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Recovery and adaptation

Alessandro Innocenti, Sara Tanini, F Mori, D Melita, M Innocenti
INTRODUCTION: Genitalia are linked to self-esteem and male sexual identity, especially among young men, who sometimes require a surgical procedure to acquire more confidence. Among the surgical procedures requested for aesthetical purposes, circumcision is one of the most popular. Although it can be considered to be a simple surgical practice, it may cause severe complications such as penile skin necrosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a catastrophic situation after a circumcision performed on a 27-year-old HIV positive man resulted in a drastic reduction in the length of the penile shaft due to extensive skin loss; this was subsequently restored using dartos-fascio-myo-cutaneous flaps...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
J D Rodgers, E Simpkin, R Lee, F A Clifton-Hadley, A B Vidal
Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp...
October 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
J Slieker, P Frauche, J Jurt, V Addor, C Blanc, Nicolas Demartines, M Hübner
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway includes recovery goals requiring active participation of the patients; this may be perceived as "aggressive" care in older patients. The aim of the present study was to assess whether ERAS was feasible and beneficial in older patients. METHODS: Since June 2011, all consecutive colorectal patients were included in an ERAS pathway and documented in a dedicated prospective database. This retrospective analysis included 513 patients, 311 younger patients (<70 years) and 202 older patients (≥70 years)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Varja Knežević, Tanja Tunić, Pero Gajić, Patricija Marjan, Danko Savić, Dina Tenji, Ivana Teodorović
Recovery after exposure to herbicides-atrazine, isoproturon, and trifluralin-their binary and ternary mixtures, was studied under laboratory conditions using a slightly adapted standard protocol for Lemna minor. The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare empirical to predicted toxicity of selected herbicide mixtures; (2) to assess L. minor recovery potential after exposure to selected individual herbicides and their mixtures; and (3) to suggest an appropriate recovery potential assessment approach and endpoint in a modified laboratory growth inhibition test...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shauna M Baillie, Andrew M Muir, Michael J Hansen, Charles C Krueger, Paul Bentzen
BACKGROUND: Adaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes...
October 19, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Nikolai N Sluchanko, Konstantin E Klementiev, Evgeny A Shirshin, Georgy V Tsoraev, Thomas Friedrich, Eugene G Maksimov
In Cyanobacteria, the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and Fluorescence Recovery Protein (FRP) are central to the photoprotective mechanism consisting in regulated quenching of phycobilisome (PBs) fluorescence. Due to a transient and flexible nature of the light-activated red quenching form, OCP(R), which is obtained from the stable dark-adapted orange form, OCP(O), by photoconversion, the detailed mechanism of photoprotection remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that our recently described W288A mutant of the Synechocystis OCP (hereinafter called OCP(W288A)) is a fully functional analogue of the OCP(R) form which is capable of constitutive PBs fluorescence quenching in vitro with no need of photoactivation...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Julia A Sohn, Florian Hartig, Martin Kohler, Jürgen Huss, Jürgen Bauhus
Droughts and their negative effects on forest ecosystems are projected to increase under climate change for many regions. It has been suggested that intensive thinning could reduce drought impacts on established forests in the short-term. Most previous studies on the effect of thinning on drought impacts, however, have been confined to single forest sites. It is therefore still unclear how general and persisting the benefits of thinning are. This study assesses the potential of thinning to increase drought tolerance of the wide spread Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Central Europe...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Diane E Griffin
Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. This restricted response allows extensive virus replication and spread during a clinically silent latent period of 10-14 days...
October 12, 2016: Viruses
Wei Lu, Zhenhong Wang
The present studies examined the influence of extraversion on physiological reactivity, recovery, and physiological habituation-sensitization to repeated social stressors. In Study 1, subjective and physiological data were collected from 97 college students who were categorized as high (n = 51) and low (n = 46) on extraversion (NEO-FFI) across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress 1, poststress 1, stress 2, and poststress 2. Results indicated high extraversion (HE) participants exhibited relative lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawals to, and more complete HR and RSA recovery after the first social stress, and also exhibited relative lesser HR reactivity to the second social stress...
October 18, 2016: Psychophysiology
Adam J Toth, Laurence R Harris, John Zettel, Leah R Bent
Visuo-vestibular recalibration, in which visual information is used to alter the interpretation of vestibular signals, has been shown to influence both oculomotor control and navigation. Here we investigate whether vision can recalibrate the vestibular feedback used during the re-establishment of equilibrium following a perturbation. The perturbation recovery responses of nine participants were examined following exposure to a period of 11 s of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). During GVS in VISION trials, occlusion spectacles provided 4 s of visual information that enabled participants to correct for the GVS-induced tilt and associate this asymmetric vestibular signal with a visually provided 'upright'...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Xiaotao Ding, Yuping Jiang, Lizhong He, Qiang Zhou, Jizhu Yu, Dafeng Hui, Danfeng Huang
To investigate the physiological responses of plants to high root-zone temperature (HT, 35 °C) stress mitigated by exogenous glutathione (GSH), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to HT with or without GSH treatment for 4 days and following with 4 days of recovery. Plant physiological variables, growth, and gene expression related to antioxidant enzymes and Calvin cycle were quantified. The results showed that HT significantly decreased GSH content, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and related gene expression, shoot height, stem diameter, as well as dry weight...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
David A Shearer, William Sparkes, Jonny Northeast, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. DESIGN: This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. METHODS: Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Ji-Yeon Song, Kyung-Min Kim, Chang-Ha Lee
In this study, a novel operating strategy was developed to improve the separation performance of simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography by the simultaneous control of product outlet streams and feed inlet stream (SimCon). The SimCon operation can achieve a high separation performance without exceeding the maximum allowable pressure drop in an SMB system. The SimCon operation consisted of three steps within a single switching period: the initial, middle, and last steps. The extract port and feed-inlet port were closed at the initial step, but the raffinate port was closed at the last step...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Kristen T Crowell, David I Soybel, Charles H Lang
Muscle deconditioning is commonly observed in patients surviving sepsis. Little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms regulating muscle protein homeostasis during the recovery or convalescence phase. We adapted a sepsis-recovery mouse model that uses cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), followed 24 h later by cecal resection and antibiotic treatment, to identify putative cellular pathways regulating protein synthesis and breakdown in skeletal muscle. Ten days after CLP, body weight and food consumption did not differ between control and sepsis-recovery mice, but gastrocnemius weight was reduced...
October 5, 2016: Shock
Martin J MacInnis, Martin J Gibala
Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (VO2max ) and mitochondrial content...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Ahmad Chaddad, Camel Tanougast
To isolate the brain from non-brain tissues using a fully automatic method may be affected by the presence of radio frequency non-homogeneity of MR images (MRI), regional anatomy, MR sequences, and the subjects of the study. In order to automate the brain tumor (Glioblastoma) detection, we proposed a novel approach of skull stripping for axial slices derived from MRI. Then, the brain tumor was detected using multi-level threshold segmentation based on histogram analysis. Skull-stripping method, was applied by adaptive morphological operations approach...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Christoph Zinner, David Morales-Alamo, Niels Ørtenblad, Filip J Larsen, Tomas A Schiffer, Sarah J Willis, Miriam Gelabert-Rebato, Mario Perez-Valera, Robert Boushel, Jose A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Maria J S Guerreiro, Lisa Putzar, Brigitte Röder
Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that a brief period of congenital blindness induces long-lasting reorganization within the visual cortex of sight-recovery humans [1, 2]. However, the behavioral consequences of this cross-modal reorganization are not yet known. Here we investigated this question by examining the transfer of motion aftereffects across the visual and auditory modalities within six individuals who had been born blind due to dense bilateral cataracts and regained sight when they were treated at 5-24 months of age...
October 1, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Hung-Jui Tan, Siwei Xiong, Aaron A Laviana, Ryan J Chuang, Eric Treat, Patrick C Walsh, Jim C Hu
INTRODUCTION: Postprostatectomy incontinence significantly impairs quality of life. Although bladder neck intussusception has been reported to accelerate urinary recovery after open radical retropubic prostatectomy, its adaption to robotic surgery has not been assessed. Accordingly, we describe our technique and compare outcomes between men treated with and without bladder neck intussusception during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comparative trial of 48 men undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy alternating between bladder neck intussusception (n = 24) and nonintussusception (n = 24)...
October 12, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Na Sai, Wenjing Sun, Yuntang Wu, Zhong Sun, Guanggui Yu, Guowei Huang
A new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for atrazine was developed based on covalent bonding of the small molecule hapten, 2-mercaptopropionic acid-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (MPA-atrazine), to urea-glutaraldehyde (UGA)-treated microtiter plates. In this assay, the microtiter plate surface was treated with the UGA network to both introduce amino groups, which were used to cross-link with the hapten carboxylate groups, and efficiently prevent non-specific adsorption of antibodies, which successfully eliminated the time-consuming routine blocking step...
October 12, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
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