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Strength training and middle long distance runners

Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
BACKGROUND: Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
Richard C Blagrove, Nicola Brown, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
Blagrove, RC, Brown, N, Howatson, G, and Hayes, PR. Strength and conditioning habits of competitive distance runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Targeted strength and conditioning (S&C) programs can potentially improve performance and reduce injury risk factors in competitive runners. However, S&C practices of distance runners are unknown. This study aimed to explore S&C practices of competitive middle- and long-distance runners and examined whether reported frequency of injuries was influenced by training behaviors...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos M Tejero-González, Juan Del Campo-Vecino
The aim of this study was to analyze the time-course of force production of elite middle and long-distance runners throughout an entire season and at the end of the off-season, as well as its relationships with training load and hormonal responses. Training load was recorded daily throughout an entire season by measuring and evaluating the session distance (km), training zone and session-RPE in a group of 15 elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3 ± 5.1yrs, BMI = 19.7 ± 1.1). Also, basal salivary-free cortisol levels were measured weekly, and 50-metre sprints, mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean propulsive power (MPP), repetition maximum (RM) and peak rate of force development (RFD) of half-squats were measured 4 times during the season, and once more after the off-season break...
March 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Tomas Venckunas, Arimantas Lionikas, Jolanta E Marcinkeviciene, Rasa Raugaliene, Aleksandras Alekrinskis, Arvydas Stasiulis
Competitive athletics is often associated with moderate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and it has been hypothesized that training mode and type of exercise modulates long-term cardiac adaptation. The purpose of the study was to compare cardiac structure and function among athletes of various sports and sedentary controls. Standard transthoracic two-dimensional M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest in Caucasian male canoe/kayak paddlers (n = 9), long distance runners (LDR, n = 18), middle distance runners (MDR, n = 17), basketball players (BP, n = 31), road cyclists (n = 8), swimmers (n = 10), strength/power athletes (n = 9) of similar age (range, 15 to 31 yrs), training experience (4 to 9 years), and age-matched healthy male sedentary controls (n = 15)...
2008: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Cristian Alvarez, Carlos Henríquez-Olguín, Eduardo B Baez, Cristian Martínez, David C Andrade, Mikel Izquierdo
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term plyometric training program on explosive strength and endurance performance in highly competitive middle- and long-distance runners. Athletes were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 18, 12 men) and an explosive strength training group (TG, n = 18, 10 men). Drop jump (DJ) from 20 (DJ20) and 40 cm (DJ40), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-m sprint time, and 2.4-km endurance run time test were carried out before and after 6 weeks of explosive strength training...
January 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Brandon Hudgins, Jessica Scharfenberg, N Travis Triplett, Jeffrey M McBride
Running performance consists of a combination of aerobic and anaerobic capabilities, varying based on the distance of the event. It may be also dependent on factors relating to lower body power. Lower body power is commonly assessed by various modes of jumping tests. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if jumping performance would have some relationship to running performance in different distance events. This study involved 33 competitive track and field runners who participated in events ranging from 60 to 5,000 m (10 sprinters: height = 1...
March 2013: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
T Greulich, S Müller, J Fechtel, C Nell, A Holland, J P Bach, B Tackenberg, H Schubert, K Kenn, C Vogelmeier, A R Koczulla
A 46-year-old patient was frequently seen with a medically treated Anti-Jo-1 syndrome. The patient had already been treated with azathioprine and oral corticosteroids on account of decreasing lung function, dyspnoea, fatigue, and beginning signs of myositis. Although high doses of steroids and azathioprine were administered, the muscleskeletal syndromes increased steadily. The patient used to be an active long-distance runner (20 km), but now was unable to perform that kind of physical exercise. It was decided to start a treatment with the GalileoTM training device for active muscle training of the lower extremities...
October 2011: Pneumologie
D C Wilks, K Winwood, S F Gilliver, A Kwiet, M Chatfield, I Michaelis, L W Sun, J L Ferretti, A J Sargeant, D Felsenberg, J Rittweger
Mechanical loading is thought to be a determinant of bone mass and geometry. Both ground reaction forces and tibial strains increase with running speed. This study investigates the hypothesis that surrogates of bone strength in male and female master sprinters, middle and long distance runners and race-walkers vary according to discipline-specific mechanical loading from sedentary controls. Bone scans were obtained by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) from the tibia and from the radius in 106 sprinters, 52 middle distance runners, 93 long distance runners and 49 race-walkers who were competing at master championships, and who were aged between 35 and 94 years...
July 2009: Bone
Philo U Saunders, Richard D Telford, David B Pyne, Esa M Peltola, Ross B Cunningham, Chris J Gore, John A Hawley
Fifteen highly trained distance runners VO(2)max 71.1 +/- 6.0 ml.min(-1).kg(-1), mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to a plyometric training (PLY; n = 7) or control (CON; n = 8) group. In addition to their normal training, the PLY group undertook 3 x 30 minutes PLY sessions per week for 9 weeks. Running economy (RE) was assessed during 3 x 4 minute treadmill runs (14, 16, and 18 km.h(-1)), followed by an incremental test to measure VO(2)max. Muscle power characteristics were assessed on a portable, unidirectional ground reaction force plate...
November 2006: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Takeshi Otsuki, Seiji Maeda, Motoyuki Iemitsu, Yoko Saito, Yuko Tanimura, Ryuichi Ajisaka, Katsutoshi Goto, Takashi Miyauchi
Strength exercise training induces a decrease in arterial distensibility, whereas endurance exercise training causes an increase in arterial distensibility. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), which is produced by vascular endothelial cells, has potent vasoconstrictor and proliferative activity on vascular smooth muscle cells. We hypothesized that endogenous ET-1 participates in alteration of arterial distensibility by different exercise training types (i.e., strength and endurance exercise training). The purpose of the present study was to investigate plasma ET-1 concentration and arterial distensibility in strength- and endurance-trained athletes...
June 2006: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Adrian W Midgley, Lars R McNaughton, Michael Wilkinson
The maximal oxygen uptake (V-dotO(2max)) is considered an important physiological determinant of middle- and long-distance running performance. Little information exists in the scientific literature relating to the most effective training intensity for the enhancement of V-dotO(2max) in well trained distance runners. Training intensities of 40-50% V-dotO(2max) can increase V-dotO(2max) substantially in untrained individuals. The minimum training intensity that elicits the enhancement of V-dotO(2max) is highly dependent on the initial V-dotO(2max), however, and well trained distance runners probably need to train at relative high percentages of V-dotO(2max) to elicit further increments...
2006: Sports Medicine
Mikel Izquierdo, Keijo Häkkinen, Juan J Gonzalez-Badillo, Javier Ibáñez, Esteban M Gorostiaga
Maximal concentric one repetition maximum half-squat (1RM(HS)), bench-press (1RM(BP)), power-load curves during concentric actions with loads ranging from 30% to 100% of 1RM(HS) and 1RM(BP)were examined in 70 male subjects divided into five groups: weightlifters (WL, n=11), handball players (HP, n=19), amateur road cyclists (RC, n=18), middle-distance runners (MDR, n=10) and age-matched control subjects (C, n=12). The 1RM(HS)values in WL, HP and RC were 50%, 29% and 28% greater, respectively, ( P<0.001-0...
July 2002: European Journal of Applied Physiology
C Beukeboom, T B Birmingham, L Forwell, D Ohrling
OBJECTIVES: 1) To evaluate strength changes in the hindfoot invertor and evertor muscle groups of athletes training and competing primarily in the counterclockwise direction on an indoor, unbanked track, and 2) to observe injuries occurring in these same runners over the course of an indoor season. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Fowler-Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 25 intercollegiate, long sprinters (200-600 m) and middle distance runners (800-3,000 m) competing and training with the 1995-1996 University of Western Ontario Track and Field team...
October 2000: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
K J MacKelvie, J E Taunton, H A McKay, K M Khan
OBJECTIVES: To identify physical activity that is beneficial for the maintenance of bone strength with increasing age by examining the relation between bone mineral density (BMD) and chronic endurance training in men. BMD at the proximal femur, its subregions, and the lumbar spine, and serum testosterone were compared between two groups of long distance runners with more than 20 years of training experience and non-athletic controls. METHODS: Runners (n = 12) were divided into (a) high volume runners (n = 7), running 64-80 km a week, and (b) very high volume runners (n = 5), running more than 95 km a week, and compared with non-athletic male controls, exercising in non-endurance oriented activities two to four times a week...
August 2000: British Journal of Sports Medicine
P Coetzer, T D Noakes, B Sanders, M I Lambert, A N Bosch, T Wiggins, S C Dennis
Black athletes currently dominate long-distance running events in South Africa. In an attempt to explain an apparently superior running ability of black South African athletes at distances > 3 km, we compared physiological measurements in the fastest 9 white and 11 black South African middle-to long-distance runners. Whereas both groups ran at a similar percentage of maximal O2 uptake (%VO2max) over 1.65-5 km, the %VO2max sustained by black athletes was greater than that of white athletes at distances > 5 km (P < 0...
October 1993: Journal of Applied Physiology
S Rehunen
To test a new in vitro model for investigations of muscle metabolism, the most important metabolites of muscle anaerobic metabolism (ATP, creatine phosphate, glucose, glycogen, and lactate) were measured in muscle biopsies from healthy male subjects, endurance-trained cyclists, strength-trained weight lifters, intensively trained long-distance runners, and speed-trained sprinters. The samples were taken at rest and after moderate muscle exercise for 30 s. These samples were analysed as such or after in vitro incubation for 30 s, 60 s, and 5 min under anoxic conditions...
June 1988: International Journal of Sports Medicine
J J Vatine, A Blank, M Shochina, A Swissa, Y Mahler, B Gonen, A Magora
The electrophysiological behavior of an isometric contraction sustained to fatigue, was examined in 6 long distance runners and 9 athletes involved in explosive (burst) sports, by on line computer analysis of the electrical activity of vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. The experiments were carried out with a counterload of 50% of the maximal strength of the muscle. The duration of spike increased and the frequency decreased in the 3 examined muscles, in both types of sport. In the burst sports the changes of value of both parameters were statistically significant in the 3 muscles...
January 1990: Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology
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