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Recovery and adaptation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924635/performance-feedback-self-esteem-and-cardiovascular-adaptation-to-recurring-stressors
#1
Eoin G Brown, Ann-Marie Creaven
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the effects of performance feedback and individual differences in self-esteem on cardiovascular habituation to repeat stress exposure. METHODS: Sixty-six university students (n = 39 female) completed a self-esteem measure and completed a cardiovascular stress-testing protocol involving repeated exposure to a mental arithmetic task. Cardiovascular functioning was sampled across four phases: resting baseline, initial stress exposure, a recovery period, and repeated stress exposure...
December 7, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924461/life-satisfaction-and-hemodynamic-reactivity-to-mental-stress
#2
Andreas Schwerdtfeger, Kerstin Gaisbachgrabner, Claudia Traunmüller
BACKGROUND: Satisfaction with life has been considered a health-protective variable, which could impact cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the physiological pathways involved in the potentially salutary effect of life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that life satisfaction should be associated with a cardiovascular response profile that signals challenge (i.e., higher cardiac output, lower peripheral resistance), rather than threat during a mental stress task...
December 6, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923267/sleep-and-processing-of-trauma-memories
#3
Ihori Kobayashi, Thomas A Mellman, Duaa Altaee, Mary Katherine Howell, Joseph Lavela
Sleep has been implicated in learning processes that appear to underlie recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The importance of quality and timing of sleep following exposure-based therapies has been suggested. The present study evaluated relationships between sleep and adaptive emotional processing following written narrative exposure (WNE) to memories of traumatic events experienced by participants with clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Participants included 21 urban-residing nontreatment-seeking adults with full or subthreshold symptoms of PTSD who completed 4 sessions of 30-min WNE with the first session either in the evening or the morning...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920937/conversion-technique-from-neuroendoscopy-to-microsurgery-in-ventricular-tumors-technical-note
#4
Pedro Henrique da C F Pinto, Flavio Nigri, Gabriel N Gobbi, Egas M Caparelli-Daquer
BACKGROUND: Ventricular tumors represent a major neurosurgical challenge, making endoscopic approach an invaluable tool as it gained importance due to technological advances. Nevertheless, the method is not exempt of risk and limitations, sometimes requiring an open surgery. Thus, initial measurements must be adopted in order to simplify an eventual need for conversion to open craniotomy. METHODS: Here, we describe a series of 6 patients with ventricular tumors approached by neuroendoscopy where the conversion to microsurgery turned out to be necessary...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920669/the-neurovestibular-challenges-of-astronauts-and-balance-patients-some-past-countermeasures-and-two-alternative-approaches-to-elicitation-assessment-and-mitigation
#5
REVIEW
Ben D Lawson, Angus H Rupert, Braden J McGrath
Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918483/a-fault-tolerance-mechanism-for-on-road-sensor-networks
#6
Lei Feng, Shaoyong Guo, Jialu Sun, Peng Yu, Wenjing Li
On-Road Sensor Networks (ORSNs) play an important role in capturing traffic flow data for predicting short-term traffic patterns, driving assistance and self-driving vehicles. However, this kind of network is prone to large-scale communication failure if a few sensors physically fail. In this paper, to ensure that the network works normally, an effective fault-tolerance mechanism for ORSNs which mainly consists of backup on-road sensor deployment, redundant cluster head deployment and an adaptive failure detection and recovery method is proposed...
December 3, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916799/pre-sleep-protein-ingestion-to-improve-the-skeletal-muscle-adaptive-response-to-exercise-training
#7
REVIEW
Jorn Trommelen, Luc J C van Loon
Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability...
November 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915058/larger-rate-dependence-of-late-sodium-current-in-cardiac-purkinje-cells-a-potential-link-to-arrhythmogenesis
#8
Wei Li, Ying Yu, Jian-Wen Hou, Zhi-Wen Zhou, Kai Guo, Peng-Pai Zhang, Zhi-Quan Wang, Jian-Hua Yan, Jian Sun, Qing Zhou, Yue-Peng Wang, Yi-Gang Li
BACKGROUND: Purkinje cells (PCs) have steeper rate-dependence of repolarization and are more susceptible to arrhythmic activity than ventricular myocytes (VMs). Late sodium current (INaL) is rate-dependent and contributes to rate-dependence of repolarization. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to test our hypothesis that PCs have larger rate-dependence of INaL, contributing to their steeper rate-dependence of repolarization and higher susceptibility to arrhythmic activity than VMs...
November 30, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913797/promoting-gait-recovery-and-limiting-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#9
Catherine Mercier, Meyke Roosink, Jason Bouffard, Laurent J Bouyer
Most persons living with a spinal cord injury experience neuropathic pain in the months following their lesion, at the moment where they receive intensive gait rehabilitation. Based on studies using animal models, it has been proposed that central sensitization in nociceptive pathways (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to motor learning (adaptive plasticity) share common neural mechanisms and compete with each other. This article aims to address the discrepancy between the growing body of basic science literature supporting this hypothesis and the general belief in rehabilitation research that pain and gait rehabilitation represent two independent problems...
December 2, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909435/immune-reconstitution-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Justyna Ogonek, Mateja Kralj Juric, Sakhila Ghimire, Pavankumar Reddy Varanasi, Ernst Holler, Hildegard Greinix, Eva Weissinger
The timely reconstitution and regain of function of a donor-derived immune system is of utmost importance for the recovery and long-term survival of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of note, new developments such as umbilical cord blood or haploidentical grafts were associated with prolonged immunodeficiency due to delayed immune reconstitution, raising the need for better understanding and enhancing the process of immune reconstitution and finding strategies to further optimize these transplant procedures...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909101/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#11
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important, because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher order areas for further processing and localization...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906279/adaptive-multifocus-image-fusion-using-block-compressed-sensing-with-smoothed-projected-landweber-integration-in-the-wavelet-domain
#12
Unni V S, Deepak Mishra, G R K S Subrahmanyam
The need for image fusion in current image processing systems is increasing mainly due to the increased number and variety of image acquisition techniques. Image fusion is the process of combining substantial information from several sensors using mathematical techniques in order to create a single composite image that will be more comprehensive and thus more useful for a human operator or other computer vision tasks. This paper presents a new approach to multifocus image fusion based on sparse signal representation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905155/optimising-qualitative-longitudinal-analysis-insights-from-a-study-of-traumatic-brain-injury-recovery-and-adaptation
#13
Joanna K Fadyl, Alexis Channon, Alice Theadom, Kathryn M McPherson
Knowledge about aspects that influence recovery and adaptation in the postacute phase of disabling health events is key to understanding how best to provide appropriate rehabilitation and health services. Qualitative longitudinal research makes it possible to look for patterns, key time points and critical moments that could be vital for interventions and supports. However, strategies that support robust data management and analysis for longitudinal qualitative research in health-care are not well documented in the literature...
November 30, 2016: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903631/genomics-of-compensatory-adaptation-in-experimental-populations-of-aspergillus-nidulans
#14
Jeremy R Dettman, Nicolas Rodrigue, Sijmen E Schoustra, Rees Kassen
Knowledge of the number and nature of genetic changes responsible for adaptation is essential for understanding and predicting evolutionary trajectories. Here, we study the genomic basis of compensatory adaptation to the fitness cost of fungicide resistance in experimentally evolved strains of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans The original selection experiment tracked the fitness recovery of lines founded by an ancestral strain that was resistant to fludioxonil, but paid a fitness cost in the absence of the fungicide...
November 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899291/dynamic-changes-in-sleep-pattern-during-post-partum-in-normal-pregnancy-in-rat-model
#15
Neelima Sivadas, Arathi Radhakrishnan, B S Aswathy, Velayudhan Mohan Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
To develop an animal model for studies on peri-partum sleep disorders, sleep patterns in female Wistar rats during pregnancy, post-partum and after weaning, were assessed and associated adaptive changes in their anxiety were examined. Adult nulliparous female rats, maintained in standard laboratory conditions with ad libitum food and water, were surgically implanted with electroencephalogram and electromyogram electrodes under anaesthesia for objective assessment of sleep-wakefulness (S-W). After post-surgical recovery, three control recordings of S-W were taken for 24h before the animals were kept for mating...
November 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898011/update-on-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-treatments-in-ischemic-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Alessandra Vecchié, Matteo Casula, Federico Carbone, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco
After an acute ischemic stroke (AIS), inflammatory processes are able to concomitantly induce both beneficial and detrimental effects. In this narrative review, we updated evidence on the inflammatory pathways and mediators that are investigated as promising therapeutic targets. We searched for papers on PubMed and MEDLINE up to August 2016. The terms searched alone or in combination were: ischemic stroke, inflammation, oxidative stress, ischemia reperfusion, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, autoimmunity...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896294/a-qualitative-assessment-of-return-to-sport-after-hip-arthroscopy-for-femoroacetabular-impingement
#17
Vehniah K Tjong, Charles J Cogan, Brett D Riederman, Michael A Terry
BACKGROUND: Hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is known to produce excellent outcomes, yet some patients do not return to their preinjury level of sport participation. Much literature on return to sport has revolved around anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and even shoulder instability, but none to date have used qualitative, semistructured patient interviews on patients with hip labral tears. PURPOSE: To understand the factors influencing the decision to return to sport after arthroscopic hip surgery for FAI...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895994/motion-corrected-fourier-ptychography
#18
Liheng Bian, Guoan Zheng, Kaikai Guo, Jinli Suo, Changhuei Yang, Feng Chen, Qionghai Dai
Fourier ptychography (FP) is a recently proposed computational imaging technique for high space-bandwidth product imaging. In real setups such as endoscope and transmission electron microscope, the common sample motion largely degrades the FP reconstruction and limits its practicability. In this paper, we propose a novel FP reconstruction method to efficiently correct for unknown sample motion. Specifically, we adaptively update the sample's Fourier spectrum from low spatial-frequency regions towards high spatial-frequency ones, with an additional motion recovery and phase-offset compensation procedure for each sub-spectrum...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895592/effects-of-six-months-training-on-physical-capacity-and-metaboreflex-activity-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Sara Magnani, Sergio Olla, Massimiliano Pau, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco, Azzurra Doneddu, Maura Marcelli, Andrea Loi, Federica Corona, Francesco Corona, Giancarlo Coghe, Maria G Marrosu, Alberto Concu, Eleonora Cocco, Elisabetta Marongiu, Antonio Crisafulli
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have an increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) response during the metaboreflex. It has been hypothesized that this is the consequence of a sedentary lifestyle secondary to MS. The purpose of this study was to discover whether a 6-month training program could reverse this hemodynamic dysregulation. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: the intervention group (MSIT, n = 11), who followed an adapted training program; and the control group (MSCTL, n = 10), who continued with their sedentary lifestyle...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#20
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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