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Cardiac parasympathetic function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785749/cardiac-vagal-regulation-in-infancy-predicts-executive-function-and-social-competence-in-preschool-indirect-effects-through-language
#1
Margaret Whedon, Nicole B Perry, Susan D Calkins, Martha A Bell
Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775234/effects-of-whole-body-vibration-on-heart-rate-variability-acute-responses-and-training-adaptations
#2
REVIEW
Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive and practical measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system function, mainly the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations of heart rate. A low HRV has been shown to be indicative of compromised cardiovascular health. Interventions that enhance HRV are therefore beneficial to cardiovascular health. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has been proposed as an alternative time-efficient exercise intervention for the improvement of cardiovascular health. In this review, we discuss the effect of WBV both acute and after training on HRV...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756411/hexarelin-treatment-preserves-myocardial-function-and-reduces-cardiac-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#3
Hayley McDonald, Jason Peart, Nyoman Kurniawan, Graham Galloway, Simon Royce, Chrishan S Samuel, Chen Chen
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) have been shown to improve cardiac function in models of IHD. This study determined whether hexarelin (HEX), a synthetic GHS, preserves cardiac function and morphology in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced by ligation of the left descending coronary artery in C57BL/6J mice followed by vehicle (VEH; n = 10) or HEX (0.3 mg/kg/day; n = 11) administration for 21 days...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731622/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-severity-and-its-association-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-impact-on-cardiac-autonomic-modulation-and-functional-capacity
#4
Katiany Thays Lopes Zangrando, Renata Trimer, Luiz Carlos Soares de Carvalho, Guilherme Peixoto Tinoco Arêas, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, Meliza Goi Roscani, Fabíola Paula Galhardo Rizzatti, Audrey Borghi-Silva
Background: The study was conducted to determine the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in association with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on cardiac autonomic control and functional capacity. Subjects and methods: The study was a cross-sectional prospective controlled clinical study. Heart rate variability indices of 24 COPD (n = 12) and COPD+OSAS (n = 12) patients were evaluated and compared by electrocardiographic recordings acquired during rest, active postural maneuver (APM), respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (RSA-m), and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729158/-functional-state-of-autonomous-regulation-in-girls-of-reproductive-age-depending-on-the-component-body-composition
#5
Oksana P Kentesh, Marianna I Nemesh, Olga S Palamarchuk, Volodymyr P Feketa, Julianna M Savka
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Today there is no data on the relationship between body mass index (BMI), total body fat (TBF), visceral fat content (VFC), and the nonfat mass (NFM) content with ANS indices. The aim:To reveal the relationship between the indicators of the functional state of the ANS and body composition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The subject of this study were 34 young women with age from 18 to 25. The weight and the indices of body composition were measured by bodyanalizator Tanita BC-601...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719920/quantification-of-the-central-cardiovascular-network-applying-the-normalized-short-time-partial-directed-coherence-approach-in-healthy-subjects
#6
Steffen Schulz, Mathias Bolz, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Andreas Voss
BACKGROUND: The central control of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the complex interplay of its components can be described by a functional integrated mode - the central autonomic network (CAN). CAN represents the integrated functioning and interaction between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS (parasympathetic and sympathetic activity). OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the central cardiovascular network (CCVN) as a part of the CAN, during which heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SYS) and frontal EEG activity in 21 healthy subjects (CON) will be analysed...
May 2018: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702382/flexible-multichannel-vagus-nerve-electrode-for-stimulation-and-recording-for-heart-failure-treatment
#7
Ning Xue, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Jianhai Sun, Yuhua Cheng, Chunxiu Liu
Vagus nerve stimulation is an emerging bioelectronic medicine to modulate cardiac function, as the nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the heart. In this study, we developed a polyimide based 2D cuff electrode to wrap around on the vagus nerve. Thanks to the tiny size and bendable protruding structure of the contact tips of the device, the electrode sites are able to flexibly bend to touch the nerve, selectively record and stimulate the vagus nerve. Gold, platinum and platinum black materials were chosen to compose the electrodes for nerve stimulation and recording, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685473/acute-pediatric-colchicine-toxicity-is-associated-with-marked-bradydysrhythmias
#8
Lamya Mubayed, Brie-Ann A Muller, Jessica L Jacobson, Howard A Hast, Hoang H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Colchicine ingestion is rare but highly lethal. Patients usually die of multiorgan failure and cardiogenic shock. Colchicine is not only associated with depressed myocardial function but also with fatal heart rhythm disturbances, such as complete heart block, ventricular tachycardia, and asystole. While histologic changes of myocytes are well known, the mechanism by which colchicine affects cardiac impulse generation and conduction is not fully understood. CASE REPORT: We present a case of colchicine ingestion with sinus bradycardia, marked sinus arrhythmia, and first- and second-degree heart block...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668674/the-influences-of-the-m2r-girk4-rgs6-dependent-parasympathetic-pathway-on-electrophysiological-properties-of-the-mouse-heart
#9
Kanchan Kulkarni, Xueyi Xie, Ezequiel Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Allison Anderson, Kirill A Martemyanov, Kevin Wickman, Elena G Tolkacheva
A large body of work has established the prominent roles of the atrial M2R-IKACh signaling pathway, and the negative regulatory protein RGS6, in modulating critical aspects of parasympathetic influence on cardiac function, including pace-making, heart rate (HR) variability (HRV), and atrial arrhythmogenesis. Despite increasing evidence of its innervation of the ventricles, and the expression of M2R, IKACh channel subunits, and RGS6 in ventricle, the effects of parasympathetic modulation on ventricular electrophysiology are less clear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653111/a-brain-within-the-heart-a-review-on-the-intracardiac-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
Isabel Durães Campos, Vitor Pinto, Nuno Sousa, Vitor H Pereira
Cardiac function is under the control of the autonomic nervous system, composed by the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions, which are finely tuned at different hierarchical levels. While a complex regulation occurs in the central nervous system involving the insular cortex, the amygdala and the hypothalamus, a local cardiac regulation also takes place within the heart, driven by an intracardiac nervous system. This complex system consists of a network of ganglionic plexuses and interconnecting ganglions and axons...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627871/autonomic-regulation-and-ventricular-arrhythmias
#11
REVIEW
Lingjin Meng, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi Ajijola
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) has a crucial role of regulating cardiac function in the physiological state and contributes to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in the diseased state. The cardiac neuraxis consists of multiple feedback loops consisting of efferent and afferent limbs, mediating neurotransmission to and from the heart. Efferent parasympathetic neurotransmission is mediated by the vagus nerve, while paravertebral sympathetic ganglia relay efferent sympathetic neurotransmission to the heart. The association between autonomic activity and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) has been studied extensively in both experimental models and humans...
April 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623050/linear-and-nonlinear-analyses-of-the-cardiac-autonomic-control-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-case-control-study
#12
Jorge L Cavalcante Neto, Antonio R Zamunér, Bianca C Moreno, Ester Silva, Eloisa Tudella
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and children at risk for DCD (r-DCD) present motor impairments interfering in their school, leisure and daily activities. In addition, these children may have abnormalities in their cardiac autonomic control, which together with their motor impairments, restrict their health and functionality. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the cardiac autonomic control, by linear and nonlinear analysis, at supine and during an orthostatic stimulus in DCD, r-DCD and typically developed children...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607742/evaluation-of-cardiac-autonomic-functions-in-myasthenia-gravis
#13
Zehra Uysal Kocabas, Ferah Kizilay, Ibrahim Basarici, Hilmi Uysal
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to comprehensively evaluate cardiac autonomic function in patients with MG and to investigate the relationship between this disorder and disease duration, thymoma and acetylcholine receptor antibody positivity in cases of cardiac autonomic disorder. METHODS: The study included 30 patients with MG and 30 age-matched healthy control subjects. Haemodynamic parameters (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and autonomic parameters (low frequency [LF], high-frequency [HF], sympathovagal balance [LF/HF], baroreceptor reflex sensitivity [BRS]) of the patients were automatically measured at rest and in a tilted position with the Task Force Monitor...
April 2, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595708/brain-heart-pathways-to-blood-pressure-related-hypoalgesia
#14
Cristina Ottaviani, Sabrina Fagioli, Eugenio Mattei, Federica Censi, Louisa Edwards, Emiliano Macaluso, Marco Bozzali, Hugo Critchley, Giovanni Calcagnini
OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity, known as BP-related hypoalgesia. The underlying neural mechanisms remain uncertain, yet arterial baroreceptor signaling, occurring at cardiac systole, is implicated. We examined normotensives using functional neuroimaging (fMRI) and pain stimulation during distinct phases of the cardiac cycle to test the hypothesized neural mediation of baroreceptor-induced attenuation of pain. METHODS: Eighteen participants (10 women; 32...
March 28, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545976/improvements-in-negative-parenting-mediate-changes-in-children-s-autonomic-responding-following-a-preschool-intervention-for-adhd
#15
Ziv Bell, Tiffany Shader, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, M Jamila Reid, Theodore P Beauchaine
Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic- linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children, and mark deficiencies in central nervous system regulation of behavior and emotion. Although changes in these biomarkers have been observed following treatment, mechanisms remain unexplored. We used MEMORE-a new approach to analyzing intervening variable effects-to evaluate improvements in parenting as mediators of changes in SNS- and PNS-linked cardiac activity and reactivity among 99 preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treated using an empirically supported intervention...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535634/effect-of-shallow-and-deep-scuba-dives-on-heart-rate-variability
#16
Yeonsik Noh, Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Yan Bai, Joseph White, John P Florian, Peter R Brink, Ki H Chon
Prolonged and high pressure diving may lead to various physiological changes including significant alterations of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity that may be associated with altered physical performance, decompression sickness, or central nervous system oxygen toxicity. Ideally, researchers could elucidate ANS function before, during, and after dives that are most associated with altered function and adverse outcomes. However, we have a limited understanding of the activities of the ANS especially during deeper prolonged SCUBA diving because there has never been a convenient way to collect physiological data during deep dives...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507882/cardiorespiratory-interactions-previously-identified-as-mammalian-are-present-in-the-primitive-lungfish
#17
Diana A Monteiro, Edwin W Taylor, Marina R Sartori, André L Cruz, Francisco T Rantin, Cleo A C Leite
The present study has revealed that the lungfish has both structural and functional features of its system for physiological control of heart rate, previously considered solely mammalian, that together generate variability (HRV). Ultrastructural and electrophysiological investigation revealed that the nerves connecting the brain to the heart are myelinated, conferring rapid conduction velocities, comparable to mammalian fibers that generate instantaneous changes in heart rate at the onset of each air breath...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500542/cardiac-autonomic-function-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Kotb Abbass Metwalley, Sherifa Ahmed Hamed, Hekma Saad Farghaly
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a major complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study aimed to evaluate cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in children with T1D and its relation to different demographic, clinical and laboratory variable. This cross-sectional study included 60 children with T1D (mean age = 15.1 ± 3.3 years; duration of diabetes = 7.95 ± 3.83 years). The following 8 non-invasive autonomic testing were used for evaluation: heart rate at rest and in response to active standing (30:15 ratio), deep breathing and Valsalva maneuver (indicating parasympathetic function); blood pressure response to standing (orthostatic hypotension or OH), sustained handgrip and cold; and heart rate response to standing or positional orthostatic tachycardia syndrome or POTs (indicating sympathetic function)...
June 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470149/chronic-complete-cervical-6-7-cord-transection-distinct-autonomic-and-cardiac-deficits
#19
Heidi L Lujan, Anne Tonson, Robert W Wiseman, Stephen E DiCarlo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in tetraplegia is a devastating, life-changing insult causing paralysis and sensory impairment as well as distinct autonomic dysfunction that triggers compromised cardiovascular, bowel, bladder and sexual activity. Life becomes a battle for independence as even routine bodily functions and the smallest activity of daily living become a major challenge. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a chronic pre-clinical model of tetraplegia. This report addresses this critical need by comparing, for the first time, resting, reflex and stress-induced cardiovascular, autonomic and hormonal responses each week for 4 weeks in 12 sham-operated intact rats and 12 rats with chronic, complete C6-7 spinal cord transection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453470/nerve-conduction-and-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-hypothyroidism-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-eastern-nepal
#20
Shital Gupta, Rita Khadka, Dilip Thakur, Robin Maskey, K D Mehta, B H H Paudel
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormone effects on many organs including central and peripheral nervous systems. However, these hormones do not affect all systems/organs to a similar extent. Thus, we conducted this study to explore the effect of thyroid hormones on somatic nervous system assessed by Nerve conduction study and cardiac autonomic activity assessed by heart rate variability. METHODS: The study included newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients and healthy controls...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
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