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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761269/effects-of-running-a-marathon-on-irisin-concentration-in-men-aged-over-50
#1
Paweł Jóźków, Dawid Koźlenia, Katarzyna Zawadzka, Marek Konefał, Paweł Chmura, Katarzyna Młynarska, Michał Kosowski, Marek Mędraś, Jan Chmura, Piotr Ponikowski, Jacek Daroszewski
Our aim was to verify whether running a marathon is associated with changes in irisin concentration in healthy, endurance-trained men. In an observational study, we assessed baseline biochemical and fitness parameters of 28 middle-aged runners (mean ± SD age, BMI, VO2max : 58 ± 8 years; 24.5 ± 3 kg/m2 ; 51.1 ± 1.7 ml/kg/min). We evaluated irisin before, immediately after, and 7 days after the marathon. Irisin concentration decreased from a baseline value of 639 ± 427 to 461 ± 255 ng/ml immediately after the marathon (p < 0...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757286/measurements-of-local-instantaneous-convective-heat-transfer-in-a-pipe-single-and-two-phase-flow
#2
Adam Fershtman, Dvora Barnea, Lev Shemer
This manuscript provides step by step description of the manufacturing process of a test section designed to measure the local instantaneous heat transfer coefficient as a function of the liquid flow rate in a transparent pipe. With certain amendments, the approach is extended to gas-liquid flows, with a particular emphasis on the effect of a single elongated (Taylor) air bubble on heat transfer enhancement. A non-invasive thermography technique is applied to measure the instantaneous temperature of a thin metal foil heated electrically...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731746/response-of-gut-microbiota-to-metabolite-changes-induced-by-endurance-exercise
#3
Xia Zhao, Zhujun Zhang, Bin Hu, Wei Huang, Chao Yuan, Lingyun Zou
A few animal studies have shown that wheel running could reverse an unhealthy status by shifting the gut microbial composition, but no investigations have studied the effect of endurance running, such as marathon running, on human gut microbial communities. Since many findings have shown that marathon running immediately causes metabolic changes in blood, urine, muscles and lymph that potentially impact the gut microbiota (GM) within several hours. Here, we investigated whether the GM immediately responds to the enteric changes in amateur half-marathon runners...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729546/risk-models-for-lower-extremity-injuries-among-short-and-long-distance-runners-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Dennis van Poppel, Gwendolijne G M Scholten-Peeters, Marienke van Middelkoop, Bart W Koes, Arianne P Verhagen
BACKGROUND: Running injuries are very common. Risk factors for running injuries are not consistently described across studies and do not differentiate between runners of long- and short distances within one cohort. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine risk factors for running injuries in recreational long- and short distance runners separately. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: Recreational runners from four different running events are invited to participate...
April 28, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722599/champions-are-racers-not-pacers-an-analysis-of-qualification-patterns-of-olympic-and-iaaf-world-championship-middle-distance-runners
#5
Brian Hanley, Florentina J Hettinga
The aim of this study was to analyse qualification patterns in middle distance running and identify whether athletes adopt theoretically optimal tactics, or whether the will to win overrides these. The performances of 295 men and 258 women finalists in the Olympic and IAAF World Championship 800 m and 1500 m events from 1999 to 2017 were analysed across all three rounds of competition. Finishing position, time and ranking amongst all competitors were found for each athlete. Position in the final was correlated with finishing position in the heats and semi-finals (all P < 0...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715857/investigation-of-antenna-coupled-nb-5-n-6-microbolometer-thz-detector-with-substrate-resonant-cavity
#6
Xuecou Tu, Chengtao Jiang, Peng Xiao, Lin Kang, Shimin Zhai, Zhou Jiang, Run Feng Su, Xiaoqing Jia, Labao Zhang, Jian Chen, Peiheng Wu
Fabricating resonant cavities with conventional methods to improve the coupling efficiency of a detector in the terahertz (THz) region is difficult for the wavelength is too long. Here, we propose a solution by using the substrate cavity effect given that the substrate wavelength and thickness of the preparation device are in the same order. The planar dipole antenna-coupled Nb5 N6 microbolometers with different substrate thicknesses were fabricated. The interference effect of the substrate cavity on the optical voltage response of the detector is analyzed experimentally and theoretically...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706513/the-geomagnetic-field-is-a-compass-cue-in-cataglyphis-ant-navigation
#7
Pauline Nikola Fleischmann, Robin Grob, Valentin Leander Müller, Rüdiger Wehner, Wolfgang Rössler
Desert ants (Cataglyphis) are famous insect navigators. During their foraging lives, the ants leave their underground colonies for long distances and return to their starting point with fair accuracy [1, 2]. Their incessantly running path integrator provides them with a continually updated home vector [3-5]. Directional input to their path integrator is provided by a visual compass based on celestial cues [6, 7]. However, as path integration is prone to cumulative errors, the ants additionally employ landmark guidance routines [8-11]...
April 20, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703373/the-paper-that-restarted-modern-central-nervous-system-axon-regeneration-research
#8
James W Fawcett
Spinal cord repair research appeared to have run out of new ideas in the 1970s. In a 1981 paper, the Aguayo Laboratory revisited an experiment by Tello and Cajal that suggested that central nervous system (CNS) axons could regenerate into peripheral nerve grafts. Using modern axon tracing methods, David and Aguayo showed that axons from neurons in the spinal cord could regenerate for long distances within peripheral nervous system (PNS) grafts, but not back into the CNS. This proved that damaged CNS tissue is inhibitory to axon regeneration while PNS tissue is permissive...
May 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665463/long-term-exposure-to-wind-turbine-noise-at-night-and-risk-for-diabetes-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#9
Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Alfredo Peña, Andrea N Hahmann, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Jørgen Brandt, Mette Sørensen
Focus on renewable energy sources and reduced unit costs has led to increased number of wind turbines (WTs). WT noise (WTN) is reported to be highly annoying at levels from 30 to 35 dB and up, whereas for traffic noise people report to be highly annoyed from 40 to 45 dB and up. This has raised concerns as to whether WTN may increase risk for major diseases, as exposure to traffic noise has consistently been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20 WT heights and 25% of all dwellings within 20-40 WT heights from a WT...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651510/-vomiting-and-collapse-of-a-28-year-old-male-long-distance-runner-in-middle-european-summer
#10
J Herold, A Mitrasch, E Lorenz, U Lodes, I Tanev, R Braun-Dullaeus, F Meyer
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia often ends fatally and must therefore be promptly recognized and adequately treated. CASE: A 28-year-old man participated in a long-distance race (3 km) on a hot summer day (28 °C). The runner collapsed, had to vomit but continued the run and reached the finish. Neurologically, the patient presented with intermittent cerebral seizures. External cooling batteries were immediately applied and cold infusions were started. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit of the university hospital (body temperature 40...
April 12, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643814/impact-of-short-term-training-camp-on-aortic-blood-pressure-in-collegiate-endurance-runners
#11
Tsubasa Tomoto, Jun Sugawara, Ai Hirasawa, Tomoko Imai, Seiji Maeda, Shigehiko Ogoh
To investigate the influence of short-term vigorous endurance training on aortic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave analysis was performed in 36 highly trained elite collegiate endurance runners before and after a 7-day intense training camp. Subjects participated three training sessions per day, which mainly consisted of long distance running and sprint training to reach the daily target distance of 26 km. After the camp, they were divided into two groups based on whether the target training was achieved. Aortic systolic BP, pulse pressure, and tension-time index (TTI, a surrogate index of the myocardial oxygen demand) were significantly elevated after the camp in the accomplished group but not in the unaccomplished group, whereas the brachial BP remained unchanged in both groups...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623809/participation-in-active-play-of-children-who-use-lower-extremity-prostheses-an-exploratory-questionnaire
#12
Cheryl Kerfeld, Tracy Jirikowic, Katheryn J Allyn, Murray E Maitland
BACKGROUND: Through play, children develop motor, cognitive, social, and other life skills. Play barriers can impede physical and psychosocial benefits. OBJECTIVES: We describe participation in active play, fundamental movement skills, play environment characteristics, and potential play barriers for school-aged children (6-12 years) who use lower extremity prostheses. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire study. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed and administered online to parents of children 6-12 years who use lower extremity prostheses...
April 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604955/multivariate-analysis-of-covariates-of-adherence-among-hiv-positive-mothers-with-low-viral-suppression
#13
Tamara Nsubuga-Nyombi, Simon Sensalire, Esther Karamagi, Judith Aloyo, John Byabagambi, Mirwais Rahimzai, Linda Kisaakye Nabitaka, Jacqueline Calnan
BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to improve the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Northern Uganda, we explored reasons for poor viral suppression among 122 pregnant and lactating women who were in care, received viral load tests, but had not achieved viral suppression and had more than 1000 copies/mL. Understanding the patient factors associated with low viral suppression was of interest to the Ministry of Health to guide the development of tools and interventions to achieve viral suppression for pregnant and lactating women newly initiating on ART as well as those on ART with unsuppressed viral load...
March 31, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599872/responsiveness-of-the-countermovement-jump-and-handgrip-strength-to-an-incremental-running-test-in-endurance-athletes-influence-of-sex
#14
Felipe García-Pinillos, Pedro Delgado-Floody, Cristian Martínez-Salazar, Pedro Á Latorre-Román
The present study analyzed the acute effects of an incremental running test on countermovement jump (CMJ) and handgrip strength performance in endurance athletes, considering the effect of post-exercise recovery time and sex. Thirty-three recreationally trained long-distance runners, 20 men and 13 women, participated voluntarily in this study. The participants performed the Léger test, moreover, the CMJ and handgrip strength tests were carried out before and after the running test and during different stages of recovery (at the 1st min of recovery (posttest1), 5th min of recovery (posttest2), and 10th min of recovery (posttest3))...
March 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576951/change-in-skeletal-muscle-stiffness-after-running-competition-is-dependent-on-both-running-distance-and-recovery-time-a-pilot-study
#15
Seyedali Sadeghi, Cassidy Newman, Daniel H Cortes
Long-distance running competitions impose a large amount of mechanical loading and strain leading to muscle edema and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Damage to various muscle fibers, metabolic impairments and fatigue have been linked to explain how DOMS impairs muscle function. Disruptions of muscle fiber during DOMS exacerbated by exercise have been shown to change muscle mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to quantify changes in mechanical properties of different muscles in the thigh and lower leg as function of running distance and time after competition...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571322/long-term-treatment-of-tamoxifen-and-raloxifene-alleviates-dystrophic-phenotype-and-enhances-muscle-functions-of-fkrp-dystroglycanopathy
#16
Bo Wu, Sapana N Shah, Peijuan Lu, Lauren E Bollinger, Anthony Blaeser, Susan Sparks, Amy D Harper, Qi L Lu
The third most common form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophies is caused by mutations of the Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene, with no effective therapy available. Selective estrogen receptor modulators, tamoxifen and raloxifene, have been widely used for human conditions for their anti-inflammatory, antifibrosis, prevention of bone loss, and muscle building effects (essential features for muscular dystrophy therapies). We evaluated therapeutic values of tamoxifen and raloxifene in FKRPP448L mutant mouse with severe dystrophic phenotype...
April 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550786/quantification-of-energy-expenditure-of-military-loaded-runs-what-is-the-performance-of-laboratory-based-equations-when-applied-to-the-field-environment
#17
Alessandro L Colosio, S Pogliaghi
INTRODUCTION: Performance during army loaded runs provides a synthetic indicator of a soldier's capacity to move while carrying loads and thereby remain able to execute a mission. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare the energy expenditure (EE) of army loaded runs, conducted in a field environment using laboratory-based equations and HR index (HRindex ). METHODS: 45 Ranger recruits had HR monitored during three loaded runs (10, 15 and 20 km) in full military equipment in the field environment...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543080/peak-age-and-performance-progression-in-world-class-track-and-field-athletes
#18
Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533830/source-apportionment-of-pm-2-5-using-positive-matrix-factorization-pmf-at-a-rural-site-in-korea
#19
Sunhye Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Seung-Muk Yi, Jongbae Heo
The sources of different pollutants contributing to ambient fine particles (PM2.5 ) on Daebu Island, Korea, were estimated. Twenty four hour integrated filter samples were collected from May 21-November 1, 2016, and analyzed for organic carbon, elemental carbon, ions, and trace elements. Positive matrix factorization was conducted on the PM2.5 chemical speciation data from the samples to define the pathways and sources of PM2.5 at the sampling site. A total of 80 samples and 24 chemical species were used to run the model and a total of nine sources were identified: secondary sulfate (29...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525108/international-challenge-to-model-the-long-range-transport-of-radioxenon-released-from-medical-isotope-production-to-six-comprehensive-nuclear-test-ban-treaty-monitoring-stations
#20
Christian Maurer, Jonathan Baré, Jolanta Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Alice Crawford, Paul W Eslinger, Petra Seibert, Blake Orr, Anne Philipp, Ole Ross, Sylvia Generoso, Pascal Achim, Michael Schoeppner, Alain Malo, Anders Ringbom, Olivier Saunier, Denis Quèlo, Anne Mathieu, Yuichi Kijima, Ariel Stein, Tianfeng Chai, Fong Ngan, Susan J Leadbetter, Pieter De Meutter, Andy Delcloo, Rich Britton, Ashley Davies, Lee G Glascoe, Donald D Lucas, Matthew D Simpson, Phil Vogt, Martin Kalinowski, Theodore W Bowyer
After performing a first multi-model exercise in 2015 a comprehensive and technically more demanding atmospheric transport modelling challenge was organized in 2016. Release data were provided by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization radiopharmaceutical facility in Sydney (Australia) for a one month period. Measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from six International Monitoring System stations in the Southern Hemisphere with distances to the source ranging between 680 (Melbourne) and about 17,000 km (Tristan da Cunha)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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