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iron in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207893/a-combination-of-an-iron-chelator-with-an-antioxidant-exerts-greater-efficacy-on-cardioprotection-than-monotherapy-in-iron-overload-thalassemic-mice
#1
Sirinart Kumfu, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Siripong Palee, Somdet Srichairatanakool, Suthat Fucharoen, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Many recent studies have shown that antioxidant compounds decrease cardiac oxidative stress, decrease cardiac iron deposition and improve cardiac dysfunction in iron-overload induced cardiomyopathy in animal models. Interestingly, a therapy including the combination of the iron chelator deferiprone (DFP) plus the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to significantly decrease oxidative stress and restore heart and brain function in iron-overloaded rats. However, the cardioprotective effects of this combined DFP and NAC treatment in thalassemic mice has not been investigated...
December 5, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205278/jack-aviv-and-brains-of-children
#2
REVIEW
Angelo A Lamola
Both lead intoxication in early childhood and deficient bilirubin-binding capacity (BBC) of blood in jaundiced neonates indicate risk for brain damage. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) is a biomarker for lead intoxication (PbI) as well as well as for iron deficiency. Under the leadership of Jack Aviv, Aviv Biomedical, Inc. developed robust hematofluorometers for point-of-care assays of ZPP in blood and for the high-affinity BBC of blood. These assays use just drops of whole blood and are simple, fast and inexpensive...
December 4, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205171/engineered-core-shell-magnetic-nanoparticle-for-mr-dual-modal-tracking-and-safe-magnetic-manipulation-of-ependymal-cells-in-live-rodents
#3
Yung-Kang Peng, Cathy N P Lui, Yu-Wei Chen, Shang-Wei Chou, Pi-Tai Chou, Ken K L Yung, S C Edman Tsang
Tagging recognition group(s) on superparamagnetic iron oxide is known to aid localisation (imaging), stimulation and separation of biological entities using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic agitation/separation (MAS) techniques. Despite the wide applicability of iron oxide nanoparticles in T 2-weighted MRI and MAS, the quality of the images and safe manipulation of the exceptionally delicate neural cells in a live brain are currently the key challenges. Here, we demonstrate the engineered manganese oxide clusters-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticle as an MR dual-modal contrast agent for neural stem cells (NSCs) imaging and magnetic manipulation in live rodents...
December 5, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201641/iron-related-gene-variants-and-brain-iron-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-healthy-individuals
#4
Jesper Hagemeier, Murali Ramanathan, Ferdinand Schweser, Michael G Dwyer, Fuchun Lin, Niels Bergsland, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov
Brain iron homeostasis is known to be disturbed in multiple sclerosis (MS), yet little is known about the association of common gene variants linked to iron regulation and pathological tissue changes in the brain. In this study, we investigated the association of genetic determinants linked to iron regulation with deep gray matter (GM) magnetic susceptibility in both healthy controls (HC) and MS patients. Four hundred (400) patients with MS and 150 age- and sex-matched HCs were enrolled and obtained 3 T MRI examination...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198184/impact-of-maternal-iron-deficiency-on-the-auditory-functions-in-the-young-and-adult-guinea-pig
#5
Nora Shero, Sylvain Fiset, Brian Blakley, Jean-Luc Jougleux, Marc E Surette, Mohamed Thabet, France M Rioux
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hearing function in the guinea pig offspring at post-natal day (PNd) 24 and PNd84 born from dams suffering from iron deficiency during pregnancy and lactation by using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). METHOD: Female guinea pigs (n = 24 per dietary group) were fed an iron sufficient (IS) diet (114 mg/kg) or an iron deficient (ID) diet (11.7 mg/kg) during the gestation and lactation periods. Pups in both groups were weaned at PNd9 and given the IS diet...
December 3, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198122/iron-deposition-in-rabbit-cerebellum-after-exposure-to-generated-and-mobile-gsm-electromagnetic-fields
#6
M Kopani, B Filova, P Sevcik, D Kosnac, J Misek, S Polak, M Kohan, J Major, M Zdimalova, J Jakus
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone application may cause structural, functional changes and accumulation of toxic elements in brain. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate iron accumulation in rabbit cerebellum after exposure to RF EMF with light and scanning electron microscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histochemical analysis of iron distribution by light and electron microscopy with energy-dispersive microanalysis was used. RESULTS: Light microscopy revealed dystrophic changes of Purkinje cells in irradiated groups and iron deposits located in various parts of cerebellum...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198043/the-diagnosis-of-dementias-a-practical-tool-not-to-miss-rare-causes
#7
Camilla Ferrari, Benedetta Nacmias, Sandro Sorbi
Dementia represents one of the most diffuse disorders of our Era. Alzheimer's disease is the principle cause of dementia worldwide. Metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, inflammatory, and genetic dementias represent a not negligible number of disorders, with increasing numbers in younger subjects. Due to the heterogeneity of patients and disorders, the diagnosis of dementia is challenging. In the present article, we propose a practical diagnostic approach following the two-step investigation procedure. The first step includes basic blood tests and brain neuroimaging, performed on all patients...
December 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183916/ceruloplasmin-replacement-therapy-ameliorates-neurological-symptoms-in-a-preclinical-model-of%C3%A2-aceruloplasminemia
#8
Alan Zanardi, Antonio Conti, Marco Cremonesi, Patrizia D'Adamo, Enrica Gilberti, Pietro Apostoli, Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci, Alberto Piperno, Samuel David, Massimo Alessio
Aceruloplasminemia is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene that result in loss of protein ferroxidase activity. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in iron homeostasis, and its activity impairment leads to iron accumulation in liver, pancreas, and brain. Iron deposition promotes diabetes, retinal degeneration, and progressive neurodegeneration. Current therapies mainly based on iron chelation, partially control systemic iron deposition but are ineffective on neurodegeneration. We investigated the potential of ceruloplasmin replacement therapy in reducing the neurological pathology in the ceruloplasmin-knockout (CpKO) mouse model of aceruloplasminemia...
November 28, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171915/targeting-hypersensitive-corticostriatal-terminals-in-restless-legs-syndrome
#9
Gabriel Yepes, Xavier Guitart, William Rea, Amy H Newman, Richard P Allen, Christopher J Earley, César Quiroz, Sergi Ferré
OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to demonstrate a previously hypothesized increased sensitivity of corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals in the rodent with brain iron deficiency (BID), a pathogenetic model of restless legs syndrome (RLS). The second aim was to determine whether these putative hypersensitive terminals could constitute a significant target for drugs effective in RLS, including dopamine agonists (pramipexole and ropinirole) and α2 δ ligands (gabapentin). METHODS: A recently introduced in vivo optogenetic-microdialysis approach was used, which allows the measurement of the extracellular concentration of glutamate upon local light-induced stimulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals...
November 24, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170091/potentiation-of-glutathione-loss-and-nerve-cell-death-by-the-transition-metals-iron-and-copper-implications-for-age-related-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
Pamela Maher
There is growing evidence for alterations in iron and copper homeostasis during aging that are exacerbated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, how iron and copper accumulation leads to nerve cell damage in AD is not clear. In order to better understand how iron and copper can contribute to nerve cell death, a simple, well-defined in vitro model of cell death, the oyxtosis assay, was used. This assay uses glutamate to induce glutathione (GSH) depletion which initiates a form of oxidative stress-induced programmed cell death...
November 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168009/dietary-lipophilic-iron-accelerates-regional-brain-iron-load-in-c57bl6-mice
#11
Douglas G Peters, Carson J Purnell, Michael P Haaf, Qing X Yang, James R Connor, Mark D Meadowcroft
Impaired brain iron homeostatic mechanisms, independent of pathological hallmarks, are harmful to the brain because excess free iron can cause DNA, protein, and lipid damage via oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal effect of chronic iron overload and deficiency in the vertebrate brain. Ten-week-old C57BL6 male mice were randomly assigned to one of four unique dietary regiments for 1 year: iron-deficient, normal iron, and two different concentrations of lipophilic iron diet containing 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl ferrocene (TMHF)...
November 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165498/tomographic-magnetic-particle-imaging-of-cancer-targeted-nanoparticles
#12
Hamed Arami, Eric Teeman, Alyssa Troksa, Haydin Bradshaw, Katayoun Saatchi, Asahi Tomitaka, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, Urs O Häfeli, Denny Liggitt, Kannan M Krishnan
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an emerging, whole body biomedical imaging technique, with sub-millimeter spatial resolution and high sensitivity to a biocompatible contrast agent consisting of an iron oxide nanoparticle core and a biofunctionalized shell. Successful application of MPI for imaging of cancer depends on the nanoparticles (NPs) accumulating at tumors at sufficient levels relative to other sites. NPs' physiochemical properties such as size, crystallographic structure and uniformity, surface coating, stability, blood circulation time and magnetization determine the efficacy of their tumor accumulation and MPI signal generation...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163230/physiological-levels-of-nitric-oxide-diminish-mitochondrial-superoxide-potential-role-of-mitochondrial-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-and-nitrosothiols
#13
Sergey I Dikalov, Vladimir I Mayorov, Alexander V Panov
Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide radicals and superoxide overproduction contributes to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction and diminished nitric oxide levels are early steps in the development of these pathological conditions. It is known that physiological production of nitric oxide reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of "antioxidant" effect of nitric oxide is not clear. In this work we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of nitric oxide diminish mitochondrial superoxide production without inhibition of mitochondrial respiration...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163012/iron-oxide-nanoparticle-delivery-of-peptides-to-the-brain-reversal-of-anxiety-during-drug-withdrawal
#14
Nathan Vinzant, Jamie L Scholl, Chia-Ming Wu, Trevor Kindle, Ranjit Koodali, Gina L Forster
Targeting neuropeptide systems is important for future advancements in treatment of neurological and psychiatric illnesses. However, many of the peptides and their analogs do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently. Nanoparticles such as iron oxide can cross the BBB, and here we describe a novel method for the conjugation of a peptide antisauvagine-30 (ASV-30) to iron oxide nanoparticles. Previous research has shown that direct infusion of ASV-30 into the brain reduces anxiety-like behavior in animal models via actions on corticotropin releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161215/recent-advances-in-nanomedicine-and-survivin-targeting-in-brain-cancers
#15
Jake Mazur, Kislay Roy, Jagat R Kanwar
Brain cancer is a highly lethal disease, especially devastating toward both the elderly and children. This cancer has no therapeutics available to combat it, predominately due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) preventing treatments from maintaining therapeutic levels within the brain. Recently, nanoparticle technology has entered the forefront of cancer therapy due to its ability to deliver therapeutic effects while potentially passing physiological barriers. Key nanoparticles for brain cancer treatment include glutathione targeted PEGylated liposomes, gold nanoparticles, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticle-albumin bound drugs, with these being discussed throughout this review...
November 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156647/effects-of-nutritional-interventions-during-pregnancy-on-infant-and-child-cognitive-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Rachael M Taylor, Shanna M Fealy, Alessandra Bisquera, Roger Smith, Clare E Collins, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Alexis J Hure
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the current literature and meta-analyses results from nutritional interventions during pregnancy that aimed to optimise infant and child cognitive outcomes...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148118/role-of-the-combination-of-fa-and-t2-parameters-as-a-new-diagnostic-method-in-therapeutic-evaluation-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Yuan Fang, Tao Zheng, Lanxiang Liu, Dawei Gao, Qinglei Shi, Yanchao Dong, Dan Du
BACKGROUND: Simple diffusion delivery (SDD) has attained good effects with only tiny amounts of drugs. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and relaxation time T2* that indicate the integrity of fiber tracts and iron concentration within brain tissue were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of SDD. PURPOSE: To evaluate therapeutic effect of SDD in the Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model with FA and T2* parameters. STUDY TYPE: Prospective case-control animal study...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136024/severe-oxidative-stress-in-an-acute-inflammatory-demyelinating-model-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#18
Jordon Dunham, Reinofke van de Vis, Jan Bauer, Jacqueline Wubben, Nikki van Driel, Jon D Laman, Bert A 't Hart, Yolanda S Kap
Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated as a co-factor of tissue injury in inflammatory/demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models diverge from human demyelinating disorders with respect to limited oxidative injury, we observed that in a non-human primate (NHP) model for MS, namely EAE in the common marmoset, key pathological features of the disease were recapitulated, including oxidative tissue injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135293/-from-the-hallervorden-spatz-eponym-to-the-molecular-terminology
#19
Ferenc Garzuly
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: A combination of Niemann-Pick- and Hallervorden-Spatz diseases led to the death of a 17-year-old boy in 1994. Genetic counseling necessitated further investigations in 2017. Meanwhile, the nomenclature of Hallervorden-Spatz disease has been abandoned. The author analyze the reasons for this change. METHOD: Professional activities of Hallervorden and Spatz during and after the Nazi euthanasia program are presented. Also, the scientific efforts that led to the discovery of the genetic background of the disease and ultimately to its new name are highlighted...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132543/intravenous-administration-of-functionalized-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-does-not-induce-cns-injury-in-the-rat-influence-of-spinal-cord-trauma-and-cerebrolysin-treatment
#20
Preeti K Menon, Aruna Sharma, José V Lafuente, Dafin F Muresanu, Zoraida P Aguilar, Y Anderw Wang, Ranjana Patnaik, Herbert Mössler, Hari S Sharma
Influence of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs, 10nm in diameter, 0.25 or 0.50mg/mL in 100μL, i.v.) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, edema formation, and neuronal or glial changes within 4-24h after administration was examined in normal rats and after a focal spinal cord injury (SCI). Furthermore, effect of cerebrolysin, a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors, and active peptide fragments was also evaluated on IOMNP-induced changes in central nervous system (CNS) pathology...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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