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Strength and long distance runners

Thijs Maria Anne Ackermans, Gaspar Epro, Christopher McCrum, Kai Daniel Oberländer, Frank Suhr, Maarten Robert Drost, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether there are different changes in Achilles tendon (AT) mechanical properties in middle-aged, compared to younger runners that might indicate that tendon fatigue, induced by long-distance running, is age-dependent. METHODS: 27 middle-aged (50-67 years) and 22 younger (21-29 years) participants ran a 21 km route at their own pace (mean and SD: old: 3.1 ± 0.3 m s(-1); young: 3.6 ± 0.5 m s(-1)). We tested for changes in the AT force-elongation relationship using dynamometry and ultrasonography during isometric voluntary ankle plantarflexion ramp contractions, conducted 20-28 h pre-run, immediately pre-run, immediately post-run and 20-28 h post-run...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Alessandra B Matias, Ulisses T Taddei, Marcos Duarte, Isabel C N Sacco
BACKGROUND: Overall performance, particularly in a very popular sports activity such as running, is typically influenced by the status of the musculoskeletal system and the level of training and conditioning of the biological structures. Any change in the musculoskeletal system's biomechanics, especially in the feet and ankles, will strongly influence the biomechanics of runners, possibly predisposing them to injuries. A thorough understanding of the effects of a therapeutic approach focused on feet biomechanics, on strength and functionality of lower limb muscles will contribute to the adoption of more effective therapeutic and preventive strategies for runners...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Rodolfo A Dellagrana, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Felipe P Carpes, Sara G Hernandez, Wagner de Campos
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Strength asymmetries are related to knee injuries and such injuries are frequently observed among runners. The purpose of this study was to examine whether long-distance runners have symmetric performance during knee isokinetic testing at two angular velocities. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy and well-trained male long-distance runners performed open-chain isokinetic trials for assessment of concentric quadriceps and hamstrings contractions at velocities of 60 °·s(-1) and 240 °·s(-1)...
August 2015: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Mykolas Kavaliauskas, Rodrigo R Aspe, John Babraj
The work-to-rest ratio during cycling-based high-intensity interval training (HIT) could be important in regulating physiological and performance adaptations. We sought to determine the effectiveness of cycling-based HIT with different work-to-rest ratios for long-distance running. Thirty-two long-distance runners (age: 39 ± 8 years; sex: 14 men, 18 women; average weekly running training volume: 25 miles) underwent baseline testing (3-km time-trial, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and time to exhaustion, and Wingate test) before a 2-week matched-work cycling HIT of 6 × 10-second sprints with different rest periods (30 seconds [R30], 80 seconds [R80], 120 seconds [R120], or control)...
August 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Jose Manuel Izquierdo-Sánchez, Jesús Salas-Sánchez, Felipe García-Pinillos
AIM: To analyze the body composition, strength level, and the quality of life related to the health (QoL) in veteran sportsmen (>35 years old) in relation to sedentary ones (S), and to compare the result in the mentioned variables between two models of sports practice, long-distance runners (LDR) and bodybuilding practitioners (BBP). METHODS: One hundred forty-eight male participants took part and were distributed into three groups: 47 LDR (age=42.01±6.96 years), 49 BBP (age=45...
2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos M Tejero-González, Juan Del Campo-Vecino
The aim of this study was to analyze the time-course of force production of elite middle and long-distance runners throughout an entire season and at the end of the off-season, as well as its relationships with training load and hormonal responses. Training load was recorded daily throughout an entire season by measuring and evaluating the session distance (km), training zone and session-RPE in a group of 15 elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3 ± 5.1yrs, BMI = 19.7 ± 1.1). Also, basal salivary-free cortisol levels were measured weekly, and 50-metre sprints, mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean propulsive power (MPP), repetition maximum (RM) and peak rate of force development (RFD) of half-squats were measured 4 times during the season, and once more after the off-season break...
March 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Hamilton Roschel, Renato Barroso, Valmor Tricoli, Mauro A B Batista, Fernanda M Acquesta, Júlio C Serrão, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
Running economy (RE) is defined as the energy cost to maintain a submaximal running velocity and seems to be affected by individual's neuromuscular characteristics, such as stiffness level. Both resistance training (RT) and whole-body vibration training added to RT (WBV + RT) have been shown to influence those characteristics. Thus, it is conceivable that RT and WBV + RT could also affect RE. The objective of this study was to investigate if a 6-week training period of RT and WBV + RT influences RE and vertical stiffness (VS)...
August 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Felipe García-Pinillos, Victor M Soto-Hermoso, Pedro A Latorre-Román
The purpose of this study was to analyze multiple effects of an extended interval training (EIT) protocol on countermovement jump (CMJ) and handgrip strength in endurance athletes and to determine the relationship between fatigue and potentiation. Thirty experienced sub-elite male long-distance runners (age = 28.26 ± 8.27 years, body mass index = 22.24 ± 2.50 kg·m, and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 58.7 ± 4.50 ml·kg·min) participated voluntarily in this study. Subjects performed the protocol on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m, grouped into 4 sets of 3 runs, with a passive recovery of 1 minute between runs and 3 minutes between sets (4 × 3 × 400 m)...
January 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Casper Skovgaard, Peter M Christensen, Sonni Larsen, Thomas Rostgaard Andersen, Martin Thomassen, Jens Bangsbo
The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max)) 59 ± 1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); values are means ± SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%...
November 15, 2014: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jeffery A Taylor-Haas, Jason A Hugentobler, Christopher A DiCesare, Kathryn C Hickey Lucas, Nathaniel A Bates, Gregory D Myer, Kevin R Ford
STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anterior knee pain is one of the most common running symptoms reported in the literature. While the exact etiology is unknown, a lack of hip strength is suggested to contribute to abnormal running mechanics. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the association between isokinetic hip strength and 3-D running kinematics. METHODS: 33 male high school and collegiate cross country runners participated in this study...
August 2014: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Stuart J Warden, Irene S Davis, Michael Fredericson
SYNOPSIS: Bone stress injury (BSI) represents the inability of bone to withstand repetitive loading, which results in structural fatigue and localized bone pain and tenderness. A BSI occurs along a pathology continuum that begins with a stress reaction, which can progress to a stress fracture and, ultimately, a complete bone fracture. Bone stress injuries are a source of concern in long-distance runners, not only because of their frequency and the morbidity they cause but also because of their tendency to recur...
October 2014: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Rômulo Bertuzzi, Adriano E Lima-Silva, Flávio O Pires, Mayara V Damasceno, Salomão Bueno, Leonardo A Pasqua, David J Bishop
The purpose of this study was to identify the main determinants of the self-selected pacing strategy during a 10-km running time trial. Twenty eight male long-distance runners performed the following tests: (a) maximal incremental treadmill test, (b) economy running test, (c) maximum dynamic strength test, and (d) 10-km running time trial on an outdoor track. A stepwise multiple regression model was used to identify the contribution of rating of perceived exertion (RPE), physiological, and muscular parameters on the pacing strategy adopted by athletes...
June 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Tomas Venckunas, Arimantas Lionikas, Jolanta E Marcinkeviciene, Rasa Raugaliene, Aleksandras Alekrinskis, Arvydas Stasiulis
Competitive athletics is often associated with moderate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and it has been hypothesized that training mode and type of exercise modulates long-term cardiac adaptation. The purpose of the study was to compare cardiac structure and function among athletes of various sports and sedentary controls. Standard transthoracic two-dimensional M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest in Caucasian male canoe/kayak paddlers (n = 9), long distance runners (LDR, n = 18), middle distance runners (MDR, n = 17), basketball players (BP, n = 31), road cyclists (n = 8), swimmers (n = 10), strength/power athletes (n = 9) of similar age (range, 15 to 31 yrs), training experience (4 to 9 years), and age-matched healthy male sedentary controls (n = 15)...
2008: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Nicholas Tam, Janie L Astephen Wilson, Timothy D Noakes, Ross Tucker
Barefoot running has become a popular research topic, driven by the increasing prescription of barefoot running as a means of reducing injury risk. Proponents of barefoot running cite evolutionary theories that long-distance running ability was crucial for human survival, and proof of the benefits of natural running. Subsequently, runners have been advised to run barefoot as a treatment mode for injuries, strength and conditioning. The body of literature examining the mechanical, structural, clinical and performance implications of barefoot running is still in its infancy...
March 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Nicola Maffulli, Francesco Oliva, Vittorino Testa, Giovanni Capasso, Angelo Del Buono
BACKGROUND: Multiple percutaneous longitudinal tenotomies have been successfully undertaken in runners with isolated midportion Achilles tendinopathy (nodular lesions <2.5 cm) without any sign of paratendinopathy. HYPOTHESIS: In the long term, minimally invasive multiple tenotomies allow the patient to remain involved in middle- and long-distance running. Clinical and ultrasound (US) evidence of paratendinopathy is a negative prognostic factor. STUDY DESIGN: Case series study; Level of evidence, 4...
September 2013: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Cristian Alvarez, Carlos Henríquez-Olguín, Eduardo B Baez, Cristian Martínez, David C Andrade, Mikel Izquierdo
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term plyometric training program on explosive strength and endurance performance in highly competitive middle- and long-distance runners. Athletes were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 18, 12 men) and an explosive strength training group (TG, n = 18, 10 men). Drop jump (DJ) from 20 (DJ20) and 40 cm (DJ40), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-m sprint time, and 2.4-km endurance run time test were carried out before and after 6 weeks of explosive strength training...
January 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
François Bieuzen, Jeanick Brisswalter, Christopher Easthope, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Thierry Bernard, Christophe Hausswirth
BACKGROUND: Compression garments are increasingly popular in long-distance running events where they are used to limit cumulative fatigue and symptoms associated with mild exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). However, the effective benefits remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of wearing compression stockings (CS) on EIMD indicators. Compression was applied during or after simulated trail races performed at competition pace in experienced off-road runners...
March 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
R Bertuzzi, L A Pasqua, S Bueno, M V Damasceno, A E Lima-Silva, D Bishop, V Tricoli
A parallel group randomized trial was designed to analyze the impact of 6 weeks of strength training programs performed with or without whole-body vibration on muscular and endurance performance parameters in long-distance runners. 22 endurance runners were allocated into strength with whole-body vibration (n=8), without (n=8), and control (n=6) groups. Before and after the experimental period the subjects performed the following tests: a) maximum dynamic strength test, b) maximal incremental treadmill test, and c) time to exhaustion at velocity corresponding to maximal oxygen uptake...
October 2013: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Brandon Hudgins, Jessica Scharfenberg, N Travis Triplett, Jeffrey M McBride
Running performance consists of a combination of aerobic and anaerobic capabilities, varying based on the distance of the event. It may be also dependent on factors relating to lower body power. Lower body power is commonly assessed by various modes of jumping tests. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if jumping performance would have some relationship to running performance in different distance events. This study involved 33 competitive track and field runners who participated in events ranging from 60 to 5,000 m (10 sprinters: height = 1...
March 2013: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Natália Mariana Silva Luna, Angelica Castilho Alonso, Guilherme Carlos Brech, Luis Mochizuki, Eduardo Yoshio Nakano, Júlia Maria D'Andrea Greve
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and nonathletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5) years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n=26), a long-distance runner group (n = 23), and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer...
September 2012: Clinics
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