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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320925/self-perceived-and-actual-motor-competence-in-young-british-children
#1
Michael J Duncan, Victoria Jones, Wesley O'Brien, Lisa M Barnett, Emma L J Eyre
Children's perception of their own motor competence is an important correlate of their actual motor competence. The current study is the first to examine this association in British children and the first to use both product and process measures of actual motor competence. A total of 258 children (139 boys and 119 girls; aged 4 to 7 years, Mean = 5.6, SD = .96) completed measures of self-perceived motor competence using the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Competence in Young Children. Children were classified as "Low," "Medium," or "High" perceived competence based on tertile analysis...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320436/the-feasibility-and-usability-of-runningcoach-a-remote-coaching-system-for-long-distance-runners
#2
Daniel Aranki, Gao Xian Peh, Gregorij Kurillo, Ruzena Bajcsy
Studies have shown that about half of the injuries sustained during long-distance running involve the knee. Cadence (steps per minute) has been identified as a factor that is strongly associated with these running-related injuries, making it a worthwhile candidate for further study. As such, it is critical for long-distance runners to minimize their risk of injury by running at an appropriate running cadence. In this paper, we present the results of a study on the feasibility and usability of RunningCoach, a mobile health (mHealth) system that remotely monitors running cadence levels of runners in a continuous fashion, among other variables, and provides immediate feedback to runners in an effort to help them optimize their running cadence...
January 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298580/promises-and-reservations-towards-science-and-technology-among-south-african-publics-a-culture-sensitive-approach
#3
Lars Guenther, Peter Weingart
Against the background that surveys measuring public perceptions of science and technology are often removed from cultural contexts and do not equally represent all regions of the world, this study investigated attitudes towards science and technology among different publics of the South African population. To apply a culture-sensitive approach, theoretical considerations of cultural distance were combined with methodological considerations of segmentation studies, and representative data ( n = 3183) were reanalysed...
February 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285055/restoration-of-orbicularis-oculi-muscle-function-in-rabbits-with-peripheral-facial-paralysis-via-an-implantable-artificial-facial-nerve-system
#4
Yajing Sun, Cheng Jin, Keyong Li, Qunfeng Zhang, Liang Geng, Xundao Liu, Yi Zhang
The purpose of the present study was to restore orbicularis oculi muscle function using the implantable artificial facial nerve system (IAFNS). The in vivo part of the IAFNS was implanted into 12 rabbits that were facially paralyzed on the right side of the face to restore the function of the orbicularis oculi muscle, which was indicated by closure of the paralyzed eye when the contralateral side was closed. Wireless communication links were established between the in vivo part (the processing chip and microelectrode) and the external part (System Controller program) of the system, which were used to set the working parameters and indicate the working state of the processing chip and microelectrode implanted in the body...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276853/are-habitual-runners-physically-inactive
#5
Timo Rantalainen, Arto J Pesola, Matthew Quittner, Nicola D Ridgers, Daniel L Belavy
The World Health Organisation's (WHO) physical activity guidelines recommend 150min/week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) accumulated in 10 min bouts. To see whether people performing habitual exercise for recreation meet these guidelines, 25 long-distance runners [mean 67 km/wk], 25 joggers [mean 28 km/wk], and 20 sedentary adults wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 days. Sedentary time and bouts were similar in runners and sedentary adults (p > 0.46). Sedentary adults performed 20 ± 16 min/day of MVPA (usual bout duration (W50%): 9...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249083/effects-of-strength-training-on-the-physiological-determinants-of-middle-and-long-distance-running-performance-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
BACKGROUND: Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239988/effect-of-boards-in-small-sided-street-soccer-games-on-movement-pattern-and-physiological-response-in-recreationally-active-young-men
#7
Morten B Randers, Jonathan Brix, Marie Hagman, Jens J Nielsen, Peter Krustrup
The present study investigated whether street soccer might be proposed as an alternative to recreational small-sided games on grass as a health-enhancing activity, and specifically the effects of the boards surrounding the pitch. Eleven recreationally active young males (28.4±4.2 (±SD) yrs, 19.9±4.2% body fat, 47.7±6.0 mlminkg), after familiarization, completed one to two sessions of 20x13-m 3v3 street soccer games with boards (WB) and one to two sessions without boards (WOB) in a randomized order. Movement pattern was measured using GPS and heart rate recordings, blood sampling and RPE scales were used to evaluate exercise intensity and physiological strain...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193059/exercise-improves-nicotine-reward-associated-cognitive-behaviors-and-related-%C3%AE-7-nachr-mediated-signal-transduction-in-adolescent-rats
#8
Yuehui Zhou, Cuicui Li, Rena Li, Chenglin Zhou
The adolescent brain is vulnerable to long-lasting cognitive disturbances resulting from nicotine exposure. Although exercise has been used as an intervention for ameliorating cognitive deficits in various disorders, the effect on cognitive changes induced by nicotine exposure and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on nicotine reward-associated cognitive behaviors in adolescent rats subjected to nicotine conditioned place preference paradigm (CPP)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182410/the-effect-of-periodisation-and-training-intensity-distribution-on-middle-and-long-distance-running-performance-a-systematic-review
#9
Mark Kenneally, Arturo Casado, Jordan Santos-Concejero
This review aimed to examine the current evidence for three primary training intensity distribution types; 1) Pyramidal Training, 2) Polarised Training and 3) Threshold Training. Where possible, we calculated training intensity zones relative to the goal race pace, rather than physiological or subjective variables. We searched 3 electronic databases in May 2017 (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) for original research articles. After analysing 493 resultant original articles, studies were included if they met the following criteria: a) participants were middle- or long-distance runners; b) studies analysed training intensity distribution in the form of observational reports, case studies or interventions; c) studies were published in peer-reviewed journals and d) studies analysed training programs with a duration of 4 weeks or longer...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175485/short-and-long-term-exposure-to-low-and-high-dose-running-produce-differential-effects-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#10
Carine Nguemeni, Matthew W McDonald, Matthew S Jeffers, Jessica Livingston-Thomas, Diane Lagace, Dale Corbett
Continuous running wheel (RW) exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rodents. Evidence suggests that greater amounts of RW exercise does not always equate to more adult-generated neurons in hippocampus. It can also be argued that continuous access to a RW results in exercise levels not representative of human exercise patterns. This study tested if RW paradigms that more closely represent human exercise patterns (e.g. shorter bouts, alternating daily exercise) alter neurogenesis...
November 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167568/elite-long-jumpers-with-below-the-knee-prostheses-approach-the-board-slower-but-take-off-more-effectively-than-non-amputee-athletes
#11
Steffen Willwacher, Johannes Funken, Kai Heinrich, Ralf Müller, Hiroaki Hobara, Alena M Grabowski, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Wolfgang Potthast
The use of technological aids to improve sport performance ('techno doping') and inclusion of Paralympic athletes in Olympic events are matters of ongoing debate. Recently, a long jumper with a below the knee amputation (BKA) achieved jump distances similar to world-class athletes without amputations, using a carbon fibre running-specific prosthesis (RSP). We show that athletes with BKA utilize a different, more effective take-off technique in the long jump, which provided the best athlete with BKA a performance advantage of at least 0...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159669/thyroid-hormones-and-commonly-cited-symptoms-of-overtraining-in-collegiate-female-endurance-runners
#12
Justin X Nicoll, Disa L Hatfield, Kathleen J Melanson, Christopher S Nasin
PURPOSE: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is reported in endurance sports. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate metabolism, mood, and energy production, and may play a role in OTS of endurance athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships in TH and symptoms of OTS in track and field endurance runners (ER). METHODS: Sixteen female track and field middle distance (MD; n = 9; age: 20.2 ± 1.5 years; ht: 167.86 ± 5.04 cm; body-mass: 57.97 ± 5...
November 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154456/predicting-the-bending-properties-of-long-bones-insights-from-an-experimental-mouse-model
#13
Sarah J Peacock, Brittney R Coats, J Kyle Kirkland, Courtney A Tanner, Theodore Garland, Kevin M Middleton
OBJECTIVES: Analyses of bone cross-sectional geometry are frequently used by anthropologists and paleontologists to infer the loading histories of past populations. To address some underlying assumptions, we investigated the relative roles of genetics and exercise on bone cross-sectional geometry and bending mechanics in three mouse strains: high bone density (C3H/He), low bone density (C57BL/6), and a high-runner strain homozygous for the Myh4(Minimsc) allele (MM). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Weanlings of each strain were divided into exercise (wheel) or control (sedentary) treatment groups for a 7-week experimental period...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133160/the-changes-of-red-blood-cell-viscoelasticity-and-sports-anemia-in-male-24-hr-ultra-marathoners
#14
Che-Hung Liu, Yen-Fang Tseng, Jiun-I Lai, Yin-Quan Chen, Shih-Hao Wang, Wei-Fong Kao, Li-Hua Li, Yu-Hui Chiu, Chorng-Kuang How, Wen-Han Chang
BACKGROUND: In endurance sports, stress, dehydration and release of chemical factors have been associated with red blood cell (RBC) alterations of structure and function, which may contribute to sports anemia, a well-observed phenomenon during long-distance running. Until now, the investigation of the changes of viscoelastic properties of RBC membrane, a decisive factor of RBC deformability to avoid hemolysis, is lacking, especially in an Oriental population. METHODS: nineteen runners were prospectively recruited into our study...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129021/the-effect-of-natural-or-simulated-altitude-training-on-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance-in-team-sport-athletes-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Michael J Hamlin, Catherine A Lizamore, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. METHODS: A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model...
November 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092526/evaluation-of-low-frequency-operational-limit-of-proposed-iter-low-field-side-reflectometer-waveguide-run-including-miter-bends
#16
G Wang, W A Peebles, E J Doyle, N A Crocker, C Wannberg, C Lau, G R Hanson, J L Doane
The present design concept for the ITER low-field-side reflectometer transmission line (TL) consists of an ∼40 m long, 6.35 cm diameter helically corrugated waveguide (WG) together with ten 90° miter bends. This paper presents an evaluation of the TL performance at low frequencies (33-50 GHz) where the predicted HE11 mode ohmic and mode conversion losses start to increase significantly. Quasi-optical techniques were used to form a near Gaussian beam to efficiently couple radiation in this frequency range into the WG...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077488/perspectives-on-long-distance-air-travel-with-type-1-diabetes
#17
Jordan E Pinsker, Benjamen E Schoenberg, Colleen Garey, Asher Runion, Arianna Larez, David Kerr
We sought to determine the real-life experiences of individuals traveling long distance (across five or more time-zones) with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Five hundred three members of the T1D Exchange online community ( www.myglu.org ) completed a 45-question survey about their travel experiences flying long distance. The cohort was stratified by duration of T1D and whether or not participants used continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy and/or a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). In the last 5 years, 71% of participants had flown long distance...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070954/race-predictors-and-hemodynamic-alteration-after-an-ultra-trail-marathon-race
#18
Noppon Taksaudom, Natee Tongsiri, Amarit Potikul, Chawakorn Leampriboon, Apichat Tantraworasin, Anong Chaiyasri
OBJECTIVE: Unique rough-terrain ultra-trail running races have increased in popularity. Concerns regarding the suitability of the candidates make it difficult for organizers to manage safety regulations. The purpose of this study was to identify possible race predictors and assess hemodynamic change after long endurance races. METHODS: We studied 228 runners who competed in a 66 km-trail running race. A questionnaire and noninvasive hemodynamic flow assessment including blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, stroke volume variation, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation were used to determine physiologic alterations and to identify finish predictors...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069224/effects-of-a-4-week-high-intensity-interval-training-on-pacing-during-5-km-running-trial
#19
R Silva, M Damasceno, R Cruz, M D Silva-Cavalcante, A E Lima-Silva, D J Bishop, R Bertuzzi
This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8) or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8). The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and peak treadmill speed (PTS)...
October 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044770/effects-of-forced-passive-and-voluntary-exercise-on-spinal-motoneurons-changes-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#20
Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injury, there are important changes at the spinal level that can lead to disorganization of the central circuitry and thus, compromise functional recovery even if axons are able to successfully regenerate and reinnervate their target organs. Physical rehabilitation is a promising strategy to modulate these plastic changes and thus, to improve functional recovery after damage of the nervous system. Forced exercise in a treadmill is able to partially reverse the synaptic stripping and the loss of perineuronal nets that motoneurons suffer after peripheral nerve injury in animal models...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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