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iron in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908423/copper-brain-protein-protection-against-free-radical-induced-neuronal-death-survival-ratio-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cell-cultures
#1
Roger Deloncle, Bernard Fauconneau, Olivier Guillard, José Delaval, Gérard Lesage, Alain Pineau
In Creutzfeldt Jakob, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, copper metalloproteins such as prion, amyloid protein precursor and α-synuclein are able to protect against free radicals by reduction from cupric Cu(+2) to cupreous Cu(+). In these pathologies, a regional copper (Cu) brain decrease correlated with an iron, zinc or manganese (Mn) increase has previously been observed, leading to local neuronal death and abnormal deposition of these metalloproteins in β-sheet structures. In this study we demonstrate the protective effect of Cu metalloproteins against deleterious free-radical effects...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906525/the-clinical-utility-of-qsm-disease-diagnosis-medical-management-and-surgical-planning
#2
REVIEW
Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Yan Zhang, Jingwei Zhang, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Ajay Gupta, Yi Wang
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR technique that depicts and quantifies magnetic susceptibility sources. Mapping iron, the dominant susceptibility source in the brain, has many important clinical applications. Herein, we review QSM applications in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disease. To assist in early disease diagnosis, QSM can identify elevated iron levels in the motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate of Huntington's disease patients, and in the basal ganglia of Wilson's disease patients...
December 1, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905869/neurogenic-effects-of-low-dose-whole-body-hze-fe-ion-and-gamma-irradiation
#3
Tara B Sweet, Sean D Hurley, Michael D Wu, John A Olschowka, Jacqueline P Williams, M Kerry O'Banion
Understanding the dose-toxicity profile of radiation is critical when evaluating potential health risks associated with natural and man-made sources in our environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose whole-body high-energy charged (HZE) iron (Fe) ions and low-energy gamma exposure on proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cells deemed to play a critical role in memory regulation. To determine the dose-response characteristics of the brain to whole-body Fe-ion vs...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899761/rehabilitation-augments-hematoma-clearance-and-attenuates-oxidative-injury-and-ion-dyshomeostasis-after-brain-hemorrhage
#4
Michael R Williamson, Kristen Dietrich, Mark J Hackett, Sally Caine, Colby A Nadeau, Jasmine R Aziz, Helen Nichol, Phyllis G Paterson, Frederick Colbourne
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We assessed the elemental and biochemical effects of rehabilitation after intracerebral hemorrhage, with emphasis on iron-mediated oxidative stress, using a novel multimodal biospectroscopic imaging approach. METHODS: Collagenase-induced striatal hemorrhage was produced in rats that were randomized to enriched rehabilitation or control intervention starting on day 7. Animals were euthanized on day 14 or 21, a period of ongoing cell death...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897970/an-essential-cell-autonomous-role-for-hepcidin-in-cardiac-iron-homeostasis
#5
Samira Lakhal-Littleton, Magda Wolna, Yu Jin Chung, Helen C Christian, Lisa C Heather, Marcella Brescia, Vicky Ball, Rebeca Diaz, Ana Santos, Daniel Biggs, Kieran Clarke, Benjamin Davies, Peter A Robbins
Hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Derived primarily from the liver, it inhibits the iron exporter ferroportin in the gut and spleen, the sites of iron absorption and recycling respectively. Recently, we demonstrated that ferroportin is also found in cardiomyocytes, and that its cardiac-specific deletion leads to fatal cardiac iron overload. Hepcidin is also expressed in cardiomyocytes, where its function remains unknown. To define the function of cardiomyocyte hepcidin, we generated mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of hepcidin, or knock-in of hepcidin-resistant ferroportin...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892483/down-regulation-of-coasy-the-gene-associated-with-nbia-vi-reduces-bmp-signaling-perturbs-dorso-ventral-patterning-and-alters-neuronal-development-in-zebrafish
#6
Deepak Khatri, Daniela Zizioli, Natascia Tiso, Nicola Facchinello, Sara Vezzoli, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Maurizio Memo, Eugenio Monti, Giuseppe Borsani, Dario Finazzi
Mutations in Pantothenate kinase 2 and Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY), genes involved in CoA biosynthesis, are associated with rare neurodegenerative disorders with brain iron accumulation. We showed that zebrafish pank2 gene plays an essential role in brain and vasculature development. Now we extended our study to coasy. The gene has high level of sequence identity with the human ortholog and is ubiquitously expressed from the earliest stages of development. The abrogation of its expression led to strong reduction of CoA content, high lethality and a phenotype resembling to that of dorsalized mutants...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881496/penetrating-intracranial-injury-caused-by-an-unusual-home-made-iron-pyrotechnic-device
#7
Slobodan Nikolić, Vladimir Živković
Herein, a potentially dangerous explosive home-made device used for fun and entertainment is described. It consists of two iron parts connected with a U-shaped thick wire: a wedge about 8 cm in length, which fits into a hollow cylinder, filled with a small amount of nitre (the mineral form of potassium nitrate). Striking the device onto a hard surface creates a spark inside it, which burns the nitre, producing a very loud bang. We are in possession of such device in our forensic museum collection. We present a case from 1937 related to the use of this explosive home-made device...
November 23, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879448/rhoa-kinase-inhibition-with-fasudil-versus-simvastatin-in-murine-models-of-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#8
Robert Shenkar, Changbin Shi, Cecilia Austin, Thomas Moore, Rhonda Lightle, Ying Cao, Lingjiao Zhang, Meijing Wu, Hussein A Zeineddine, Romuald Girard, David A McDonald, Autumn Rorrer, Carol Gallione, Peter Pytel, James K Liao, Douglas A Marchuk, Issam A Awad
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to compare the effect of chronic treatment with commonly tolerated doses of Fasudil, a specific RhoA kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, and simvastatin (with pleiotropic effects including ROCK inhibition) on cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) genesis and maturation in 2 models that recapitulate the human disease. METHODS: Two heterozygous murine models, Ccm1(+/-)Msh2(-)(/-) and Ccm2(+/-)Trp53(-/-), were treated from weaning to 4 to 5 months of age with Fasudil (100 mg/kg per day), simvastatin (40 mg/kg per day) or with placebo...
November 22, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875002/superparamagnetic-nanoparticle-enhanced-mri-of-alzheimer-s-disease-plaques-and-activated-microglia-in-3x-transgenic-mouse-brains-contrast-optimization
#9
Marissa A Tafoya, Saaussan Madi, Laurel O Sillerud
PURPOSE: To optimize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for detecting amyloid-β plaques and activated microglia in a 3X transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten 3X Tg mice were fed either chow or chow containing 100 ppm resveratrol. Four brains, selected from animals injected with either anti-amyloid targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, or anti-Iba-1-conjugated FePt-nanoparticles, were excised, fixed with formalin, and placed in Fomblin for ex vivo MRI (11...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871916/association-of-neurobehavioral-performance-with-r2-in-the-caudate-nucleus-of-asymptomatic-welders
#10
Eun-Young Lee, Paul J Eslinger, Michael R Flynn, Daymond Wagner, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Lan Kong, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
OBJECTIVES: Welding fumes contain several metals including manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) that may affect the nervous system. Previous studies of potential welding-related neurotoxicity have focused primarily on Mn exposure. The current study examined neurobehavioral and brain imaging changes in asymptomatic welders and their associations with both Mn and Fe exposure measurements. METHODS: Data were obtained from subjects with (n=46) and without (controls; n=31) a history of welding exposure...
November 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870896/m30-antagonizes-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activation-and-neurodegeneration-induced-by-corticosterone-in-the-hippocampus
#11
Chun-Sing Lam, George Lim Tipoe, Johnny Kong-Ching Wong, Moussa B H Youdim, Man-Lung Fung
Monoamine oxidases (MAO), downstream targets of glucocorticoid, maintain the turnover and homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters; yet, its pathophysiological role in monoamine deficiency, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation remains controversial. Protective effects of M30, a brain selective MAO inhibitor with iron-chelating antioxidant properties, have been shown in models of neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of M30 against depressive-like behavior induced by corticosterone (CORT)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869417/micronutrients-and-neurodevelopment-an-update
#12
REVIEW
Horacio F González, Silvana Visentin
Micronutrients make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate nerve cell development, migration, and differentiation. The goal of this study is to review the scientific literature regarding the role of micronutrients in infant brain structure and function. Thus, we aim at providing pediatricians with knowledge on the importance of introducing all nutrients into the diet based on breast milk composition. The following databases were reviewed: MEDLINE, through PubMed, TRIP Database, and LILACS...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864463/increased-brain-hemopexin-levels-improve-outcomes-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#13
Jenna L Leclerc, Juan Santiago-Moreno, Alex Dang, Andrew S Lampert, Pedro E Cruz, Awilda M Rosario, Todd E Golde, Sylvain Doré
Following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), extracellular heme precipitates secondary brain injury, which results in irreversible brain damage and enduring neurological deficits. Hemopexin (Hpx) is an endogenous protein responsible for scavenging heme, thereby modulating its intrinsic proxidant/proinflammatory properties. Although Hpx is present in the brain, the endogenous levels are insufficient to combat the massive heme overload following ICH. We hypothesized that increasing brain Hpx levels would improve ICH outcomes...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864037/early-monitoring-and-quantitative-evaluation-of-macrophage-infiltration-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-flow-cytometric-analysis
#14
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, B S Hemanth Kumar, Subash Khushu, Ajay K Singh, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
The inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is regulated by phagocytic cells. These cells comprising resident microglia and infiltrating macrophages play a pivotal role in the interface between early detrimental and delayed beneficial effects of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to monitor the early effect of monocyte/phagocytic accumulation and further to explore its kinetics in TBI mice. Localized macrophage population was monitored using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle enhanced in vivo serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857815/the-role-of-the-iron-stain-in-assessing-intracranial-hemorrhage
#15
Rudy J Castellani, Gruschenka Mojica, George Perry
The timing of the breakdown of red blood cells and organization of hemorrhage has significance in the catabolism of heme and the processing of iron, but also has a practical application in terms of assigning, or attempting to assign, a time course with respect to traumatic events (e.g. contusions and hemorrhages). Attempts to date contusions, however, have generally been unsuccessful by macroscopic observation, whereas the microscopic observations provide broad data but are also anatomically imprecise as a function of time...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851995/key-clinical-benefits-of-neuroimaging-at-7t
#16
Siegfried Trattnig, Elisabeth Springer, Wolfgang Bogner, Gilbert Hangel, Bernhard Strasser, Barbara Dymerska, Pedro Lima Cardoso, Simon Daniel Robinson
The growing interest in ultra-high field MRI, with more than 35.000 MR examinations already performed at 7T, is related to improved clinical results with regard to morphological as well as functional and metabolic capabilities. Since the signal-to-noise ratio increases with the field strength of the MR scanner, the most evident application at 7T is to gain higher spatial resolution in the brain compared to 3T. Of specific clinical interest for neuro applications is the cerebral cortex at 7T, for the detection of changes in cortical structure, like the visualization of cortical microinfarcts and cortical plaques in Multiple Sclerosis...
November 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851873/mri-surveillance-of-cancer-cell-fate-in-a-brain-metastasis-model-after-early-radiotherapy
#17
Donna H Murrell, Niloufar Zarghami, Michael D Jensen, Fiona Dickson, Ann F Chambers, Eugene Wong, Paula J Foster
PURPOSE: Incidence of brain metastasis attributed to breast cancer is increasing and prognosis is poor. It is thought that disseminated dormant cancer cells persist in metastatic organs and may evade treatments, thereby facilitating a mechanism for recurrence. Radiotherapy is used to treat brain metastases clinically, but assessment has been limited to macroscopic tumor volumes detectable by clinical imaging. Here, we use cellular MRI to understand the concurrent responses of metastases and nonproliferative or slowly cycling cancer cells to radiotherapy...
November 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836833/the-whole-brain-pattern-of-magnetic-susceptibility-perturbations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Arturo Cardenas-Blanco, Matthew J Betts, Michaela Butryn, Jose P Valdes-Herrera, Imke Galazky, Peter J Nestor
Although iron-mediated oxidative stress has been proposed as a potential pathomechanism in Parkinson's disease, the global distribution of iron accumulation in Parkinson's disease has not yet been elucidated. This study used a new magnetic resonance imaging contrast, quantitative susceptibility mapping, and state-of-the-art methods to map for the first time the whole-brain landscape of magnetostatic alterations as a surrogate for iron level changes in n = 25 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease versus n = 50 matched controls...
November 11, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831762/in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cd8-t-lymphocytes-recruiting-to-glioblastoma-in-mice
#19
Anning Li, Yue Wu, Feng Tang, Wei Li, Xiaoyuan Feng, Zhenwei Yao
Noninvasive in vivo tracking of adopted immune cells would help improve immunotherapy on glioblastoma. In this study, the authors tried to track adoptive CD8+ T lymphocytes in an in situ GL261 glioblastoma mouse model with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CD8+ T lymphocytes from spleen of preimmunized GL261 glioblastoma mice were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide, with polylysine as transfection agent. From Prussian blue staining, the labeling efficiency was 0.77% ± 0.06%, without altering cell viability and function...
November 2016: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829982/new-insights-into-the-role-of-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Bożena Adamczyk, Monika Adamczyk-Sowa
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by an inflammatory process and demyelination. The etiology of the disease is still not fully understood. Therefore, finding new etiological factors is of such crucial importance. It is suspected that the development of MS may be affected by oxidative stress (OS). In the acute phase OS initiates inflammatory processes and in the chronic phase it sustains neurodegeneration. Redox processes in MS are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulation of axonal bioenergetics, iron accumulation in the brain, impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, and OS memory...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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