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Middle distance running

Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Perrine Truong, Gregoire P Millet, Boris Gojanovic
This study aimed to investigate the differences in maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max ) and submaximal thresholds between a standard graded exercise test (GXT) and a perceptually regulated graded exercise test (PRGXT) in trained runners. Eleven well-trained middle- to long-distance runners performed both tests in a randomized order. PRGXT used incremental "clamps" of rating of perceived exertion (RPE) over 10×1-min stages on an automated treadmill equipped with a sonar sensor allowing them to change their running speed instantly and in a natural way...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ryu Nagahara, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
This study aimed to clarify the influence of vertical impulse on the magnitude of step length (SL) and frequency (SF) and their ratio during the entire acceleration phase of maximal sprinting. Thirty-nine male soccer players performed 60-m sprints, during which step-to-step ground reaction forces were recorded over a 50-m distance. The mean values of spatiotemporal variables and vertical and anteroposterior impulses for each set of four steps during the acceleration phase until the 28th step were computed to examine relationships among variables in seven sections...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Jason H McGahan, Shane Mangan, Kieran Collins, Con Burns, Tim Gabbett, Cian O' Neill
The aim of the current study was to compare positional differences in running demands and technical performance variables among elite Gaelic football teams from separate Divisions. Data were obtained from a Division 1 (26.7 ± 2.9 years, 179.2 ± 21.3 cm, 89.9 ± 21.2 kg) and a Division 3 (25.7 ± 3.5 years, 183.0 ± 4.7 cm, 84.4 ± 6.5 kg) team. Match-play running variables were collected using 4-Hz global positioning system (GPS) units (VX Sport, New-Zealand) (Match data sets; Division 1: n = 107, Division 3: n = 97)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Elisa Danese, Marco Benati, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Cantor Tarperi, Gian Luca Salvagno, Elisa Paviati, Martina Montagnana, Federico Schena, Giuseppe Lippi
A specific subset of micro RNAs (miRs), including miR-133 and miR-206, is specifically expressed in muscle tissue, so that they are currently defined as muscular miRs (myomiRs). To further elucidate the role of myomiRs in muscle biology, we measured miR-133a and miR-206 in plasma of 28 middle-age recreational athletes. The study population consisted of 28 middle aged, recreation athletes (11 women and 17 men; mean age, 46 years) who completed a 21.1 km, half-marathon. The plasma concentration of miR-133a and miR-206, the serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) and high-sensitivity (HS) cardiac troponin T (cTnT), as well as capillary lactate, were measured before and immediately after the run...
January 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
BACKGROUND: Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
Carla Rauseo
Background and Purpose: While there is much discussion about tendinopathy in the literature, there is little reference to the less common condition of iliopsoas tendinopathy, and no documentation of the condition in runners. The iliopsoas is a major decelerator of the hip and eccentric loading of the iliopsoas is an important component of energy transfer during running. Eccentric training is a thoroughly researched method of treating tendinopathy but has shown mixed results. The purpose of this case report is to describe the rehabilitation of a runner with iliopsoas tendinopathy, and demonstrate in a creative eccentric-biased technique to assist with treatment...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Mark Kenneally, Arturo Casado, Jordan Santos-Concejero
This review aimed to examine the current evidence for three primary training intensity distribution types; 1) Pyramidal Training, 2) Polarised Training and 3) Threshold Training. Where possible, we calculated training intensity zones relative to the goal race pace, rather than physiological or subjective variables. We searched 3 electronic databases in May 2017 (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) for original research articles. After analysing 493 resultant original articles, studies were included if they met the following criteria: a) participants were middle- or long-distance runners; b) studies analysed training intensity distribution in the form of observational reports, case studies or interventions; c) studies were published in peer-reviewed journals and d) studies analysed training programs with a duration of 4 weeks or longer...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Justin X Nicoll, Disa L Hatfield, Kathleen J Melanson, Christopher S Nasin
PURPOSE: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is reported in endurance sports. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate metabolism, mood, and energy production, and may play a role in OTS of endurance athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships in TH and symptoms of OTS in track and field endurance runners (ER). METHODS: Sixteen female track and field middle distance (MD; n = 9; age: 20.2 ± 1.5 years; ht: 167.86 ± 5.04 cm; body-mass: 57.97 ± 5...
November 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Marcelo Conrado de Freitas, Jason M Cholewa, Luis A Gobbo, João Vitor N S de Oliveira, Fabio S Lira, Fabrício E Rossi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of capsaicin supplementation on performance, rate of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentrations during short duration running in physically active adults. Ten physically active men (age= 23.5±1.9 yrs, weight= 78.3±12.4 kg, height= 177.9±5.9 cm) completed two randomized, double-blind trials: Capsaicin condition (12 mg) or a placebo condition. Forty five minutes after supplement consumption, the participants performed a 1500 meter running time trial...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Stephanie von Holstein-Rathlou, Nicolas Caesar Petersen, Maiken Nedergaard
Vascular pathology and protein accumulation contribute to cognitive decline, whereas exercise can slow vascular degeneration and improve cognitive function. Recent investigations suggest that glymphatic clearance measured in aged mice while anesthetized is enhanced following exercise. We predicted that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice...
January 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Pedram Daraei, Douglas E Mattox
IMPORTANCE: The middle temporal artery flap is a vascularized periosteal flap that is highly useful for otologic reconstruction including the middle cranial fossa, mastoidectomy defect, and external auditory canal. The course of the artery is close to the external auditory canal and is easily injured during preliminary exposure and elevation of flaps. OBJECTIVES: To describe the course of the middle temporal artery in relation to the external auditory canal and the superficial temporal artery in order to enhance preservation and use in otologic reconstruction...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Richard C Blagrove, Nicola Brown, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
Blagrove, RC, Brown, N, Howatson, G, and Hayes, PR. Strength and conditioning habits of competitive distance runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Targeted strength and conditioning (S&C) programs can potentially improve performance and reduce injury risk factors in competitive runners. However, S&C practices of distance runners are unknown. This study aimed to explore S&C practices of competitive middle- and long-distance runners and examined whether reported frequency of injuries was influenced by training behaviors...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ryu Nagahara, Mirai Mizutani, Akifumi Matsuo, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
We aimed to investigate the step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces during the acceleration phase for characterising intra-individual fastest sprinting within a single session. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces produced by 15 male athletes were measured over a 50-m distance during repeated (three to five) 60-m sprints using a long force platform system. Differences in measured variables between the fastest and slowest trials were examined at each step until the 22nd step using a magnitude-based inferences approach...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Julie A Morgan, Gaurav Singhal, Frances Corrigan, Emily J Jaehne, Magdalene C Jawahar, Bernhard T Baune
Preclinical studies have demonstrated exercise improves various types of behaviours such as anxiety-like, depression-like, and cognition-like behaviours. However, these findings were largely conducted in studies utilising short-term exercise protocols, and the effects of lifetime exercise on these behaviours remain unknown. This study investigates the behavioural effects of lifetime exercise in normal healthy ageing C57BL/6 mice over the adult lifespan. 12 week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel running or non-exercise (control) groups...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Karen Krogh Johansen, Adam Hulme, Camma Damsted, Daniel Ramskov, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs...
August 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Elisa Danese, Gian Luca Salvagno, Cantor Tarperi, Davide Negrini, Martina Montagnana, Luca Festa, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Federico Schena, Giuseppe Lippi
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to investigate the acute effect of medium-distance running on bile acids concentration and composition, in order to verify whether the positive impact of physical exercise on cancer risk may also be mediated by variation of bile acids concentration and composition in serum. METHODS: The concentration and composition of serum bile acids was analyzed in 30 middle-aged and healthy recreational athletes with a reference liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique, immediately before and shortly after the end of the running trial...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
M A Thompson
Running events range from 60-m sprints to ultra-marathons covering 100 miles or more, which presents an interesting diversity in terms of the parameters for successful performance. Here, we review the physiological and biomechanical variations underlying elite human running performance in sprint to ultramarathon distances. Maximal running speeds observed in sprint disciplines are achieved by high vertical ground reaction forces applied over short contact times. To create this high force output, sprint events rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism, as well as a high number and large cross-sectional area of type II fibers in the leg muscles...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
A Garcia-Granero, L Sánchez-Guillén, O Carreño, J Sancho Muriel, E Alvarez Sarrado, D Fletcher Sanfeliu, B Flor Lorente, M Frasson, F Martinez Soriano, E Garcia-Granero
BACKGROUND: The medial approach in laparoscopic splenic flexure mobilization is based on the entrance to the lesser sac just above the ventral edge of the pancreas (VEOP). The artery of Moskowitz runs through the base of the mesocolon, just above the VEOP. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of the artery of Moskowitz, its route and its distance from the VEOP. METHODS: We performed a cadaveric study on 27 human cadavers. The vascular arcades of the splenic flexure were dissected, the number of vascular arches, and the origin and localization of its terminal anastomosis were recorded...
July 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
Qilong Wu, Zhenghua Zhang, Guodong Cao, Xihui Zhang
Polymeric membrane has been widely used for the treatment of drinking water in China, and the total treating capacity has reached up to 3.8 million m(3)/d. However, the membrane breakage found in the membrane modules in many water treatment plants resulted in an increase in turbidity and bacterial amount in the membrane permeate. In this study, a membrane module running for 3 years in a full-scale application was examined in terms of the breaking positions and the numbers of the broken fibers. It was found that most of the breaking positions were mainly on the outlet side of the module and that the distance from these points to the outlet was about 1/10-2/10 length of the membrane module...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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