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Cardiac parasympathetic function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630583/acute-modification-of-cardiac-autonomic-function-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-collegiate-male-soccer-players-with-different-chronotype-a-cross-over-study
#1
Matteo Bonato, Luca Agnello, Letizia Galasso, Angela Montaruli, Eliana Roveda, Giampiero Merati, Antonio La Torre, Jacopo A Vitale
The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m.) and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types) were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629735/chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-enhances-sympathetic-activities-associated-with-abnormality-of-baroreflex-function-in-conscious-normal-rats
#2
Ling-Zong Hong, Keh-Feng Huang, Siu-Wan Hung, Li-Te Kuo
Data regarding the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are a common type of antidepressants, on cardiovascular autonomic function are inconsistent. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of chronic fluoxetine, an SSRI, on blood pressure, cardiac autonomic nervous activities and baroreflex control of heart rate. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg·day, p.o.) or saline for 14 weeks. Baroreflex function was determined by the sigmoid logistic method based on the heart rate responses to changes in blood pressure elicited by phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside infusions...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#3
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605971/impaired-baroreflex-function-during-orthostatic-challenge-in-patients-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Katarina Ondrusova, Jana Svacinova, Michal Javorka, Jan Novak, Marie Novakova, Zuzana Novakova
The level of spinal cord injury (SCI) affects baroreflex regulation of blood pressure (BP). While a parasympathetic cardiac chronotropic effect is preserved, baroreflex response could be impaired by sympathetic dysfunction under the SCI level. This study was aimed to evaluate the baroreflex function in SCI patients by the analysis of causal interaction between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inter-beat intervals (IBI). BP was continuously recorded in 13 cervical SCI patients (CSCI), 9 thoracic SCI (ThSCI) and 13 able-bodied controls (Con) during two phases: sitting (PS) and orthostatic challenge (PO)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548300/first-night-effect-on-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-different-female-reproductive-states
#5
Irina Virtanen, Nea Kalleinen, Anna S Urrila, Päivi Polo-Kantola
Decreases in heart rate variability, a marker of autonomic nervous system function, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate variability increases in non-rapid eye movement sleep, peaking in slow-wave sleep. Therefore, decreasing the amount of deep sleep, for example, by introducing patients to a sleep laboratory environment, could decrease heart rate variability, increasing cardiovascular risk. We studied four groups of women with no previous sleep laboratory experience: young [n = 11, 23...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533740/correlation-of-ventricular-arrhythmogenesis-with-neuronal-remodeling-of-cardiac-postganglionic-parasympathetic-neurons-in-the-late-stage-of-heart-failure-after-myocardial-infarction
#6
Dongze Zhang, Huiyin Tu, Chaojun Wang, Liang Cao, Robert L Muelleman, Michael C Wadman, Yu-Long Li
Introduction: Ventricular arrhythmia is a major cause of sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Our recent study demonstrates that N-type Ca(2+) currents in intracardiac ganglionic neurons are reduced in the late stage of CHF rats. Rat intracardiac ganglia are divided into the atrioventricular ganglion (AVG) and sinoatrial ganglion. Only AVG nerve terminals innervate the ventricular myocardium. In this study, we tested the correlation of electrical remodeling in AVG neurons with ventricular arrhythmogenesis in CHF rats...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493111/parasympathetic-regulation-and-inhibitory-control-predict-the-development-of-externalizing-problems-in-early-childhood
#7
Sarah Kahle, William T Utendale, Keith F Widaman, Paul D Hastings
The current report examined the longitudinal relations between cognitive self-regulation, physiological self-regulation, and externalizing problems. At age 4 (n = 98; 49 girls) and 6 (n = 87; 42 girls), children completed the Day-Night task, which taps the inhibitory control dimension of executive function. During the task, cardiac activity was measured and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was derived as an index of parasympathetic activity. Mothers reported on externalizing problems. A cross-lagged path model was used to estimate longitudinal predictions while controlling for stability in all constructs over time...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483340/cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Juan Gui, Rui-Hao Wang
Recent studies reveal that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) might be associated with cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, but with inconsistent results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to study whether women with PCOS have cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and SCOPUS were searched for studies comparing cardiovascular function between women with PCOS and controls. A random-effects model was used to evaluate cardiac autonomic modulation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) between women with PCOS and controls...
April 7, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480694/long-term-high-intensity-sport-practice-modulates-adaptative-changes-in-athletes-heart-and-in-the-autonomic-nervous-system-profile
#9
Witold Slomko, Joanna Slomko, Tomasz Kowalik, Jacek J Klawe, Malgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Julia L Newton, Pawel Zalewski
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic adaptation changes in athletes exposed to high intensity and uninterrupted training for extended periods of time. METHODS: We assessed hemodynamic profile and cardiac function in 22 international master-level athletes, free of cardiovascular disease who experienced particularly intensive and uninterrupted training over a 8- to 21-year-period. RESULTS: One-way ANOVA revealed that in athletes, extreme and uninterrupted strength and endurance training over long periods of time (up to 21 years) causes an increase in resting heart rate (50...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472396/chronic-activation-of-hypothalamic-oxytocin-neurons-improves-cardiac-function-during-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-induced-heart-failure
#10
Kara Garrott, Jhansi Dyavanapalli, Edmund Cauley, Mary Kate Dwyer, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Xin Wang, David Mendelowitz, Matthew Kay
AIMS: A distinctive hallmark of heart failure (HF) is autonomic imbalance, consisting of increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic tone. Recent work suggests that activation of hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) neurons could improve autonomic balance during HF. We hypothesized that a novel method of chronic selective activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons will improve cardiac function and reduce inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trans-ascending aortic constriction (TAC) to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy that progresses to HF...
May 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469730/reduced-vagal-tone-in-women-with-the-fmr1-premutation-is-associated-with-fmr1-mrna-but-not-depression-or-anxiety
#11
Jessica Klusek, Giuseppe LaFauci, Tatyana Adayev, W Ted Brown, Flora Tassone, Jane E Roberts
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction is implicated in a range of psychological conditions, including depression and anxiety. The fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) premutation is a common genetic mutation that affects ~1:150 women and is associated with psychological vulnerability. This study examined cardiac indicators of autonomic function among women with the FMR1 premutation and control women as potential biomarkers for psychological risk that may be linked to FMR1. METHODS: Baseline inter-beat interval and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (a measure of parasympathetic vagal tone) were measured in 35 women with the FMR1 premutation and 28 controls...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449242/resting-sympathetic-arousal-moderates-the-association-between-parasympathetic-reactivity-and-working-memory-performance-in-adults-reporting-high-levels-of-life-stress
#12
Ryan J Giuliano, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Leslie E Roos, Elizabeth A Skowron
The neurovisceral integration model stipulates that autonomic function plays a critical role in the regulation of higher-order cognitive processes, yet most work to date has examined parasympathetic function in isolation from sympathetic function. Furthermore, the majority of work has been conducted on normative samples, which typically demonstrate parasympathetic withdrawal to increase arousal needed to complete cognitive tasks. Little is known about how autonomic regulation supports cognitive function in populations exposed to high levels of stress, which is critical given that chronic stress exposure alters autonomic function...
April 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440954/heart-rate-variability-indices-as-predictors-of-the-response-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#13
Hongyun Liu, Zhao Yang, Lei Huang, Wei Qu, Hongwei Hao, Luming Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess heart-rate variability (HRV) measures of interictal electrocardiography (ECG) for drug-resistant epilepsy and to relate the findings to the outcome of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) treatment. METHODS: Time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear analyses were used to analyze preoperative HRV measures in 32 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who had received VNS implants at the same hospital and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436092/effects-of-creatine-supplementation-on-cardiac-autonomic-functions-in-bodybuilders
#14
Kadir Uğur Mert, Serdar Ilgüy, Muhammet Dural, Gurbet Özge Mert, Engin Özakin
Bodybuilder-type workouts may affect heart rate variability (HRV), which has considerable potential to assess the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS). A scientifically designed approach is necessary for bodybuilders to achieve better results while protecting their health. In this study, we aimed to investigate HRV parameters in bodybuilders compared to healthy control subjects and effects of creatine supplementation. A total of 48 male participants (16 controls, 16 supplement (-), 16 supplement (+)) were evaluated in our study...
April 24, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408652/premature-ventricular-contraction-coupling-interval-variability-destabilizes-cardiac-neuronal-and-electrophysiological-control-insights-from-simultaneous-cardioneural-mapping
#15
David Hamon, Pradeep S Rajendran, Ray W Chui, Olujimi A Ajijola, Tadanobu Irie, Ramin Talebi, Siamak Salavatian, Marmar Vaseghi, Jason S Bradfield, J Andrew Armour, Jeffrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
BACKGROUND: Variability in premature ventricular contraction (PVC) coupling interval (CI) increases the risk of cardiomyopathy and sudden death. The autonomic nervous system regulates cardiac electrical and mechanical indices, and its dysregulation plays an important role in cardiac disease pathogenesis. The impact of PVCs on the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, a neural network on the heart, remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of PVCs and CI on intrinsic cardiac nervous system function in generating cardiac neuronal and electric instability using a novel cardioneural mapping approach...
April 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406700/moderate-exercise-based-on-artificial-gravity-preserves-orthostatic-tolerance-and-exercise-capacity-during-short-term-head-down-bed-rest
#16
Xiao-Tao Li, Chang-Bin Yang, Yong-Sheng Zhu, Jing Sun, Fei Shi, Yong-Chun Wang, Yuan Gao, Jiang-Dong Zhao, Xi-Qing Sun
Numerous countermeasures have been proposed to minimize microgravity-induced physical deconditioning, but their benefits are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether personalized aerobic exercise based on artificial gravity (AG) mitigates multisystem physical deconditioning. Fourteen men were assigned to the control group (n=6) and the countermeasure group (CM, n=8). Subjects in the CM group were exposed to AG (2Gz at foot level) for 30 min twice daily, during which time cycling exercise of 80-95% anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity was undertaken...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386233/elastase-2-a-tissue-alternative-pathway-for-angiotensin-ii-generation-plays-a-role-in-circulatory-sympathovagal-balance-in-mice
#17
Christiane Becari, Marina T Durand, Alessander O Guimaraes, Renata M Lataro, Cibele M Prado, Mauro de Oliveira, Sarai C O Candido, Paloma Pais, Mauricio S Ribeiro, Michael Bader, Joao B Pesquero, Maria C O Salgado, Helio C Salgado
In vitro and ex vivo experiments indicate that elastase-2 (ELA-2), a chymotrypsin-serine protease elastase family member 2A, is an alternative pathway for angiotensin II (Ang II) generation. However, the role played by ELA-2 in vivo is unclear. We examined ELA-2 knockout (ELA-2KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice and determined whether ELA-2 played a role in hemodynamics [arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR)], cardiocirculatory sympathovagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity. The variability of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and pulse interval (PI) for evaluating autonomic modulation was examined for time and frequency domains (spectral analysis), whereas a symbolic analysis was also used to evaluate PI variability...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321682/recent-advances-and-clinical-applications-of-pet-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-imaging
#18
REVIEW
Nabil E Boutagy, Albert J Sinusas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarize current advances in positron emission tomography (PET) cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) imaging, with a specific focus on clinical applications of novel and established tracers. RECENT FINDINGS: [(11)C]-Meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has provided useful information in evaluation of normal and pathological cardiovascular function. Recently, [(11)C]-HED PET imaging was able to predict lethal arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death (SCD), and all-cause mortality in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
April 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296184/long-term-administration-of-pyridostigmine-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-inhibiting-calcineurin-signalling
#19
Yi Lu, Ming Zhao, Jin-Jun Liu, Xi He, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Long-Zhu Liu, Lei Sun, Li-Na Chen, Wei-Jin Zang
Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with autonomic imbalance, characterized by enhanced sympathetic activity and withdrawal of parasympathetic control. Increased parasympathetic function improves ventricular performance. However, whether pyridostigmine, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, can offset cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether pyridostigmine can ameliorate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying mechanisms...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285240/sudarshan-kriya-yoga-improves-cardiac-autonomic-control-in-patients-with-anxiety-depression-disorders
#20
Edgar Toschi-Dias, Eleonora Tobaldini, Monica Solbiati, Giorgio Costantino, Roberto Sanlorenzo, Stefania Doria, Floriana Irtelli, Claudio Mencacci, Nicola Montano
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that adjuvant therapies as exercise and breathing training are effective in improving cardiac autonomic control (CAC) in patients with affective spectrum disorders. However, the effects of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) on autonomic function in this population is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that SKY training improves CAC and cardiorespiratory coupling in patients with anxiety and/or depression disorders. METHODS: Forty-six patients with a diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression disorders (DSM-IV) were consecutively enrolled and divided in two groups: 1) conventional therapy (Control) and 2) conventional therapy associated with SKY (Treatment) for 15 days...
May 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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