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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133160/the-changes-of-red-blood-cell-viscoelasticity-and-sports-anemia-in-male-24-hr-ultra-marathoners
#1
Che-Hung Liu, Yen-Fang Tseng, Jiun-I Lai, Yin-Quan Chen, Shih-Hao Wang, Wei-Fong Kao, Li-Hua Li, Yu-Hui Chiu, Chorng-Kuang How, Wen-Han Chang
BACKGROUND: In endurance sports, stress, dehydration and release of chemical factors have been associated with red blood cell (RBC) alterations of structure and function, which may contribute to sports anemia, a well-observed phenomenon during long-distance running. Until now, the investigation of the changes of viscoelastic properties of RBC membrane, a decisive factor of RBC deformability to avoid hemolysis, is lacking, especially in an Oriental population. METHODS: nineteen runners were prospectively recruited into our study...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129021/the-effect-of-natural-or-simulated-altitude-training-on-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance-in-team-sport-athletes-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Hamlin, Catherine A Lizamore, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. METHODS: A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model...
November 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092526/evaluation-of-low-frequency-operational-limit-of-proposed-iter-low-field-side-reflectometer-waveguide-run-including-miter-bends
#3
G Wang, W A Peebles, E J Doyle, N A Crocker, C Wannberg, C Lau, G R Hanson, J L Doane
The present design concept for the ITER low-field-side reflectometer transmission line (TL) consists of an ∼40 m long, 6.35 cm diameter helically corrugated waveguide (WG) together with ten 90° miter bends. This paper presents an evaluation of the TL performance at low frequencies (33-50 GHz) where the predicted HE11 mode ohmic and mode conversion losses start to increase significantly. Quasi-optical techniques were used to form a near Gaussian beam to efficiently couple radiation in this frequency range into the WG...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077488/perspectives-on-long-distance-air-travel-with-type-1-diabetes
#4
Jordan E Pinsker, Benjamen E Schoenberg, Colleen Garey, Asher Runion, Arianna Larez, David Kerr
We sought to determine the real-life experiences of individuals traveling long distance (across five or more time-zones) with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Five hundred three members of the T1D Exchange online community ( www.myglu.org ) completed a 45-question survey about their travel experiences flying long distance. The cohort was stratified by duration of T1D and whether or not participants used continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy and/or a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). In the last 5 years, 71% of participants had flown long distance...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070954/race-predictors-and-hemodynamic-alteration-after-an-ultra-trail-marathon-race
#5
Noppon Taksaudom, Natee Tongsiri, Amarit Potikul, Chawakorn Leampriboon, Apichat Tantraworasin, Anong Chaiyasri
OBJECTIVE: Unique rough-terrain ultra-trail running races have increased in popularity. Concerns regarding the suitability of the candidates make it difficult for organizers to manage safety regulations. The purpose of this study was to identify possible race predictors and assess hemodynamic change after long endurance races. METHODS: We studied 228 runners who competed in a 66 km-trail running race. A questionnaire and noninvasive hemodynamic flow assessment including blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, stroke volume variation, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation were used to determine physiologic alterations and to identify finish predictors...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069224/effects-of-a-4-week-high-intensity-interval-training-on-pacing-during-5-km-running-trial
#6
R Silva, M Damasceno, R Cruz, M D Silva-Cavalcante, A E Lima-Silva, D J Bishop, R Bertuzzi
This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8) or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8). The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and peak treadmill speed (PTS)...
October 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044770/effects-of-forced-passive-and-voluntary-exercise-on-spinal-motoneurons-changes-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#7
Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injury, there are important changes at the spinal level that can lead to disorganization of the central circuitry and thus, compromise functional recovery even if axons are able to successfully regenerate and reinnervate their target organs. Physical rehabilitation is a promising strategy to modulate these plastic changes and thus, to improve functional recovery after damage of the nervous system. Forced exercise in a treadmill is able to partially reverse the synaptic stripping and the loss of perineuronal nets that motoneurons suffer after peripheral nerve injury in animal models...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042647/ultrasensitive-high-dynamic-range-and-broadband-strain-sensing-by-time-of-flight-detection-with-femtosecond-laser-frequency-combs
#8
Xing Lu, Shuangyou Zhang, Xing Chen, Dohyeon Kwon, Chan-Gi Jeon, Zhigang Zhang, Jungwon Kim, Kebin Shi
Ultrahigh-resolution optical strain sensors provide powerful tools in various scientific and engineering fields, ranging from long-baseline interferometers to civil and aerospace industries. Here we demonstrate an ultrahigh-resolution fibre strain sensing method by directly detecting the time-of-flight (TOF) change of the optical pulse train generated from a free-running passively mode-locked laser (MLL) frequency comb. We achieved a local strain resolution of 18 pε/Hz(1/2) and 1.9 pε/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz and 3 kHz, respectively, with large dynamic range of >154 dB at 3 kHz...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035596/the-elevated-track-in-pole-vault-an-advantage-during-run-up
#9
Johan Cassirame, Hervé Sanchez, Jean Benoit Morin
Approach speed is a major determinant of pole-vault performance. Athletic jump events such as long jump, triple jump and pole vault can utilise an elevated track for the runway. Feedback from athletes indicates a benefit of using an elevated track on their results. However, there is no evidence that elevated tracks do increase athletes' performance. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the potential advantage of using an elevated track during elite pole-vault competitions on run-up speed parameters...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023328/strength-and-conditioning-habits-of-competitive-distance-runners
#10
Richard C Blagrove, Nicola Brown, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
Blagrove, RC, Brown, N, Howatson, G, and Hayes, PR. Strength and conditioning habits of competitive distance runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Targeted strength and conditioning (S&C) programs can potentially improve performance and reduce injury risk factors in competitive runners. However, S&C practices of distance runners are unknown. This study aimed to explore S&C practices of competitive middle- and long-distance runners and examined whether reported frequency of injuries was influenced by training behaviors...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018542/spatiotemporal-characteristics-of-motor-actions-by-blind-long-jump-athletes
#11
Miguel Angel Torralba, José María Padullés, Jose Luis Losada, Jose Luis López
BACKGROUND: Blind people depend on spatial and temporal representations to perform activities of daily living and compete in sport. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the spatiotemporal characteristics of long jumps performed by blind athletes and compare findings with those reported for sighted athletes. METHODS: We analysed a sample of 12 male athletes competing in the F11 Long Jump Finals at the Paralympic Games in London 2012...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988513/step-to-step-spatiotemporal-variables-and-ground-reaction-forces-of-intra-individual-fastest-sprinting-in-a-single-session
#12
Ryu Nagahara, Mirai Mizutani, Akifumi Matsuo, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
We aimed to investigate the step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces during the acceleration phase for characterising intra-individual fastest sprinting within a single session. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces produced by 15 male athletes were measured over a 50-m distance during repeated (three to five) 60-m sprints using a long force platform system. Differences in measured variables between the fastest and slowest trials were examined at each step until the 22nd step using a magnitude-based inferences approach...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986086/functional-physical-training-improves-women-s-military-occupational-performance
#13
Bradley C Nindl, Shawn R Eagle, Peter N Frykman, Christopher Palmer, Eric Lammi, Katy Reynolds, Katelyn Allison, Everett Harman
The U.S. Armed Forces have recently approved full integration of women into combat roles. Physical fitness demands for executing Military Occupational Specialties (MOS) are substantial; thus lifting and load carriage capability improvements are desirable. OBJECTIVES: To determine if a specially-designed physical conditioning program could lessen the gap between the performance of male and female Soldiers in lifting and load carriage and thereby enable women to meet the requirements of most, if not all, Army MOSs...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967304/systemic-smad7-gene-therapy-increases-striated-muscle-mass-and-enhances-exercise-capacity-in-a-dose-dependent-manner
#14
Joseph W Maricelli, Yemeserach M Bishaw, Bo Wang, Min Du, Buel D Rodgers
Striated muscle wasting occurs with a variety of disease indications, contributing to mortality and compromising life quality. Recent studies indicate that the recombinant adeno-associated virus (serotype 6) Smad7 gene therapeutic, AVGN7, enhances skeletal and cardiac muscle mass and prevents cancer-induced wasting of both tissues. This is accomplished by attenuating ActRIIb intracellular signaling and, as a result, the physiological actions of myostatin and other ActRIIb ligands. AVGN7 also enhances isolated skeletal muscle twitch force, but is unknown to improve systemic muscle function similarly, especially exercise capacity...
November 10, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965337/stress-fracture-influences-bone-resorption-marker-u-ntx-in-female-long-distance-runners
#15
Shimpei Fujita, Keishoku Sakuraba, Atsushi Kubota, Kenta Wakamatsu, Natsue Koikawa
In this study, we aim to clarify the influence based on bone resorption markers at onset of stress fracture. Also, we will clarify the state of the bone resorption markers of female long distance runners who have a history of stress fracture and also ones who routinely practices running long distances. Participants comprised 19 female long distance athletes. The survey period was 2011-2014, and we measured u-NTX as a bone resorption marker at least twice a year, taking the mean±SD of the periodic measured values without stress fracture as the mean value...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958753/exercise-pattern-and-distance-differentially-affect-hippocampal-and-cerebellar-expression-of-flk-1-and-flt-1-receptors-in-astrocytes-and-blood-vessels
#16
Morgan E Stevenson, Vienna K Behnke, Rodney A Swain
Aerobic exercise benefits the body and brain. In the brain, benefits include neuroprotection and improved cognition. These exercise-induced changes are attributed in part to angiogenesis: the growth of new capillaries from preexisting vessels. One critical factor involved in the regulation of angiogenesis is VEGF and its receptors Flk-1 and Flt-1. Although exercise is generally found to be beneficial, there are wide variations in exercise regimens across experiments. This study standardized some of these variations...
September 25, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947176/gait-kinetics-kinematics-spatiotemporal-and-foot-plantar-pressure-alteration-in-response-to-long-distance-running-systematic-review
#17
Hyun Kyung Kim, Seyed Ali Mirjalili, Justin Fernandez
The aim of this systematic review was to obtain an improved insight of the present state of knowledge regarding the effect of long-distance running on gait kinetics, kinematics, spatiotemporal and foot plantar pressure. Electronic databases were searched for articles relating to biomechanical modification following long-distance running, published in English between 1990 and 2016. All the studies presenting gait parameters before and after long-distance running were included. A modified Quality Index was used for assessing methodological quality...
September 22, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900570/running-injury-development-the-attitudes-of-middle-and-long-distance-runners-and-their-coaches
#18
Karen Krogh Johansen, Adam Hulme, Camma Damsted, Daniel Ramskov, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs...
August 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893264/maximizing-research-study-effectiveness-in-malaria-elimination-settings-a-mixed-methods-study-to-capture-the-experiences-of-field-based-staff
#19
Sara E Canavati, Cesia E Quintero, Britt Haller, Dysoley Lek, Sovann Yok, Jack S Richards, Maxine Anne Whittaker
BACKGROUND: In a drug-resistant, malaria elimination setting like Western Cambodia, field research is essential for the development of novel anti-malarial regimens and the public health solutions necessary to monitor the spread of resistance and eliminate infection. Such field studies often face a variety of similar implementation challenges, but these are rarely captured in a systematic way or used to optimize future study designs that might overcome similar challenges. Field-based research staff often have extensive experience and can provide valuable insight regarding these issues, but their perspectives and experiences are rarely documented and seldom integrated into future research protocols...
September 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872377/the-influence-of-rotations-on-match-running-performance-in-female-australian-football-midfielders
#20
Georgia M Black, Tim J Gabbett, Rich D Johnston, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H Cole, Brian Dawson
PURPOSE: With female Australian football (AF) gaining popularity, the understanding of match demands is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study compare running performances of rotated and whole-quarter state level female Australian Football players during match quarters. METHODS: Twenty-two state-level female AF midfielders wore global positioning system units during 14 games to evaluate activity profiles. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1[Yo-Yo IR1]) was used as a measure of high-intensity running ability...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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