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Recovery and adaptation

Francesco Corallo, Viviana Lo Buono, Marcella Di Cara, Simona De Salvo, Giuliana Vermiglio, Patrizia Pollicino, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino, Carmela Rifici
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, that implies neurobiologic, psychological, and social consequences. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an electro-clinical state associated to altered level of consciousness. In NCSE could occur the behavioural and emotional disorder, cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorder with a negative impact on quality of life and adaptive social behaviours. Cognitive rehabilitation for epileptic patients may include internal compensation strategies, external memory aids, psychoeducation, verbal and visual memory training, attention exercise and executive functions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Daniel R Coates, Dennis M Levi, Phanith Touch, Ramkumar Sabesan
Crowding is the substantial interference of neighboring items on target identification. Crowding with letter stimuli has been studied primarily in the visual periphery, with conflicting results for foveal stimuli. While a cortical locus for peripheral crowding is well established (with a large spatial extent up to half of the target eccentricity), disentangling the contributing factors in the fovea is more challenging due to optical limitations. Here, we used adaptive optics (AO) to overcome ocular aberrations and employed high-resolution stimuli to precisely characterize foveal lateral interactions with high-contrast letters flanked by letters...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adrian Derungs, Corina Schuster-Amft, Oliver Amft
Background: Longitudinal movement parameter analysis of hemiparetic patients over several months could reveal potential recovery trends and help clinicians adapting therapy strategies to maximize recovery outcome. Wearable sensors offer potential for day-long movement recordings in realistic rehabilitation settings including activities of daily living, e.g., walking. The measurement of walking-related movement parameters of affected and non-affected body sides are of interest to determine mobility and investigate recovery trends...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Christoph Schneider, Florian Hanakam, Thimo Wiewelhove, Alexander Döweling, Michael Kellmann, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer, Alexander Ferrauti
A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Seong Son, Sang Gu Lee, Woo Kyung Kim, Yong Ahn
BACKGROUND: To prevent the risk of iatrogenic instability after surgery for upper lumbar disc herniation, we adapted a microsurgical translaminar approach (key-hole laminotomy) which allows less destructive laminotomy. We present a microsurgical translaminar approach, and compare the results of the translaminar and interlaminar approaches. METHODS: A total of 48 patients who underwent single level discectomy in the upper lumbar spine (L1-2 or L2-3) were enrolled...
June 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ana L Faria, Mónica S Cameirão, Joana F Couras, Joana R O Aguiar, Gabriel M Costa, Sergi Bermúdez I Badia
Stroke is one of the most common causes of acquired disability, leaving numerous adults with cognitive and motor impairments, and affecting patients' capability to live independently. Virtual Reality (VR) based methods for stroke rehabilitation have mainly focused on motor rehabilitation but there is increasing interest toward the integration of cognitive training for providing more effective solutions. Here we investigate the feasibility for stroke recovery of a virtual cognitive-motor task, the Reh@Task, which combines adapted arm reaching, and attention and memory training...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sonja Kroschwald, Matthias C Munder, Shovamayee Maharana, Titus M Franzmann, Doris Richter, Martine Ruer, Anthony A Hyman, Simon Alberti
How cells adapt to varying environmental conditions is largely unknown. Here, we show that, in budding yeast, the RNA-binding and stress granule protein Pub1 has an intrinsic property to form condensates upon starvation or heat stress and that condensate formation is associated with cell-cycle arrest. Release from arrest coincides with condensate dissolution, which takes minutes (starvation) or hours (heat shock). In vitro reconstitution reveals that the different dissolution rates of starvation- and heat-induced condensates are due to their different material properties: starvation-induced Pub1 condensates form by liquid-liquid demixing and subsequently convert into reversible gel-like particles; heat-induced condensates are more solid-like and require chaperones for disaggregation...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
Nan Zhou, Yu-Tong Sun, Dong-Wei Chen, Wenbin Du, Hong Yang, Shuang-Jiang Liu
The termite gut microbiome is a model system to investigate microbial interactions and their associations with host. For decades, extensive research with molecular tools and conventional cultivation method has been carried out to define the microbial diversity in termite gut. Yet, many bacterial groups of the termite gut microbiome have not been successfully cultivated in laboratory. In this study, we adapted the recently developed microfluidic streak plate (MSP) technique for cultivation of termite gut microbial communities at both aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
June 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Monica A Daley
Birds are a diverse and agile lineage of vertebrates that all use bipedal locomotion for at least part of their life. Thus birds provide a valuable opportunity to investigate how biomechanics and sensorimotor control are integrated for agile bipedal locomotion. This review summarizes recent work using terrain perturbations to reveal neuromechanical control strategies used by ground birds to achieve robust, stable and agile running. Early experiments in running guinea fowl aimed to reveal the immediate intrinsic mechanical response to an unexpected drop ('pothole') in terrain...
June 12, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Anke Karl, Matthew J Williams, Jessica Cardy, Willem Kuyken, Catherine Crane
This paper explores the relationship between dispositional self-compassion and cognitive emotion regulation capacities in individuals with a history of depression. Study 1 (n = 403) established that self-compassion was associated with increased use of positive and decreased use of negative strategies, with small to medium sized correlations. Study 2 (n = 68) was an experimental study examining the association between dispositional self-compassion, use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and changes in mood and self-devaluation in participants exposed to a negative mood induction followed by mood repair (mindfulness, rumination, silence)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Stéphane Dubascoux, Daniel Andrey, Mario Vigo, Peter Kastenmayer, Eric Poitevin
Nutritional information about human milk is essential as early human growth and development have been closely linked to the status and requirements of several macro- and micro-elements. However, methods addressing whole mineral profiling in human milk have been scarce due in part to their technical complexities to accurately and simultaneously measure the concentration of micro- and macro-trace elements in low volume of human milk. In the present study, a single laboratory validation has been performed using a "dilute and shoot" approach for the quantification of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo) and iodine (I), in both human milk and milk preparations...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Francisco Lloret, Gerard Sapes, Teresa Rosas, Lucía Galiano, Sandra Saura-Mas, Anna Sala, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Background and Aims: The relationship between plant carbon economy and drought responses of co-occurring woody species can be assessed by comparing carbohydrate (C) dynamics following drought and rain periods, relating these dynamics to species' functional traits. We studied nine woody species coexisting in a continental Mediterranean shrubland that experienced severe drought effects followed by rain. Methods: We measured total non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and soluble sugars (SS) in roots and stems during drought and after an autumn rain pulse in plants exhibiting leaf loss and in undefoliated ones...
June 8, 2018: Annals of Botany
Grant E Norte, Jay N Hertel, Susan A Saliba, David R Diduch, Joseph M Hart
CONTEXT:   Central and peripheral neural adaptations have been identified after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction (ACLR) and are hypothesized to contribute to posttraumatic muscle dysfunction. Limited evidence exists about the temporal nature of neuromuscular adaptations during early and late-term phases of recovery after ACLR, and no researchers have studied patients with posttraumatic osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVE:   To compare quadriceps neuromuscular function less than 2 years ( early) and more than 2 years ( late) after ACLR, including in patients who experienced posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Marieli Araujo Rossoni Marcioli, José Luis da Conceição Silva, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini
Objective: To evaluate the neurotrophin mRNA expression and axon count in the median nerve of Wistar rats submitted to neural mobilization (NM) after nerve compression. Methods: Eighteen animals were randomly divided into G1 (nerve compression only), G2 (NM for 1 min), and G3 (NM for 3 min). For NM, the animals were anesthetized and the right scapula received the mobilization, adapted as indicated for humans, on alternate days, from the third to the 13th postoperative (PO) day, totaling six days of therapy...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Dinghai Zheng, Ruijia Wang, Qingbao Ding, Tianying Wang, Bingning Xie, Lu Wei, Zhaohua Zhong, Bin Tian
Most eukaryotic genes express alternative polyadenylation (APA) isoforms with different 3'UTR lengths, production of which is influenced by cellular conditions. Here, we show that arsenic stress elicits global shortening of 3'UTRs through preferential usage of proximal polyadenylation sites during stress and enhanced degradation of long 3'UTR isoforms during recovery. We demonstrate that RNA-binding protein TIA1 preferentially interacts with alternative 3'UTR sequences through U-rich motifs, correlating with stress granule association and mRNA decay of long 3'UTR isoforms...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Tokihiro Yamamoto, Sven Kabus, Matthieu Bal, Karl Bzdusek, Paul J Keall, Cari Wright, Stanley H Benedict, Megan E Daly
PURPOSE: Lung functional image guided radiation therapy (RT) that avoids irradiating highly functional regions has potential to reduce pulmonary toxicity following RT. Tumor regression during RT is common, leading to recovery of lung function. We hypothesized that computed tomography (CT) ventilation image-guided treatment planning reduces the functional lung dose compared to standard anatomic image-guided planning in 2 different scenarios with or without plan adaptation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: CT scans were acquired before RT and during RT at 2 time points (16-20 Gy and 30-34 Gy) for 14 patients with locally advanced lung cancer...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jayne M Jeffries
The paper explores the concept of recovery; the unexpected material changes that occur to, and within bodies following acquired spinal conditions. The phrase 'acquired spinal conditions' is used as a collective name for the four accounts of recovery that emerged using Participatory Action Research in the north east of England (2010-11). Using two qualitative methods, Photovoice and participatory diagramming, the empirical material examines the role of physiological changes as a way to enrich understandings of disability and the bodily experience of impairment...
April 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Nada Andelic, Emilie I Howe, Torgeir Hellstrøm, Maria Fernandez Sanchez, Juan Lu, Marianne Løvstad, Cecilie Røe
OBJECTIVES: The study describes functional outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) 20 years postinjury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four survivors who acquired moderate and severe TBI during 1995-1996 were followed 10 and 20 years postinjury. Outcomes were Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ), and SF-36 questionnaire (SF-36). Multiple regressions were performed to examine the relationship between follow-up measurements, controlling for baseline demographics and injury severity...
June 11, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Sayoko Ihara, Kazushige Touhara
Like in other sensory systems, adaptation is an essential process in the olfactory system, required for its proper functioning. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the adaptation process has not been fully understood, especially at the receptor level. Here, we describe methods to evaluate the role of GRK3, one of the members of the GRK family responsible for the desensitization of non-olfactory G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), in desensitization of olfactory receptor (OR) using a heterologous expression system...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mohammad Afzal Khan, Fatimah Alanazi, Hala Abdalrahman Ahmed, Axel Vater, Abdullah Mohammed Assiri, Dieter Clemens Broering
Microvascular injury during acute rejection has been associated with massive infiltration of CD4+ T effector cells, and the formation of complement products (C3a and C5a). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent immunosuppressors of the adaptive immune system and have proven sufficient to rescue microvascular impairments. Targeting C5a has been linked with improved microvascular recovery, but its effects on the Treg and T effector balance is less well known. Here, we demonstrate the impact of C5a blockade on Treg induction and microvascular restoration in rejecting mouse airway allografts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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