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iron in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050512/iron-deficiency-beyond-erythropoiesis-should-we-be-concerned
#1
Khaled M Musallam, Ali T Taher
OBJECTIVE: To consider the key implications of iron deficiency for biochemical and physiological functions beyond erythropoiesis. METHODS: PubMed was searched for relevant journal articles published up to August 2017. RESULTS: Anemia is the most well-recognized consequence of persisting iron deficiency, but various other unfavorable consequences can develop either before or concurrently with anemia. Mitochondrial function can be profoundly disturbed since iron is a cofactor for heme-containing enzymes and non-heme iron-containing enzymes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain...
October 20, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050310/microrna-27b-inhibition-promotes-nrf2-are-pathway-activation-and-alleviates-intracerebral-hemorrhage-induced-brain-injury
#2
Wenzhe Xu, Feng Li, Zhiguo Liu, Zhenkuan Xu, Bin Sun, Jingwei Cao, Yuguang Liu
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are the key factors leading to secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the effects of miR-27b, an oxidative stress-responsive microRNA, on ICH-induced brain injury in rats. The ICH model was induced by intracerebral injection of collagenase. Following ICH, miR-27b expression in the striatum was reduced, whereas expression of Nrf2 mRNA and protein was increased. In PC12 cells, overexpression of miR-27b reduced expression of Nrf2, Hmox1, Sod1 and Nqo1, while miR-27b inhibition had the opposite effects...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049361/methodological-aspects-of-mri-of-transplanted-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-labeled-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-live-rat-brain
#3
Daria Namestnikova, Ilya Gubskiy, Irina Kholodenko, Pavel Melnikov, Kirill Sukhinich, Anna Gabashvili, Daniil Vishnevskiy, Anastasia Soloveva, Maxim Abakumov, Igor Vakhrushev, Alexei Lupatov, Vladimir Chekhonin, Leonid Gubsky, Konstantin Yarygin
In vivo tracking of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migration and homing is vital for understanding the mechanisms of beneficial effects of MSCs transplantation in animal models of diseases and in clinical trials. Transplanted cells can be labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles and visualized in vivo using a number of iron sensitive MRI techniques. However, the applicability of those techniques for SPIO-labeled MSCs tracking in live brain has not been sufficiently investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038383/biological-effects-of-mri-contrast-agents-gadolinium-retention-potential-mechanisms-and-a-role-for-phosphorus
#4
REVIEW
Joel Garcia, Stephen Z Liu, Angelique Y Louie
No discussion of challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging would be complete without addressing the elephant in the room-which is that the purest of chemical compounds needs to interact with a biological system in a manner that does not perturb normal biology while still providing efficacious feedback to assist in diagnosis of disease. In the past decade, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents long considered inert have produced adverse effects in certain patient populations under certain treatment regimens...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036827/validation-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-diagnostic-potential-of-a-heptapeptide-functionalized-imaging-probe-targeted-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-able-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier
#5
Séverine André, Emilie Ansciaux, Elamine Saidi, Lionel Larbanoix, Dimitri Stanicki, Denis Nonclercq, Luce Vander Elst, Sophie Laurent, Robert N Muller, Carmen Burtea
The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a critical step in the management of patients. We have developed a non-invasive diagnosis tool based on magnetic resonance molecular imaging (MRMI) of amyloid-β peptide using ultra-small particles of iron oxide (USPIO) functionalized with a disulfide constrained cyclic heptapeptide (PHO) identified by phage display (USPIO-PHO). After previously demonstrating the optimal pharmacologic properties of USPIO-PHO and its capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the ability of USPIO-PHO to target amyloid plaques (AP) by MRMI has been validated in the present work on AD transgenic mice...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034829/the-impact-of-obesity-on-brain-iron-levels-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-expression-is-regionally-dependent
#6
Jian Han, Justin Plummer, Lumei Liu, Aria Byrd, Michael Aschner, Keith M Erikson
BACKGROUND: The importance of iron homeostasis is particularly apparent in the brain, where iron deficiency results in impaired cognition and iron accumulation is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Obesity is linked to iron deficiency systemically, but the effects of obesity on brain iron and its associated consequences, including neurodegenerative processes remain unexplored. This preliminary study examined the effect of dietary-induced obesity on brain regional iron, α-synuclein expression, and F2-isoprostane (oxidative stress marker) concentrations in selected brain regions...
October 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032072/oxidative-stress-prediction-a-preliminary-approach-using-a-response-surface-based-technique
#7
M Sierra, L Bragg-Gonzalo, J Grasa, M J Muñoz, D González, F J Miana-Mena
A response surface was built to predict the lipid peroxidation level, generated in an iron-ascorbate in vitro model, of any organ, which is correlated with the oxidative stress injury in biological membranes. Oxidative stress studies are numerous, usually performed on laboratory animals. However, ethical concerns require validated methods to reduce the use of laboratory animals. The response surface described here is a validated method to replace animals. Tissue samples of rabbit liver, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle and brain were oxidized with different concentrations of FeCl3 (0...
October 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027522/-morphochemical-changes-in-the-substantia-nigra-cellular-structures-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
V N Salkov, R M Khudoerkov, D N Voronkov, V B Sobolev, K A Kutukova
AIM: to clarify the features of morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The structural characteristics of the substantia nigra were studied microscopically and quantified using computer morphometric methods at brain autopsies of individuals with Parkinson's disease who had died from intercurrent diseases and those who had no evidence of neurological disorders in their history (a control group)...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021778/the-combined-quantification-and-interpretation-of-multiple-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-metrics-enlightens-longitudinal-changes-compatible-with-brain-repair-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#9
Guillaume Bonnier, Benedicte Maréchal, Mário João Fartaria, Pavel Falkowskiy, José P Marques, Samanta Simioni, Myriam Schluep, Renaud Du Pasquier, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Gunnar Krueger, Cristina Granziera
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative and semi-quantitative MRI (qMRI) metrics provide complementary specificity and differential sensitivity to pathological brain changes compatible with brain inflammation, degeneration, and repair. Moreover, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with overlapping elements amplify the true tissue-related information and limit measurement noise. In this work, we combined multiple advanced MRI parameters to assess focal and diffuse brain changes over 2 years in a group of early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020889/differential-effect-of-acute-iron-overload-on-oxidative-status-and-antioxidant-content-in-regions-of-rat-brain
#10
Natacha E Piloni, Macarena Reiteri, Marcelo P Hernando, Claudio O Cervino, Susana Puntarulo
The hypothesis of this study is that the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of the rat brain are differentially affected in terms of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity by acute Fe overload because Fe is distributed in a heterogeneous fashion among different regions and cells of the brain. The effects on the lipophilic and hydrophilic cellular environment were compared between regions and with the whole brain. A single dose of Fe-dextran increased Fe deposits, reaching a maximum after 6 hr. Both in whole brain and in cortex region, the ascorbyl/ascorbate content ratio was increased after 6 hr of Fe administration, while in striatum and hippocampus, there was no significant changes after Fe overload...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016618/nigrosome-1-visibility-at-susceptibility-weighted-7t-mri-a-dependable-diagnostic-marker-for-parkinson-s-disease-or-merely-an-inconsistent-age-dependent-imaging-finding
#11
Carolin Gramsch, Iris Reuter, Oliver Kraff, Harald H Quick, Christian Tanislav, Florian Roessler, Cornelius Deuschl, Michael Forsting, Marc Schlamann
BACKGROUND: Visualisation of nigrosome 1, a substructure of the healthy substantia nigra, was restricted in susceptibility weighted MR imaging in almost all patients with Parkinson's disease studied so far. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of visibility of this substructure in subjects without Parkinson's disease and to examine the potential link between increasing brain iron accumulation with age and its detectability. METHODS: In 46 subjects (21 women, 25 men; 19 to 75 y; mean age: 44...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991683/a-new-pla2g6-mutation-in-a-family-with-infantile-neuroaxonal-dystrophy
#12
Iannello Grazia, Graziano Claudio, Cenacchi Giovanna, Cordelli Duccio Maria, Zuntini Roberta, Papa Valentina, Magistà Anna Maria, Gagliardi Monica, Procopio Radha, Quattrone Aldo, Annesi Grazia
Phospholipase A2-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN), a syndrome of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in PLA2G6 gene. This gene encodes a calcium-independent group VI phospholipase A2 (iPLA-VI) critical in cell membrane homeostasis. PLAN syndrome encompasses a group of phenotypes with a different age of onset: classic infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy of childhood-onset (atypical NAD) and adult-onset PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism (PARK14)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990041/brain-iron-deposition-analysis-using-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-and-its-association-with-body-iron-level-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Lili Gao, Zhihong Jiang, Zhaocheng Cai, Ming Cai, Qing Zhang, Yingying Ma, Guoliang Li, Fengzhu Zhao, Qiang Ma
The aim of the present study was to analyze brain and body iron levels among patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and normal controls (NCs). A total of 90 participants (30 MCI, 30 AD, 30 NC) were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). Phase values were used to calculate bilateral iron content in the hippocampus (HP), substantia nigra, red nucleus (RN), dentate nucleus (DN), caudate nucleus (CN), globus pallidus (GP), putamen (PUT), frontal white matter, temporal cortex (TC), and parietal cortex...
September 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988390/topographic-distribution-of-brain-iron-deposition-and-small-cerebrovascular-lesions-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-a-post-mortem-7-0-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-with-neuropathological-correlates
#14
Jacques De Reuck, David Devos, Caroline Moreau, Florent Auger, Nicolas Durieux, Vincent Deramecourt, Florence Pasquier, Claude-Alain Maurage, Charlotte Cordonnier, Didier Leys, Regis Bordet
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in 15% of the cases. A neuropathological continuity between ALS and FTLD-TDP is suspected. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study compares the topographic distribution of iron (Fe) deposition and the incidence of small cerebrovascular lesions in ALS and in FTLD brains. Seventy-eight post-mortem brains underwent 7.0-tesla MRI. The patients consisted of 12 with ALS, 38 with FTLD, and 28 controls...
October 7, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987166/neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation
#15
Sarah Wiethoff, Henry Houlden
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) describes a heterogeneous group of inherited rare clinical and genetic entities. Clinical core symptoms comprise a combination of early-onset dystonia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs with ataxia, cognitive decline, behavioral abnormalities, and retinal and axonal neuropathy variably accompanying these core features. Increased nonphysiologic, nonaging-associated brain iron, most pronounced in the basal ganglia, is often termed the unifying characteristic of these clinically variable disorders, though occurrence and extent can be fluctuating or even absent...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985560/ferroptosis-a-regulated-cell-death-nexus-linking-metabolism-redox-biology-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Brent R Stockwell, José Pedro Friedmann Angeli, Hülya Bayir, Ashley I Bush, Marcus Conrad, Scott J Dixon, Simone Fulda, Sergio Gascón, Stavroula K Hatzios, Valerian E Kagan, Kay Noel, Xuejun Jiang, Andreas Linkermann, Maureen E Murphy, Michael Overholtzer, Atsushi Oyagi, Gabriela C Pagnussat, Jason Park, Qitao Ran, Craig S Rosenfeld, Konstantin Salnikow, Daolin Tang, Frank M Torti, Suzy V Torti, Shinya Toyokuni, K A Woerpel, Donna D Zhang
Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides to lethal levels. Emerging evidence suggests that ferroptosis represents an ancient vulnerability caused by the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into cellular membranes, and cells have developed complex systems that exploit and defend against this vulnerability in different contexts. The sensitivity to ferroptosis is tightly linked to numerous biological processes, including amino acid, iron, and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and the biosynthesis of glutathione, phospholipids, NADPH, and coenzyme Q10...
October 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982612/brain-regional-iron-contents-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#17
Seung Ha Lee, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Sung Jun Ahn, Juha O Rinne, Myung Sik Lee
INTRODUCTION: To determine motor-related brain regions in which iron contents correlate with the degree of motor deficits of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). METHODS: Twenty-four patients with probable PSP and 20 controls were included. Using a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, R2* values were measured in the putamen, globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra (SN), subthalamic nucleus, and dentate nucleus. After adjustment for disease duration and age at examination, correlations between regional brain R2* values and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total motor scores or subscores for bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, or axial motor deficits were investigated...
September 28, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976180/magnetic-particle-imaging-for-real-time-perfusion-imaging-in-acute-stroke
#18
Peter Ludewig, Nadine Gdaniec, Jan Sedlacik, Nils D Forkert, Patryk Szwargulski, Matthias Graeser, Gerhard Adam, Michael G Kaul, Kannan M Krishnan, R Matthew Ferguson, Amit P Khandhar, Piotr Walczak, Jens Fiehler, Götz Thomalla, Christian Gerloff, Tobias Knopp, Tim Magnus
The fast and accurate assessment of cerebral perfusion is fundamental for the diagnosis and successful treatment of stroke patients. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new radiation-free tomographic imaging method with a superior temporal resolution, compared to other conventional imaging methods. In addition, MPI scanners can be built as prehospital mobile devices, which require less complex infrastructure than computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With these advantages, MPI could accelerate the stroke diagnosis and treatment, thereby improving outcomes...
October 4, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974951/nutritional-immunity-triggers-the-modulation-of-iron-metabolism-genes-in-the-sub-antarctic-notothenioid-eleginops-maclovinus-in-response-to-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#19
Danixa Martínez, Ricardo Oyarzún, Juan Pablo Pontigo, Alex Romero, Alejandro J Yáñez, Luis Vargas-Chacoff
Iron deprivation is a nutritional immunity mechanism through which fish can limit the amount of iron available to invading bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of iron metabolism genes in the liver and brain of sub-Antarctic notothenioid Eleginops maclovinus challenged with Piscirickettsia salmonis. The specimens were inoculated with two P. salmonis strains: LF-89 (ATCC(®) VR-1361™) and Austral-005 (antibiotic resistant). Hepatic and brain samples were collected at intervals over a period of 35 days...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973554/neurovascular-unit-basic-and-clinical-imaging-with-emphasis-on-advantages-of-ferumoxytol
#20
Joao Prola Netto, Jeffrey Iliff, Danica Stanimirovic, Kenneth A Krohn, Bronwyn Hamilton, Csanad Varallyay, Seymur Gahramanov, Heike Daldrup-Link, Christopher d'Esterre, Berislav Zlokovic, Haris Sair, Yueh Lee, Saeid Taheri, Rajan Jain, Ashok Panigrahy, Daniel S Reich, Lester R Drewes, Mauricio Castillo, Edward A Neuwelt
Physiological and pathological processes that increase or decrease the central nervous system's need for nutrients and oxygen via changes in local blood supply act primarily at the level of the neurovascular unit (NVU). The NVU consists of endothelial cells, associated blood-brain barrier tight junctions, basal lamina, pericytes, and parenchymal cells, including astrocytes, neurons, and interneurons. Knowledge of the NVU is essential for interpretation of central nervous system physiology and pathology as revealed by conventional and advanced imaging techniques...
July 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
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