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Tapering for runners

Casper Skovgaard, Nicki Winfield Almquist, Thue Kvorning, Peter Møller Christensen, Jens Bangsbo
The effect of tapering following a period of high-volume sprint interval training (SIT) and a basic volume of aerobic training on performance and muscle adaptations in moderately trained runners was examined. Eleven (8 men, 3 women) runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2max ): 56.8 ± 2.9 ml·min-1 ·kg-1 ; mean ± SD] conducted high-volume SIT (HV; 20 SIT sessions; 8-12 × 30 s all-out) for 40 days followed by 18 days of tapering (TAP; 4 SIT sessions; 4 × 30 s all-out). Before and after HV as well as midway through and at the end of TAP, the subjects completed a 10-km running test and a repeated running test at 90% of vV̇o2max to exhaustion (RRT)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
George N Guild, Robert P Runner, Tracy D Rickels, Ryan Oldja, Ahmad Faizan
BACKGROUND: The incidence of revision hip arthroplasty is increasing with nearly 100,000 annual procedures expected in the near future. Many surgeons use straight modular tapered stems in revisions; however, complications of periprosthetic fracture and cortical perforation occur, resulting in poor outcomes. Our objective was to identify patient demographics and femoral characteristics that predispose patients to cortical perforation when using the straight modular stems. METHODS: We used a computed tomography database and modeling software to identify patient demographics and morphologic femoral characteristics that predispose patients to cortical perforation during revision hip arthroplasty...
November 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Clint R Bellenger, Laura Karavirta, Rebecca L Thomson, Eileen Y Robertson, Kade Davison, Jonathan D Buckley
PURPOSE: Heart-rate variability (HRV) as a measure of autonomic function may increase in response to training interventions leading to increases or decreases in performance, making HRV interpretation difficult in isolation. This study aimed to contextualize changes in HRV with subjective measures of training tolerance. METHODS: Supine and standing measures of vagally mediated HRV (root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]) and measures of training tolerance (Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire, perception of energy levels, fatigue, and muscle soreness) were recorded daily during 1 wk of light training (LT), 2 wk of heavy training (HT), and 10 d of tapering (T) in 15 male runners/ triathletes...
July 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jing Luo, Emily Walsh, David Blystone, Ning Zhang
During our recent survey of fungi in the oligotrophic pine barrens ecosystem, five new Pseudophialophora species, Pseudophialophora angusta, P. dichanthii, P. magnispora, P. tarda, and P. whartonensis, were uncovered from the roots of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and tapered rosette grass (Dichanthelium acuminatum). The five new fungal species are described based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1, and TEF1 genes. The 6-locus phylogeny indicates that Pseudophialophora species form a monophyletic clade in Magnaporthaceae of Magnaporthales...
December 2015: Fungal Biology
Kevin Murach, Ulrika Raue, Brittany Wilkerson, Kiril Minchev, Bozena Jemiolo, James Bagley, Nicholas Luden, Scott Trappe
This study evaluated gene expression changes in gastrocnemius slow-twitch myosin heavy chain I (MHC I) and fast-twitch (MHC IIa) muscle fibers of collegiate cross-country runners (n = 6, 20±1 y, VO₂max = 70±1 ml•kg-1•min-1) during two distinct training phases. In a controlled environment, runners performed identical 8 kilometer runs (30:18±0:30 min:s, 89±1% HRmax) while in heavy training (∼72 km/wk) and following a 3 wk taper. Training volume during the taper leading into peak competition was reduced ∼50% which resulted in improved race times and greater cross-section and improved function of MHC IIa fibers...
2014: PloS One
Kate L Spilsbury, Barry W Fudge, Stephen A Ingham, Steve H Faulkner, Myra A Nimmo
The aim of the study was to explore pre-competition training practices of elite endurance runners. Training details from elite British middle distance (MD; 800 m and 1500 m), long distance (LD; 3000 m steeplechase to 10,000 m) and marathon (MAR) runners were collected by survey for 7 days in a regular training (RT) phase and throughout a pre-competition taper. Taper duration was [median (interquartile range)] 6 (3) days in MD, 6 (1) days in LD and 14 (8) days in MAR runners. Continuous running volume was reduced to 70 (16)%, 71 (24)% and 53 (12)% of regular levels in MD, LD and MAR runners, respectively (P < 0...
2015: European Journal of Sport Science
B Hug, L Heyer, N Naef, M Buchheit, J P Wehrlin, G P Millet
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during an overload-tapering paradigm in marathon runners and examine their relationship with running performance. 9 male runners followed a training program composed of 3 weeks of overload followed by 3 weeks of tapering (-33 ± 7%). Before and after overload and during tapering they performed an exhaustive running test (T(lim)). At the end of this test, HRR variables (e.g. HRR during the first 60 s; HRR(60 s)) and vagal-related HRV indices (e...
July 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
N Luden, E Hayes, K Minchev, E Louis, U Raue, T Conley, S Trappe
The purpose of this study was to investigate leg muscle adaptation in runners preparing for their first marathon. Soleus and vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies were obtained from six recreational runners (23 ± 1 years, 61 ± 3 kg) before (T1), after 13 weeks of run training (T2), and after 3 weeks of taper and marathon (T3). Single muscle fiber size, contractile function (strength, speed, and power) and oxidative enzyme activity [citrate synthase (CS)] were measured at all three time points, and fiber type distribution was determined before and after the 16-week intervention...
October 2012: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Nicholas Luden, Erik Hayes, Andrew Galpin, Kiril Minchev, Bozena Jemiolo, Ulrika Raue, Todd A Trappe, Matthew P Harber, Ted Bowers, Scott Trappe
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 3-wk taper on the physiology of competitive distance runners. We studied seven collegiate distance runners (20+/-1 yr, 66+/-1 kg) before and after a 3-wk taper. The primary measures included 8-km cross-country race performance, gastrocnemius single muscle fiber size and function (peak force, shortening velocity, and power), baseline and exercise-induced gene expression 4 h after a standardized 8-km run, citrate synthase activity, and maximal and submaximal cardiovascular physiology (oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio)...
June 2010: Journal of Applied Physiology
Marie E Sandström, Jason C Siegler, Ric J Lovell, Leigh A Madden, Lars McNaughton
The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations in serum heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 levels during a 15-consecutive-day intermittent heat-exercise protocol in a 29-year-old male ultra marathon runner. Heat acclimation, for the purpose of physical activities in elevated ambient temperatures, has numerous physiological benefits including mechanisms such as improved cardiac output, increased plasma volume and a decreased core temperature (T (c)). In addition to the central adaptations, the role of Hsp during heat acclimation has received an increasing amount of attention...
2008: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Garth W Hatch, Steven Roberts, Anthony P Joyce, Royce Runner, James C McPherson
This study compared the taper variation among Profile, Guidance, and EndoSequence 0.06 tapered rotary files to current standards. Fifteen files of sizes 35, 40, and 45 from each manufacturer were evaluated for a total of 135 files. A digital image of the first 4 mm of each file was captured with light microscope at 22x, calibrated for 0.001-mm accuracy, and analyzed. The diameter of each file was measured at 1 and 4 mm, and the taper was calculated. Of the 3 file systems, 100% of the Profile files, 97.8% of the Guidance files, and 86...
April 2008: Journal of Endodontics
Ferran A Rodríguez, Martin J Truijens, Nathan E Townsend, James Stray-Gundersen, Christopher J Gore, Benjamin D Levine
This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the effects of 4 wk of resting exposure to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHE, 3 h/day, 5 days/wk at 4,000-5,500 m) or normoxia combined with training at sea level on performance and maximal oxygen transport in athletes. Twenty-three trained swimmers and runners completed duplicate baseline time trials (100/400-m swims, or 3-km run) and measures for maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), ventilation (VE(max)), and heart rate (HR(max)) and the oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (VO(2) at VT) during incremental treadmill or swimming flume tests...
November 2007: Journal of Applied Physiology
Louise M Burke
Muscle glycogen provides a key fuel for training and racing a marathon. Carbohydrate 'loading' can enhance marathon performance by allowing the competitor to run at their optimal pace for a longer period before fatiguing. For the well trained runner, this may be achieved by tapering exercise over the final days before the marathon and ensuring carbohydrate intakes of 10-12 g/kg/day over the 36-48 hours prior to the race. Sports nutrition guidelines recommend that the runner consumes sufficient carbohydrate to promote restoration of muscle glycogen between training sessions...
2007: Sports Medicine
Scott Trappe, Matthew Harber, Andrew Creer, Philip Gallagher, Dustin Slivka, Kiril Minchev, David Whitsett
The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of marathon training on single muscle fiber contractile function in a group of recreational runners. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle of seven individuals (22 +/- 1 yr, 177 +/- 3 cm, and 68 +/- 2 kg) before, after 13 wk of run training, and after 3 wk of taper. Slow-twitch myosin heavy chain [(MHC) I] and fast-twitch (MHC IIa) muscle fibers were analyzed for size, strength (P(o)), speed (V(o)), and power. The run training program led to the successful completion of a marathon (range 3 h 56 min to 5 h 35 min)...
September 2006: Journal of Applied Physiology
D Bishop, J Edge
While taper is a well-established practice in most endurance sports, no study has investigated the effects of taper on repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Eleven female, recreational, team-sport athletes (mean+/-SD: age = 19+/-3 y, VO2max = 39.0+/-6.4 mLxkg(-1)xmin(-1)) trained intensively three times per week for six weeks. Each week (on a non-training day), subjects performed a RSA test (5 x 6-s sprints every 30 s). Following the training period, subjects were given a 10-day exponential taper followed by a final RSA test...
June 2005: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
M P Harber, P M Gallagher, A R Creer, K M Minchev, S W Trappe
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the contractile properties of individual myofibers in response to periodized training periods throughout a collegiate cross-country season in male runners. Muscle biopsies of the gastrocnemius were taken after a summer base training phase (T1), an 8-wk intense training period (T2), and a 4-wk taper phase (T3). Five runners (n = 5; age = 20 +/- 1 yr; wt = 65 +/- 4 kg; ht = 178 +/- 3 cm) completed all three time points. A total of 328 individual muscle fibers [myosin heavy chain (MHC) I = 66%; MHC IIa = 33%; hybrids = 1%] were isolated and studied at 15 degrees C for their contractile properties...
November 2004: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
I Mujika, A Goya, E Ruiz, A Grijalba, J Santisteban, S Padilla
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of training frequency on performance and some physiological responses during a 6-day taper. After 18 weeks of training, 9 male middle-distance runners were assigned to a high frequency taper (HFT, n = 5) or a moderate frequency taper (MFT, n = 4), consisting of training daily or resting every third day of the taper. Taper consisted of an 80% nonlinear progressive reduction in high intensity interval training. Blood samples were obtained, and 800 m performance and peak blood lactate ([La] peak ) measured before and after taper...
July 2002: International Journal of Sports Medicine
R B Child, D M Wilkinson, J L Fallowfield
This study investigated the effects of a training taper on muscle damage indices and performance. Two matched groups of seven male runners each performed two self paced half-marathons on a motorised treadmill. After the first half-marathon one group maintained their normal weekly training volume, while the taper group progressively reduced weekly training volume by 85 %. Venous blood was drawn immediately before and after the first half-marathon. Subsequent samples were taken 7 days later, immediately before and after the second half-marathon...
July 2000: International Journal of Sports Medicine
I Mujika, A Goya, S Padilla, A Grijalba, E Gorostiaga, J Ibañez
PURPOSE: This study examined some physiological and performance responses to a 6-d taper, and the influence of training intensity and volume on these responses. METHODS: After 15 wk of training, 8 well-trained male middle-distance runners were randomly assigned to either a moderate volume taper (MVT, N = 4) or a low volume taper (LVT, N = 4), consisting of either a 50% or a 75% progressive reduction in pretaper low intensity continuous training (LICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT)...
February 2000: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
F X Pizza, M G Flynn, J B Boone, J R Rodriguez-Zayas, F F Andres
The purpose of the study was to examine ferritin, haptoglobin, and red cell indices during a competitive running and swimming season. Male runners (N = 8) and swimmers (N = 5) were tested four times during their respective seasons. The runners were tested before the start of organized practice (RT1), after 3 wk of increased training (RT2), 3 wk prior to the conference championship (pre-taper, RT3), and 3 d after the conference championship (post-taper, RT4). The swimmers were tested after the first 9 wk of training (ST1), after completing 2 wk of hard training (ST2), after an additional 6wk of training (pre-taper, ST3), and 1 wk following the conference championship (post-taper, ST4)...
May 1997: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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