response to the proinflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or amyloid-beta (Aβ)...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608844/iron-redox-chemistry-promotes-antiparallel-oligomerization-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#19
Dinendra L Abeyawardhane, Ricardo D Fernández, Cody J Murgas, Denver R Heitger, Ashley K Forney, Madeleine K Crozier, Heather R Lucas
Brain metal dyshomeostasis and altered structural dynamics of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (αS) are both implicated in the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD), yet a mechanistic understanding of disease progression in the context of αS structure and metal interactions remains elusive. In this Communication, we detail the influence of iron, a prevalent redox-active brain biometal, on the aggregation propensity and secondary structure of N-terminally acetylated αS (NAc αS), the physiologically relevant form in humans...
April 2, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595455/-mechanism-of-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-promoting-iron-efflux-in-substantia-nigra-cells-of-parkinson-s-disease-rats
#20
Ting Cai, Cao Wei, Suzhen Zhai, Shengyan Tai, Chunlin Zhang, Ling Jiao
Objective To observe the effect of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on the expressions of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and ferroportin1 (FP1) in substantia nigra of rats with Parkinson's disease (PD) and explore the mechanism by which α-LA regulates iron efflux in substantia nigra cells of PD rat models. Methods Sixty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group (n=15) and a model group (n=45). To establish the PD model, the rats of the model group were injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into their right striatum by the stereotactic technique, and the sham operation group was injected with the same dose of normal saline...
January 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
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