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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#1
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866057/effect-of-crosslinking-in-cartilage-like-collagen-microstructures
#2
Ying-Chun Chen, Minsi Chen, Eamonn A Gaffney, Cameron P Brown
The mechanical performance of biological tissues is underpinned by a complex and finely balanced structure. Central to this is collagen, the most abundant protein in our bodies, which plays a dominant role in the functioning of tissues, and also in disease. Based on the collagen meshwork of articular cartilage, we have developed a bottom-up spring-node model of collagen and examined the effect of fibril connectivity, implemented by crosslinking, on mechanical behaviour. Although changing individual crosslink stiffness within an order of magnitude had no significant effect on modelling predictions, the density of crosslinks in a meshwork had a substantial impact on its behaviour...
October 15, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782921/tolerance-limits-self-understanding-and-stress-resilience-in-integrative-recovery-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Kari Skrautvol, Dagfinn Nåden
People living with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experienced that knowledge about their embodied tolerance limits, diet, mental problem solving, and change in lifestyle together with integrative health care could promote recovery from their diagnosed disease in calmer periods of suffering. A hermeneutic approach was used to analyze interviews with patients living with IBD outside hospitals. Thirteen young adults between 18 and 45 years of age in calmer phases of IBD participated in the study. Three main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: (1) Understanding limits in embodied tolerance, (2) Restoring balance is creating a new equilibrium, and (3) Creating resilience through integrative care...
January 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769879/individuals-with-tension-and-migraine-headaches-exhibit-increased-heart-rate-variability-during-post-stress-mindfulness-meditation-practice-but-a-decrease-during-a-post-stress-control-condition-a-randomized-controlled-experiment
#4
Muhammad Abid Azam, Joel Katz, Vina Mohabir, Paul Ritvo
BACKGROUND: Current research suggests that associations between headache conditions (migraine, tension) and imbalances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are due to stress-related dysregulation in the activity of the parasympathetic-sympathetic branches. Mindfulness meditation has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing pain-related distress, and in enhancing heart rate variability-a vagal-mediated marker of ANS balance. This study examined HRV during cognitive stress and mindfulness meditation in individuals with migraine and tension headaches...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741123/robot-assisted-gait-training-improves-brachial-ankle-pulse-wave-velocity-and-peak-aerobic-capacity-in-subacute-stroke-patients-with-totally-dependent-ambulation-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Eun Young Han, Sang Hee Im, Bo Ryun Kim, Min Ji Seo, Myeong Ok Kim
OBJECTIVE: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. METHOD: The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693243/benzyl-isothiocyanate-promotes-apoptosis-of-oral-cancer-cells-via-an-acute-redox-stress-mediated-dna-damage-response
#6
Yao-Tsung Yeh, Yen-Nien Hsu, Sheng-Yun Huang, Jian-Sheng Lin, Zi-Feng Chen, Nan-Haw Chow, Shu-Hui Su, Huey-Wen Shyu, Ching-Chiang Lin, Wu-Tein Huang, Hua Yeh, Yu-Chia Chih, Yu-Hsuan Huang, Shu-Jem Su
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is a cruciferous vegetable-derived compound with anticancer properties in human cancer cells. However, its anticancer potential and underlying mechanisms remain absent in human oral cancer cells. Results indicate that BITC inhibits growth, promotes G2/M phase arrest and triggers apoptosis of OC2 cells with a minimal toxicity to normal cells. BITC-induced cell death was completely prevented by pretreatment with thiol-containing redox compounds including N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH), dithiothreitol, and 2-mercaptoethanol, but not free radical scavengers mito-TEMPO, catalase, apocynin, l-NAME and mannitol...
September 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689587/insufficient-time-for-leisure-and-perceived-health-and-stress-in-working-parents-with%C3%A2-small-children
#7
Carita Håkansson, Anna Axmon, Frida Eek
BACKGROUND: More knowledge about how recovery may promote health among parents with small children is needed. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether insufficient time for leisure was associated with poorer perceived health and higher stress in working parents. A further aim was to explore potential gender differences in the association between insufficient time for leisure and poor perceived health. METHODS: A postal survey including the perceived stress scale and three measures of subjective health - self-rated health (SF-36), work-related fatigue (Swedish occupational fatigue questionnaire), and Lund subjective health complaints - as well as questions about time for leisure was completed by 965 women and 597 men...
October 17, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642001/chronic-dietary-salt-stress-mitigates-hyperkalemia-and-facilitates-chill-coma-recovery-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Andrew Donini, Heath A MacMillan
Chill susceptible insects like Drosophila lose the ability to regulate water and ion homeostasis at low temperatures. This loss of hemolymph ion and water balance drives a hyperkalemic state that depolarizes cells, causing cellular injury and death. The ability to maintain ion homeostasis at low temperatures and/or recover ion homeostasis upon rewarming is closely related to insect cold tolerance. We thus hypothesized that changes to organismal ion balance, which can be achieved in Drosophila through dietary salt loading, could alter whole animal cold tolerance phenotypes...
December 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596335/age-increases-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-macrophages-and-potentiates-oxidative-damage-after-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Bei Zhang, William M Bailey, Anna Leigh McVicar, John C Gensel
Age potentiates neurodegeneration and impairs recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI). Previously, we observed that age alters the balance of destructive (M1) and protective (M2) macrophages; however, the age-related pathophysiology in SCI is poorly understood. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) contributes to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated damage and macrophage activation in neurotrauma. Further, NOX and ROS increase with central nervous system age. Here, we found significantly higher ROS generation in 14 versus 4-month-old (MO) mice after contusion SCI...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484470/physical-activity-body-mass-index-and-heart-rate-variability-based-stress-and-recovery-in-16-275-finnish-employees-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Tiina Föhr, Julia Pietilä, Elina Helander, Tero Myllymäki, Harri Lindholm, Heikki Rusko, Urho M Kujala
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity, overweight, and work-related stress are major concerns today. Psychological stress causes physiological responses such as reduced heart rate variability (HRV), owing to attenuated parasympathetic and/or increased sympathetic activity in cardiac autonomic control. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationships between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and HRV-based stress and recovery on workdays, among Finnish employees. METHODS: The participants in this cross-sectional study were 16 275 individuals (6863 men and 9412 women; age 18-65 years; BMI 18...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412428/work-stress-poor-recovery-and-burnout-in-teachers
#11
K Gluschkoff, M Elovainio, U Kinnunen, S Mullola, M Hintsanen, L Keltikangas-Järvinen, T Hintsa
BACKGROUND: Both work stress and poor recovery have been shown to contribute to the development of burnout. However, the role of recovery as a mediating mechanism that links work stress to burnout has not been sufficiently addressed in research. AIMS: To examine recovery as a mediator in the relationship between work stress and burnout among teachers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of Finnish primary school teachers, in whom burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and work stress was conceptualized using the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model...
October 2016: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373799/acute-kidney-injury-following-cardiac-surgery-current-understanding-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Jason B O'Neal, Andrew D Shaw, Frederic T Billings
Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates recovery from cardiac surgery in up to 30 % of patients, injures and impairs the function of the brain, lungs, and gut, and places patients at a 5-fold increased risk of death during hospitalization. Renal ischemia, reperfusion, inflammation, hemolysis, oxidative stress, cholesterol emboli, and toxins contribute to the development and progression of AKI. Preventive strategies are limited, but current evidence supports maintenance of renal perfusion and intravascular volume while avoiding venous congestion, administration of balanced salt as opposed to high-chloride intravenous fluids, and the avoidance or limitation of cardiopulmonary bypass exposure...
July 4, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353847/resection-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-elderly-patients-and-the-role-of-energy-balance
#13
Marco Cannistrà, Raffaele Grande, Michele Ruggiero, Matteo Novello, Alessandra Zullo, Elisabetta Bonaiuto, Sebastiano Vaccarisi, Giuseppe Cavallari, Raffaele Serra, Bruno Nardo
INTRODUCTION: Progressive functional impairment with age has a significant impact on perioperative risk management. Chronic liver diseases induce a strong oxidative stress; in the elderly, in particular, impaired elimination of free radicals leads to insufficient DNA repair. The events associated with a weak response to growth factors after hepatectomy leads to a decline in liver regeneration. Hypercholesterolemia is highly prevalent in the elderly, which may alter the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) levels and in turn the cellular energy balance...
September 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252455/intermittent-hypoxia-leads-to-functional-reorganization-of-mitochondria-and-affects-cellular-bioenergetics-in-marine-molluscs
#14
Anna V Ivanina, Irina Nesmelova, Larry Leamy, Eugene P Sokolov, Inna M Sokolova
Fluctuations in oxygen (O2) concentrations represent a major challenge to aerobic organisms and can be extremely damaging to their mitochondria. Marine intertidal molluscs are well-adapted to frequent O2 fluctuations, yet it remains unknown how their mitochondrial functions are regulated to sustain energy metabolism and prevent cellular damage during hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). We used metabolic control analysis to investigate the mechanisms of mitochondrial responses to H/R stress (18 h at <0.1% O2 followed by 1 h of reoxygenation) using hypoxia-tolerant intertidal clams Mercenaria mercenaria and hypoxia-sensitive subtidal scallops Argopecten irradians as models...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231439/effects-of-powdered-montmorency-tart-cherry-supplementation-on-acute-endurance-exercise-performance-in-aerobically-trained-individuals
#15
Kyle Levers, Ryan Dalton, Elfego Galvan, Abigail O'Connor, Chelsea Goodenough, Sunday Simbo, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Steven Riechman, Stephen Crouse, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term supplementation of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following stressful endurance exercise would affect markers of muscle damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, and/or muscle soreness. METHODS: 27 endurance-trained runners or triathlete (21.8 ± 3.9 years, 15.0 ± 6.0 % body fat, 67.4 ± 11.8 kg) men (n = 18) and women (n = 9) were matched based on average reported race pace, age, body mass, and fat free mass...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217924/parachute-jumping-induces-more-sympathetic-activation-than-cortisol-secretion-in-first-time-parachutists
#16
Giovanni Messina, Sergio Chieffi, Andrea Viggiano, Domenico Tafuri, Giuseppe Cibelli, Anna Valenzano, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Antonietta Messina, Vincenzo De Luca, Marcellino Monda
BACKGROUND: The word "stress" describes the status of the body affected by external or internal forces, or "stressors", threatening to alter its dynamic balance or homeostasis. The adaptive changes which occur in reply to stressors are either behavioral or physical. Once a given threshold is surpassed, a systemic reaction takes place involving the "stress system" in the brain together with its peripheral components, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic sympathetic. OBJECTIVES: Stress induces an activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208932/assessment-of-the-accuracy-of-coupled-cluster-perturbation-theory-for-open-shell-systems-ii-quadruples-expansions
#17
Janus J Eriksen, Devin A Matthews, Poul Jørgensen, Jürgen Gauss
We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell atoms and organic radicals to the description of quadruple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the prominent CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models. From a comparison of the models in terms of their recovery of total CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is independent of the reference used (unrestricted or restricted (open-shell) Hartree-Fock), in contrast to the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models, for which the accuracy is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187245/accumulation-of-sugars-in-the-xylem-apoplast-observed-under-water-stress-conditions-is-controlled-by-xylem-ph
#18
Francesca Secchi, Maciej A Zwieniecki
Severe water stress constrains, or even stops, water transport in the xylem due to embolism formation. Previously, the xylem of poplar trees was shown to respond to embolism formation by accumulating carbohydrates in the xylem apoplast and dropping xylem sap pH. We hypothesize that these two processes may be functionally linked as lower pH activates acidic invertases degrading sucrose and inducing accumulation of monosaccharides in xylem apoplast. Using a novel in vivo method to measure xylem apoplast pH, we show that pH drops from ~6...
May 17, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27171264/ischemic-postconditioning-protects-the-heart-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria
#19
L Hu, J Wang, H Zhu, X Wu, L Zhou, Y Song, S Zhu, M Hao, C Liu, Y Fan, Y Wang, Q Li
As a result of its spatial confinement in cardiomyocytes, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is thought to regulate mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function by maintaining nitroso-redox balance and Ca(2+) cycling. Thus, we hypothesize that ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) protects hearts against ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury through an nNOS-mediated pathway. Isolated mouse hearts were subjected to I/R injury in a Langendorff apparatus, H9C2 cells and primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161521/evaluation-of-a-new-concept-of-immune-enhancing-diet-in-a-model-of-head-injured-rat-with-infectious-complications-a-proof-of-concept-study
#20
Christine Charrueau, Christophe Moinard, Saskia Brinkmann, Caroline Choisy, Marie-José Butel, Michel-Francis Bureau, Servane Le Plénier, Françoise Brignole-Baudouin, Nathalie Neveux, Luc Cynober, Jean-Pascal De Bandt
Immune-enhancing diet (IED) utilization in critically ill septic patients is still debated. A new concept of IED has been proposed combining extra glutamine sequentially with either antioxidants or other amino acids, in order to match patient requirements according to their response to injury. We evaluated whether this new IED elicits a more favorable response to stress when compared with two existing IEDs both enriched in arginine but with different levels of anti-oxidants, in a validated rat model combining head injury (HI) and infectious complications...
April 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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