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Cardiac parasympathetic function

Jacinthe Leclerc, Marie Arsenault, Jean-Pierre Després, Patrice Brassard, Valérie Gaudreault, Jean Bergeron, Natalie Alméras, Angelo Tremblay, Audrey Auclair, Marie-Kristelle Ross, Stéphanie Denault-Bissonnette, Paul Poirier
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity and presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with cardiac abnormalities. Among those, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is the most frequently encountered in clinical practice. Few studies evaluated the reversibility of LVDD by an approach promoting lifestyle modifications in abdominally obese subjects with MetS. METHODS: We assessed the impact of a 1-year lifestyle modification program combining nutritional and physical activity counseling on LVDD and metabolic profile of abdominally obese men with MetS...
October 18, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Nicole Kurhanewicz, Rachel McIntosh-Kastrinsky, Haiyan Tong, Allen Ledbetter, Leon Walsh, Aimen Farraj, Mehdi Hazari
Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution is linked with adverse cardiovascular effects. While previous research focused primarily on particulate matter-induced responses, gaseous air pollutants also contribute to cause short-term cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying such effects have not been adequately described, however the immediate nature of the response suggests involvement of irritant neural activation and downstream autonomic dysfunction. Thus, this study examines the role of TRPA1, an irritant sensory receptor found in the airways, in the cardiac response of mice to acrolein and ozone...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Pramila Kalra, Vikram K Yeragani, K M Prasanna Kumar
BACKGROUND: Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) may have higher incidence of coronary heart disease and autonomic dysfunction. DESIGN OF THE STUDY: Prospective case control study. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate beat-to-beat QT variability and vascular stiffness in patients with SH compared to normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared linear and nonlinear measures of cardiac repolarization liability using beat-to-beat QT intervals derived from the surface electrocardiogram during supine posture and vascular indices including pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index (ABI) during supine posture between female patients with SH and age- and sex-matched normal controls...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Daniele Bosone, Roberto Fogari, Matteo Cotta Ramusino, Natascia Ghiotto, Elena Guaschino, Annalisa Zoppi, Angela D'Angelo, Alfredo Costa
The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of Holter monitoring for the detection of silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) in elderly type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and the possible relationship between SMI and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). Two hundred and forty-three asymptomatic outpatients, aged 65-75 years, with type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension underwent 24-h ECG monitoring and 5 tests for the evaluation of both parasympathetic (heart rate variability, response to breath deeping, and Valsalva manoeuvre) and sympathetic (cold pressor test and orthostatic hypotension test) autonomic function...
October 6, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Olga Dergacheva, Akihiro Yamanaka, Alan R Schwartz, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, David Mendelowitz
Orexin neurons are known to augment the sympathetic control of cardiovascular function, however the role of orexin neurons in parasympathetic cardiac regulation remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that orexin neurons contribute to parasympathetic control we selectively expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in orexin neurons in orexin-Cre transgenic rats and examined postsynaptic currents in cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Simultaneous photostimulation and recording in ChR2-expressing orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus resulted in reliable action potential firing as well as large whole-cell currents suggesting a strong expression of ChR2 and reliable optogenetic excitation...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience
James Winter, Alexandra R Cook, Dawn H Patient, Stevan R Emmett, John Tattersall, Michael J Shattock
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Volkan Coskun, Dawn M Lombardo
The cardiovascular and nervous systems are deeply connected during development, health, and disease. Both systems affect and regulate the development of each other during embryogenesis and the early postnatal period. Specialized neural crest cells contribute to cardiac structures, and a number of growth factors released from the cardiac tissue (e.g., glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, nerve growth factor, Neurotrophin-3) ensure proper maturation of the incoming parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Michelle B Rissling, Paul A Dennis, Lana L Watkins, Patrick S Calhoun, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham, Junichiro Hayano, Christi S Ulmer
Prior research has demonstrated that individuals exposed to trauma have shown impaired autonomic function. We sought to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of impaired autonomic function, differed across periods of wake, rest, and sleep as a function of the level of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A sample of young adults (N = 209), 95 of whom met full criteria for current PTSD based on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1995), were evaluated for ≈ 24 hr using actigraphy and electrocardiogram...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Willian Costa-Ferreira, Jonas O Vieira, Jeferson Almeida, Lucas Gomes-de-Souza, Carlos C Crestani
Consistent evidence has shown an important role of emotional stress in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, studies in animal models have demonstrated that daily exposure to different stressor (heterotypic stressor) evokes more severe changes than those resulting from repeated exposure to the same aversive stimulus (homotypic stressor), possibly due to the habituation process upon repeated exposure to the same stressor. Despite these pieces of evidence, the mechanisms involved in the stress-evoked cardiovascular dysfunction are poorly understood...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Aline Fassini, Leonardo B M Resstel, Fernando M A Corrêa
Stress is a response of the organism to homeostasis-threatening stimuli and is coordinated by two main neural systems: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and the autonomic nervous system. Acute restraint stress (RS) is a model of unavoidable stress, which is characterized by autonomic responses including an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), as well as a drop in tail temperature. The prelimbic cortex (PL) has been implicated in the modulation of functional responses caused by RS. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of PL GABAergic neurotransmission in the modulation of autonomic changes induced by RS...
August 31, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Gary L Murray, Joseph Colombo
High sympathetic tone and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) are associated with major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We have shown ranolazine (RAN) improves autonomic function. RAN was introduced to 51 successive anginal CD patients (RANCD). A control group of 54 successive nonanginal CD patients (NORANCD) continued baseline therapy. Mean study duration was 6.1 years, which included semi-annual autonomic function measures (ANX 3.0, ANSAR Medical Technologies, Inc., Philadelphia, PA) and yearly myocardial perfusion SPECT studies (MPI)...
September 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
Hsin-An Chang, Wen-Hui Fang, Tieh-Ching Chang, San-Yuan Huang, Chuan-Chia Chang
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in resilience to stress, and higher vagal (parasympathetic) activity has been associated with greater stress resilience. Thus, we examined whether rs16147, a functional promoter polymorphism (C>T) of the NPY gene, could influence vagal tone during chronic high stress levels. NPY genotyping, chronic psychological stress level measurement (using the Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), cardiac autonomic function assessment (using short-term heart rate variability [HRV]) were performed in 1123 healthy, drug-free Han Chinese participants who were divided into low- and high-PSS groups...
2016: Scientific Reports
Christine R Kaneski, Roscoe O Brady, John A Hanover, Ulrike H Schueler
Fabry disease is a glycosphingolipid storage disorder that is caused by a genetic deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (AGA, EC It is a multisystem disease that affects the vascular, cardiac, renal, and nervous systems. One of the hallmarks of this disorder is neuropathic pain and sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous dysfunction. The exact mechanism by which changes in AGA activity result in change in neuronal function is not clear, partly due to of a lack of relevant model systems. In this study, we report the development of an in vitro model system to study neuronal dysfunction in Fabry disease by using short-hairpin RNA to create a stable knock-down of AGA in the human cholinergic neuronal cell line, LA-N-2...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Su-Ru Chen, Chi-Lin Tseng, Shu-Yu Kuo, Yu-Kai Chang
OBJECTIVES: The primary goals of this study were to determine the effects of a physical activity intervention on the set-shifting aspect of executive function and to explore the potential mechanistic role of cardiac autonomic control, as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV), in the relationship between physical activity and executive function in obese young adolescents. METHOD: Obese young adolescents were randomized either to participate in a physical activity program (n = 25) or to serve as the wait-list control (n = 25) for a 3-month intervention...
October 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
José Javier Reyes-Lagos, Martin Hadamitzky, Miguel Ángel Peña-Castillo, Juan Carlos Echeverría, Katharina Bösche, Laura Lückemann, Manfred Schedlowski, Gustavo Pacheco-López
Besides the well-known roles of oxytocin on birth, maternal bonding, and lactation, recent evidence shows that this hypothalamic hormone possesses cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and parasympathetic neuromodulation properties. In this study, we explore the heart rate fluctuations (HRF) in an endotoxemic rodent model that was accompanied by the administration of exogenous oxytocin. The assessment of HRF has been widely used as an indirect measure of the cardiac autonomic function. In this context, adult male Dark Agouti rats were equipped with a telemetric transmitter to continuously and remotely measure the electrocardiogram, temperature, and locomotion...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Marcelo H A Ichige, Carla R Santos, Camila P Jordão, Alexandre Ceroni, Carlos E Negrão, Lisete C Michelini
Exercise training is an efficient tool to attenuate sympathoexcitation, a hallmark of heart failure (HF). Although sympathetic modulation in HF is widely studied, information regarding parasympathetic control is lacking. We examined the combined effects of sympathetic and vagal tonus to the heart in sedentary (Sed) and trained (ET) HF rats and the contribution of respective premotor and preganglionic neurones. Wistar rats submitted to coronary artery ligation or sham surgery were assigned to training or sedentary protocols for 6 weeks...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Yu-Wen Liu, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Chin-Bin Yeh, Terry B J Kuo, San-Yuan Huang, Chuan-Chia Chang, Hsin-An Chang
Reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV) has been observed in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, suggesting genetic predispositions. However, findings have not been consistent. We assessed cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (n=45; 26 female; aged 39.69±14.82 years). Data were compared to healthy controls (n=45; 26 female; aged 38.27±9.79 years) matched for age, gender, body mass index and physical activity as well as to unmedicated patients with acute schizophrenia (n=45; 25 female; aged 37...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Graeme R Zosky, James E O'Shea
Evidence for a functional ventricular parasympathetic innervation of the mammalian heart between and within taxa remains controversial. We have previously proposed that the presence of a functional parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle was indicative of heterothermy, and is essential for maintaining ventricular stability at low body temperature. However, it is possible that the presence of such an innervation is also representative of the primitive mammalian state. In this study, we aimed to determine whether a functional parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle, that is capable of actively reducing the force of contraction, is present across metatherian mammals...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Alexander V Gourine, Asif Machhada, Stefan Trapp, K Michael Spyer
The autonomic nervous system controls the heart by dynamic recruitment and withdrawal of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activities. These activities are generated by groups of sympathoexcitatory and vagal preganglionic neurones residing in a close proximity to each other within well-defined structures of the brainstem. This short essay provides a general overview and an update on the latest developments in our understanding of the central nervous origins and functional significance of cardiac vagal tone...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Roger C McIntosh
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used to assess autonomic dysfunction since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Although autonomic failure was commonly detected in HIV and AIDS patients prior to the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the effect of HIV on HRV in the current era of widespread ART availability is more ambiguous. METHODS: A systematic search and review was conducted on cross-sectional observational and case-control studies published in the era of ART (1996-2015) that compared HRV between HIV + individuals treated with ART and HIV - controls...
August 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
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