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Recovery and adaptation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668109/coevolution-of-virulence-and-immunosuppression-in-multiple-infections
#1
Tsukushi Kamiya, Nicole Mideo, Samuel Alizon
Many components of host-parasite interactions have been shown to affect the way virulence (i.e., parasite-induced harm to the host) evolves. However, coevolution of multiple parasite traits is often neglected. We explore how an immunosuppressive mechanism of parasites affects and coevolves with virulence through multiple infections. Applying the adaptive dynamics framework to epidemiological models with coinfection, we show that immunosuppression is a double-edgedsword for the evolution of virulence. On one hand, it amplifies the adaptive benefit of virulence by increasing the abundance of coinfections through epidemiological feedbacks...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665223/an-adaptive-semantic-matching-paradigm-for-reliable-and-valid-language-mapping-in-individuals-with-aphasia
#2
Stephen M Wilson, Melodie Yen, Dana K Eriksson
Research on neuroplasticity in recovery from aphasia depends on the ability to identify language areas of the brain in individuals with aphasia. However, tasks commonly used to engage language processing in people with aphasia, such as narrative comprehension and picture naming, are limited in terms of reliability (test-retest reproducibility) and validity (identification of language regions, and not other regions). On the other hand, paradigms such as semantic decision that are effective in identifying language regions in people without aphasia can be prohibitively challenging for people with aphasia...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665155/defining-mechanisms-of-neural-plasticity-after-brainstem-ischemia-in-rats
#3
Jens Minnerup, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Lydia Wachsmuth, Maike Hoppen, Antje Schmidt, Dirk M Hermann, Heinz Wiendl, Sven Meuth, Cornelius Faber, Kai Diederich, Wolf Rüdiger Schäbitz
OBJECTIVE: Neurological recovery after stroke mainly depends on the location of the lesion. A substantial portion of strokes affects the brainstem. However, patterns of neural plasticity following brainstem ischemia are almost unknown. METHODS: Here, we established a rat brainstem ischemia model that resembles key features of the human disease and investigated mechanisms of neural plasticity including neurogenesis and axonal sprouting as well as secondary neurodegeneration...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663142/do-we-need-a-cool-down-after-exercise-a-narrative-review-of-the-psychophysiological-effects-and-the-effects-on-performance-injuries-and-the-long-term-adaptive-response
#4
REVIEW
Bas Van Hooren, Jonathan M Peake
It is widely believed that an active cool-down is more effective for promoting post-exercise recovery than a passive cool-down involving no activity. However, research on this topic has never been synthesized and it therefore remains largely unknown whether this belief is correct. This review compares the effects of various types of active cool-downs with passive cool-downs on sports performance, injuries, long-term adaptive responses, and psychophysiological markers of post-exercise recovery. An active cool-down is largely ineffective with respect to enhancing same-day and next-day(s) sports performance, but some beneficial effects on next-day(s) performance have been reported...
April 16, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661230/a-comparison-of-methods-used-to-unveil-the-genetic-and-metabolic-pool-in-the-built-environment
#5
Cinta Gomez-Silvan, Marcus H Y Leung, Katherine A Grue, Randeep Kaur, Xinzhao Tong, Patrick K H Lee, Gary L Andersen
BACKGROUND: A majority of indoor residential microbes originate from humans, pets, and outdoor air and are not adapted to the built environment (BE). Consequently, a large portion of the microbes identified by DNA-based methods are either dead or metabolically inactive. Although many exceptions have been noted, the ribosomal RNA fraction of the sample is more likely to represent either viable or metabolically active cells. We examined methodological variations in sample processing using a defined, mock BE microbial community to better understand the scope of technique-based vs...
April 16, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660413/validation-of-french-upper-limb-erasmus-modified-nottingham-sensory-assessment-in-stroke
#6
Claire Villepinte, Emilie Catella, Magali Martin, Sylvie Hidalgo, Sabrina Téchené, Claire Lebely, Evelyne Castel-Lacanal, Xavier de Boissezon, HuiJun Chih, David Gasq
BACKGROUND: Somatosensory impairment of the upper limb (UL) occurs in approximately 50% of adults post-stroke, associated with loss of hand motor function, activity and participation. Measurement of UL sensory impairment is a component of rehabilitation contributing to the selection of sensorimotor techniques optimising recovery and providing a prognostic estimate of UL function. To date, no standardized official French version of a measure of somatosensory impairment has been established...
April 13, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658053/flow-and-air-conditioning-simulations-of-computer-turbinectomized-nose-models
#7
J Pérez-Mota, F Solorio-Ordaz, J Cervantes-de Gortari
Air conditioning for the human respiratory system is the most important function of the nose. When obstruction occurs in the nasal airway, turbinectomy is used to correct such pathology. However, mucosal atrophy may occur sometime after this surgery when it is overdone. There is not enough information about long-term recovery of nasal air conditioning performance after partial or total surgery. The purpose of this research was to assess if, based on the flow and temperature/humidity characteristics of the air intake to the choana, partial resection of turbinates is better than total resection...
April 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656980/the-recovery-curve-for-the-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-patient-reported-physical-function-and-pain-interference-computerized-adaptive-tests-after-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty
#8
Ryland Kagan, Mike B Anderson, Jesse C Christensen, Christopher L Peters, Jeremy M Gililland, Christopher E Pelt
BACKGROUND: We sought to characterize the typical recovery in physical function (PF) and pain interference (PI) after TKA using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. METHODS: Ninety-one patients were enrolled into an institutional review board -approved prospective observational study. PROs were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. PROs included the PROMIS PF computerized adaptive test (CAT) and the PROMIS PI CAT...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655371/platelet-derived-growth-factor-predicts-prolonged-relapse-free-period-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Ennio Iezzi, Girolama A Marfia, Ilaria Simonelli, Alessandra Musella, Georgia Mandolesi, Diego Fresegna, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Roberto Furlan, Annamaria Finardi, Giorgia Mataluni, Doriana Landi, Luana Gilio, Diego Centonze, Fabio Buttari
BACKGROUND: In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological paradox. Different factors may contribute to such discrepancy. In particular, synaptic plasticity may reduce the clinical expression of brain damage producing enduring enhancement of synaptic strength largely dependent on neurotrophin-induced protein synthesis. Cytokines released by the immune cells during acute inflammation can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity possibly influencing the clinical course of MS...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650336/acute-physiological-responses-to-low-intensity-blood-flow-restriction-cycling
#10
H J Thomas, B R Scott, J J Peiffer
OBJECTIVES: Blood flow restriction (BFR) during interval cycling may stimulate aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. However, acute physiological responses to BFR interval cycling have not been extensively investigated. DESIGN: Eighteen males completed low-intensity (LI), low-intensity with BFR (LIBFR ) and high-intensity (HI) interval cycling sessions in randomised and counterbalanced order. These included a standardised warm-up and three two-min intervals interspersed with two-min recovery...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648964/lc-ms-ms-based-determination-of-chloramphenicol-thiamphenicol-florfenicol-and-florfenicol-amine-in-poultry-meat-from-the-punjab-pakistan
#11
Muhammad Imran, Fazal-E- Habib, Saima Majeed, Abdul Tawab, Waqar Rauf, Moazur Rahman, Muhammad Umer, Mazhar Iqbal
A simple, reliable and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based confirmatory method was redeveloped and validated for the simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in chicken muscles. The analytes were extracted from minced chicken muscle with acetonitrile and ammoniated water mixture. A second extraction with ethyl acetate was followed by evaporation and dissolution of the residue in ammoniated methanol before defatting with n-hexane...
April 12, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630060/systematic-assessment-of-well-being-in-mice-for-procedures-using-general-anesthesia
#12
Katharina Hohlbaum, Bettina Bert, Silke Dietze, Rupert Palme, Heidrun Fink, Christa Thöne-Reineke
In keeping with the 3R Principle (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) developed by Russel and Burch, scientific research should use alternatives to animal experimentation whenever possible. When there is no alternative to animal experimentation, the total number of laboratory animals used should be the minimum needed to obtain valuable data. Moreover, appropriate refinement measures should be applied to minimize pain, suffering, and distress accompanying the experimental procedure. The categories used to classify the degree of pain, suffering, and distress are non-recovery, mild, moderate, or severe (EU Directive 2010/63)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629204/vats-group-eras-registry
#13
REVIEW
Jacopo Vannucci, Stefano Costi, Alberto Matricardi, Elisa Scarnecchia, Andrea Droghetti
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a multimodal, polyhedral approach to surgical management for patients undergoing surgical therapy. Since ERAS is not a specific procedure, these protocols are not exclusively created for particular clinical settings but they are prone to be adapted to a large variety of healthcare programs after surgery. ERAS Society was the platform in which a new multidisciplinary methodology to promote a fast recovery, a considerable patient involvement and resource optimization has been developed...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628307/a-stress-response-that-monitors-and-regulates-mrna-structure-is-central-to-cold-shock-adaptation
#14
Yan Zhang, David H Burkhardt, Silvi Rouskin, Gene-Wei Li, Jonathan S Weissman, Carol A Gross
Temperature influences the structural and functional properties of cellular components, necessitating stress responses to restore homeostasis following temperature shift. Whereas the circuitry controlling the heat shock response is well understood, that controlling the E. coli cold shock adaptation program is not. We found that during the growth arrest phase (acclimation) that follows shift to low temperature, protein synthesis increases, and open reading frame (ORF)-wide mRNA secondary structure decreases...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627884/the-influence-of-post-exercise-cold-water-immersion-on-adaptive-responses-to-exercise-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
James R Broatch, Aaron Petersen, David J Bishop
Post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) is used extensively in exercise training as a means to minimise fatigue and expedite recovery between sessions. However, debate exists around its merit in long-term training regimens. While an improvement in recovery following a single session of exercise may improve subsequent training quality and stimulus, reports have emerged suggesting CWI may attenuate long-term adaptations to exercise training. Recent developments in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle have provided potential mechanistic insight into the effects of CWI on training adaptations...
April 7, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627137/fatigue-insomnia-and-hot-flashes-after-definitive-radiochemotherapy-and-image-guided-adaptive-brachytherapy-for-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-an-analysis-from-the-embrace-study
#16
Stéphanie Smet, Richard Pötter, Christine Haie-Meder, Jacob C Lindegaard, Ina Schulz-Juergenliemk, Umesh Mahantshetty, Barbara Segedin, Kjersti Bruheim, Peter Hoskin, Bhavana Rai, Fleur Huang, Rachel Cooper, Erik van Limbergen, Kari Tanderup, Kathrin Kirchheiner
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pattern of manifestation of fatigue, insomnia and hot flashes within the prospective, observational, multi-center EMBRACE study. METHODS: Morbidity was prospectively assessed according to CTCAE v.3 and patient-reported outcome with EORTC QLQ-C30/CX24 at baseline and regular follow-up. Analyses of crude incidence, prevalence rates and actuarial estimates were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1176 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up of 27 months...
April 4, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616177/flat-incision-technique-for-reconstructive-brow-surgery-a-wound-healing-model-and-clinical-evaluation
#17
Dominik L Feinendegen, Mathias Tremp, J Camilo Roldán
Background: Skin incision is considered to be placed at 90° in reference to the skin to get perfect wound edge adaptation. The incision on hair-bearing tissues, as the scalp, is considered to be bevelled at 45° to promote hair growth through the scar. There is no consensus about the preferred incision angle on the brow. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the feasibility of the "flat incision technique" for brow repositioning, where brow deformation results after forehead reconstruction...
February 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610569/respiratory-motion-correction-for-compressively-sampled-free-breathing-cardiac-mri-using-smooth-l-1-norm-approximation
#18
Muhammad Bilal, Jawad Ali Shah, Ijaz M Qureshi, Kushsairy Kadir
Transformed domain sparsity of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has recently been used to reduce the acquisition time in conjunction with compressed sensing (CS) theory. Respiratory motion during MR scan results in strong blurring and ghosting artifacts in recovered MR images. To improve the quality of the recovered images, motion needs to be estimated and corrected. In this article, a two-step approach is proposed for the recovery of cardiac MR images in the presence of free breathing motion. In the first step, compressively sampled MR images are recovered by solving an optimization problem using gradient descent algorithm...
2018: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610337/human-bony-labyrinth-is-an-indicator-of-population-history-and-dispersal-from-africa
#19
Marcia S Ponce de León, Toetik Koesbardiati, John David Weissmann, Marco Milella, Carlos S Reyna-Blanco, Gen Suwa, Osamu Kondo, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Tim D White, Christoph P E Zollikofer
The dispersal of modern humans from Africa is now well documented with genetic data that track population history, as well as gene flow between populations. Phenetic skeletal data, such as cranial and pelvic morphologies, also exhibit a dispersal-from-Africa signal, which, however, tends to be blurred by the effects of local adaptation and in vivo phenotypic plasticity, and that is often deteriorated by postmortem damage to skeletal remains. These complexities raise the question of which skeletal structures most effectively track neutral population history...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608607/pharmacokinetics-adapted-busulfan-based-myeloablative-conditioning-before-unrelated-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation-for-myeloid-malignancies-in-children
#20
Joy Benadiba, Marc Ansari, Maja Krajinovic, Marie-France Vachon, Michel Duval, Pierre Teira, Sonia Cellot, Henrique Bittencourt
Unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an alternative to provide transplants in children with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who lack a related donor. Intravenous Busulfan (Bu) combined with therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dosing has been increasingly used, with more predictable bioavailability and better outcomes comparing to oral Bu. There is still an important variation in Bu pharmacokinetic between patients that is associated with an increased risk of toxicity and graft failure...
2018: PloS One
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