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Middle distance running

Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y Robertson, Philo U Saunders, Kevin G Thompson
PURPOSE: This investigation sought to determine the effect of training at 2100 metres natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. METHODS: In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD; Age, 25 ± 5 years; VO2 max, 71 ± 5 completed either 4-6 weeks of sea-level training (CON, n = 7), or a 4-5 week natural altitude training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) following a period of sea-level training...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Kristin L Popp, William McDermott, Julie M Hughes, Stephanie A Baxter, Steven D Stovitz, Moira A Petit
PURPOSE: To determine differences in bone geometry, estimates of bone strength, muscle size and bone strength relative to load, in women runners with and without a history of stress fracture. METHODS: We recruited 32 competitive distance runners aged 18-35, with (SFX, n=16) or without (NSFX, n=16) a history of stress fracture for this case-control study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm(3)), total (ToA) and cortical (CtA) bone areas (mm(2)), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index; BSI, mg/mm(4)) at the distal tibia...
October 10, 2016: Bone
Thijs Maria Anne Ackermans, Gaspar Epro, Christopher McCrum, Kai Daniel Oberländer, Frank Suhr, Maarten Robert Drost, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether there are different changes in Achilles tendon (AT) mechanical properties in middle-aged, compared to younger runners that might indicate that tendon fatigue, induced by long-distance running, is age-dependent. METHODS: 27 middle-aged (50-67 years) and 22 younger (21-29 years) participants ran a 21 km route at their own pace (mean and SD: old: 3.1 ± 0.3 m s(-1); young: 3.6 ± 0.5 m s(-1)). We tested for changes in the AT force-elongation relationship using dynamometry and ultrasonography during isometric voluntary ankle plantarflexion ramp contractions, conducted 20-28 h pre-run, immediately pre-run, immediately post-run and 20-28 h post-run...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
I Hujazi, T Jones, S Johal, P Bearcroft, G Muniz-Terra, V Khanduja
The aim of this study is to measure the ischiofemoral distance (IFD) in the normal hip with healthy surrounding soft tissues and describe its variations caused by gender, age and proximal femoral anatomy so that this could serve as a reference for future studies on this subject. This is a retrospective study in which we reviewed the CT scans of 149 patients (298 hips) who had a CT of their pelvis for non-orthopaedic (abdomino-pelvic) pathology. The images were reviewed by two independent observers and the IFD (the smallest distance between the lateral cortex of the ischial tuberosity and the posteromedial cortex of the lesser trochanter), offset (the perpendicular distance from the centre of the femoral head to a line running down the middle of the shaft of the femur) and the neck-shaft angle (the angle between the lines in the middle of the neck to the line forming the axis of the femoral shaft) were measured...
August 2016: Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery
Jonathan H Kim, Yi-An Ko, Jeff Hedley, James MacNamara, Mosaab Awad, William Taylor, Sean Healy, Hiroshi Aida, Ngoc-Anh Le, Peter W Wilson, Melissa White, Laurence S Sperling, Joseph S Wilson, Aaron L Baggish
OBJECTIVE: Exercise-induced cardiac dysfunction and corollary biomarker release have been documented following long-distance running events. To what degree these processes occur during shorter distance running events is unknown. METHODS: 72 healthy recreational runners (54% male/46% female) recruited by age (group 1 (18-20 years old, N=19); group 2 (45-50 years old, N=27); group 3 (70-75 years old, N=26)) were studied with echocardiography and biochemical profiling during participation in a 10 km running race...
August 16, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Amy L Woods, Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Philo Saunders, Tony Rice, Kevin G Thompson
High altitude exposure can increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) and induce weight loss in obese populations, but there is a lack of research regarding RMR in athletes at moderate elevations common to endurance training camps. The present study aimed to determine whether four weeks of classical altitude training affects RMR in middle-distance runners. Ten highly-trained athletes were recruited for four weeks of endurance training undertaking identical programs at either 2200m in Flagstaff, Arizona (ALT, n=5) or 600m in Canberra, Australia (CON, n=5)...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Gabriel A Paz, Timothy J Gabbett, Marianna F Maia, Haroldo Santana, Humberto Miranda, Vicente Lima
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association among anthropometric, physical performance parameters, and dynamic postural control attributes of young female volleyball athletes, and to determine if differences exist in these attributes according to playing position. METHODS: Forty-three young female volleyball players participated in this study. Players were divided by position into hitters (n = 17), middle blockers (n = 8), setters (n = 10), and liberos (n = 8)...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Iiro A Välimäki, Timo Vuorimaa, Markku Ahotupa, Tommi J Vasankari
PURPOSE: Physical exercise has cardioprotective functions, which have been partly linked to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and its functions. We studied the effects of endogenous oxidative stress, induced by acute exhaustive physical exercise, on concentration of oxidized HDL lipids. METHODS: Twenty-four male national top-level endurance runners, 12 middle-distance runners and 12 marathon runners performed a maximal run on a treadmill until exhaustion. We analyzed concentrations of oxidized HDL (oxHDLlipids) and LDL lipids (oxLDLlipids), serum antioxidant potential (TRAP), paraoxonase activity and malondialdehyde...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Benjamin Chatel, Carine Bret, Pascal Edouard, Roger Oullion, Hubert Freund, Laurent A Messonnier
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate lactate recovery kinetics after high-intensity exercises. METHODS: Six competitive middle-distance runners performed 500-, 1000-, and 1500-m trials at 90 % of their current maximal speed over 1500 m. Each event was followed by a passive recovery to obtain blood lactate recovery curves (BLRC). BLRC were fitted by the bi-exponential time function: La(t) = La(0) + A 1(1-e (-γ1t) ) + A 2(1-e (-γ2t) ), where La(0) is the blood lactate concentration at exercise completion, and γ 1 and γ 2 enlighten the lactate exchange ability between the previously active muscles and the blood and the overall lactate removal ability, respectively...
August 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Norio Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Nunome, Yasuo Ikegami
Rearfoot external eversion moments due to ground reaction forces (GRF) during running have been suggested to contribute to overuse running injuries. This study aimed to identify primary factors inducing these rearfoot external eversion moments. Fourteen healthy men ran barefoot across a force plate embedded in the middle of 30-m runway with 3.30 ± 0.17 m · s(-1). Total rearfoot external eversion/inversion moments (Mtot) were broken down into the component Mxy due to medio-lateral GRF (Fxy) and the component Mz due to vertical GRF (Fz)...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Toshiyuki Ohya, Ryo Yamanaka, Masahiro Hagiwara, Marie Oriishi, Yasuhiro Suzuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Szu-Hsien Yu, Yi-Jen Huang, Chieh-Wen Hou, Shih-Chang Cheng, Shueh-I Lin, Chia-Hua Kuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Billy Sperlich, Silvia Achtzehn, Markus de Marées, Henning von Papen, Joachim Mester
There is a debate on the optimal way of monitoring training loads in elite endurance athletes especially during altitude training camps. In this case report, including nine members of the German national middle distance running team, we describe a practical approach to monitor the psychobiological stress markers during 21 days of altitude training (~2100 m above sea-level) to estimate the training load and to control muscle damage, fatigue, and/or chronic overreaching. Daily examination included: oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, resting heart rate, body mass, body and sleep perception, capillary blood concentration of creatine kinase...
June 2016: Physiological Reports
Olivier Dangles, Jean Loirat, Claire Freour, Sandrine Serre, Jean Vacher, Xavier Le Roux
Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU) strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in science, technology and innovation...
2016: PloS One
Said Mohamed, Ncir Lamya, Mansour Hamda
BACKGROUND: Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects...
March 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
Shane Malone, Barry Solan, Kieran Collins
The current study examined (1) the match running performance of Gaelic football and (2) the decrement in match running performance with respect of position. GPS technologies (4-Hz, VX Sport, Lower Hutt, New Zealand) were used with three elite inter-county teams across three full seasons with 250 full game data sets collected. Game movements were classified according to game actions and distance covered across speed zone thresholds (total distance [TD], high speed running distance [HSRD; ≥17 km.h], sprint distance [SD; ≥22 km·h]; accelerations [n]; peak speed [km·h])...
May 14, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Zoe C Jewell, Sky K Alibhai, Florian Weise, Stuart Munro, Marlice Van Vuuren, Rudie Van Vuuren
The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN(1). It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor(2). Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,905(3) to 13,520(4)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Peter Larsen, Rasmus Elsoe, Michael S Rathleff
BACKGROUND: Displaced stress fractures of the femoral shaft are very uncommon. The proportion of middle-aged and older age groups participating in long-distance running, triathlon and other high intensity sports is increasing. As a consequence stress fracture of the femoral shaft may be on the rise in the future. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was 43 years old male caucasian triathlete. The authors met the patient after he was admitted with a displaced femoral shaft fracture...
May 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Gerard Flaherty, Rory O'Connor, Niall Johnston
High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated...
May 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Shane Malone, Barry Solan, Kieran Collins, Dominic Doran
BACKGROUND: Metabolic power has not yet been investigated within elite Gaelic football. The aim of the current investigation was to compare the metabolic power demands between positional groups and examine the temporal profile of elite Gaelic football match play. METHODS: Global positional satellite system (GPS) data were collected from 50 elite Gaelic football players from 4 inter-county teams during 35 elite competitive matches over a three season period. A total of 351 complete match samples were obtained for final analysis...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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