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valvular heart diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791711/percutaneous-edge-to-edge-transcatheter-mitral-valve-repair-current-indications-and-future-perspectives
#1
Martino Pepe, Emanuela De Cillis, Tommaso Acquaviva, Annagrazia Cecere, Pasquale D'Alessandro, Arturo Giordano, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Alessandro Santo Bortone
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most prevalent valvular heart disease (VHD) and represents an important cause of heart failure. Medical therapy has a limited role in improving symptoms and does not hinder the progression of valvular disease. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe symptomatic MR; valve repair is currently the preferred surgical approach because it reduces peri-operative mortality and ensures a good medium- to long-term survival outcome. Nevertheless, a non-negligible proportion of patients with indications for surgical correction are considered to be at prohibitive perioperative risk, mainly because of old age and multiple comorbidities...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784000/the-homing-of-bone-marrow-stem-cells-is-differentially-activated-in-ischemic-and-valvular-heart-diseases-and-influenced-by-beta-blockers
#2
Melissa Kristocheck, Lucinara D Dias, Carine Ghem, Bruna Eibel, Renato A K Kalil, Melissa M Markoski
BACKGROUND: Cell homing is the mechanism by which an injury releases signaling molecules that cause recruitment, proliferation, migration and differentiation of progenitor cells. Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 are key molecules involved in homing and little is known about their activation in cardiopathies. Here, we assessed the homing activation status of bone marrow cells (BMC) concerning the SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression in ischemic (IHD) and valvular (VHD) heart diseases...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783950/effects-of-the-cardiac-myosin-activator-omecamtiv-mecarbil-on-severe-chronic-aortic-regurgitation-in-wistar-rats
#3
Bachar El-Oumeiri, Kathleen Mc Entee, Filippo Annoni, Antoine Herpain, Frédéric Vanden Eynden, Pascal Jespers, Guido Van Nooten, Philippe van de Borne
BACKGROUND: Aortic regurgitation (AR) is a valvular disease that can lead to systolic heart failure. Treatment options besides cardiac surgery are limited and consequently severe AR is associated with higher mortality and morbidity when not operated. In this investigation, we examined the effects of a novel cardiac myosin activator, Omecamtiv-mecarbil (OM), in rats with chronic severe AR. METHODS: AR was created by retrograde puncture of the aortic valve leaflets in 20 adults Wistar rats...
May 21, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762925/association-between-myxomatous-mitral-valve-disease-and-skeletal-back-abnormalities
#4
Alireza Movahed, David Majdalany, Marc Gillinov, William Schiavone
BACKGROUND: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is one of the most prevalent valvular heart diseases, while back pain, neck pain and upper-extremity numbness are some of the most common complaints in outpatient settings. Decreased thoracic kyphosis (straight back) is a known cause of hastening back or neck problems, radiculopathy, or even myelopathy. The study aim was to examine the relationship between MMVD, straight back, and the need for cervical fusion. METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, patients who underwent mitral valve repair or replacement due to MMVD (cases) based on age, gender and body mass index (BMI), were matched with patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery and had no history of mitral valve disease (controls)...
September 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762842/the-role-of-commonly-used-clinical-indicators-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-heart-failure
#5
X-L Wang, J-M Lei, Y Yuan, L Feng, Y Ning, Y-F Liu
OBJECTIVE: Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the most commonly seen clinical cases, with a high rate of re-hospitalization and mortality. AHF can be divided into two categories based on the systolic function of the left ventricle, which are heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Pathogenesis and treatment of the two are quite different. In this article we attempted to explore the value of combined use of clinical and laboratory indicators in the differential diagnosis of AHFREF and AHFPEF...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761409/the-roles-of-matrix-stiffness-and-%C3%A3-catenin-signaling-in-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-aortic-valve-endothelial-cells
#6
Aileen Zhong, Zahra Mirzaei, Craig A Simmons
Valve stiffening is a hallmark of aortic valve stenosis caused by excess extracellular matrix accumulation by myofibroblasts. We aimed to elucidate whether matrix stiffness regulates endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of adult valvular endothelial cells (VECs) to myofibroblasts as a mechanism to further promote valve fibrosis. In addition, we specifically examined the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the development of myofibroblasts during EndMT, as Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in EndMT during heart development, is reactivated in valve disease, and is required for mechanically-regulated myofibrogenesis of valve interstitial cells...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755478/the-contribution-of-autoantibodies-to-inflammatory-cardiovascular-pathology
#7
REVIEW
Lee A Meier, Bryce A Binstadt
Chronic inflammation and resulting tissue damage underlie the vast majority of acquired cardiovascular disease (CVD), a general term encompassing a widely diverse array of conditions. Both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms contribute to chronic inflammation in CVD. Although maladies, such as atherosclerosis and cardiac fibrosis, are commonly conceptualized as disorders of inflammation, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that promote inflammation during the natural history of these diseases in human patients are not fully defined...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755033/impact-of-a-history-of-hypertension-in-pregnancy-on-later-diagnosis-of-atrial-fibrillation
#8
Dawn C Scantlebury, Andrea G Kattah, Tracey L Weissgerber, Sanket Agarwal, Michelle M Mielke, Amy L Weaver, Lisa E Vaughan, Stanislav Henkin, Katherine Zimmerman, Virginia M Miller, Wendy M White, Sharonne N Hayes, Vesna D Garovic
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) produces significant morbidity in women and is typically attributed to cardiac remodeling from multiple causes, particularly hypertension. Hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPDs) are associated with future hypertension and adverse cardiac remodeling. We evaluated whether women with AF were more likely to have experienced a HPD compared with those without. METHODS AND RESULTS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 7566 women who had a live or stillbirth delivery in Olmsted County, Minnesota between 1976 and 1982...
May 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754663/the-prognostic-value-of-the-relationship-between-right-atrial-and-pulmonary-capillary-wedge-pressure-in-diverse-cardiovascular-conditions
#9
Douglas Marshall Brinkley, Kalon K L Ho, Mark H Drazner, Robb D Kociol
BACKGROUND: Physical examination of jugular venous pressure is used to estimate right atrial (RA) pressure and infer left-sided filling pressure to assist volume management. Previous studies in advanced heart failure patients showed about 75% concordance between RA and pulmonary capillary wedge (PCW) pressures. We sought to determine the relationship between mean RA and mean PCW pressure and assess the clinical significance in a broad population of patients undergoing invasive right heart catheterization (RHC)...
May 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751516/engineering-a-3d-bioprinted-model-of-human-heart-valve-disease-using-nanoindentation-based-biomechanics
#10
Dewy C van der Valk, Casper F T van der Ven, Mark C Blaser, Joshua M Grolman, Pin-Jou Wu, Owen S Fenton, Lang H Lee, Mark W Tibbitt, Jason L Andresen, Jennifer R Wen, Anna H Ha, Fabrizio Buffolo, Alain van Mil, Carlijn V C Bouten, Simon C Body, David J Mooney, Joost P G Sluijter, Masanori Aikawa, Jesper Hjortnaes, Robert Langer, Elena Aikawa
In calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), microcalcifications originating from nanoscale calcifying vesicles disrupt the aortic valve (AV) leaflets, which consist of three (biomechanically) distinct layers: the fibrosa, spongiosa, and ventricularis. CAVD has no pharmacotherapy and lacks in vitro models as a result of complex valvular biomechanical features surrounding resident mechanosensitive valvular interstitial cells (VICs). We measured layer-specific mechanical properties of the human AV and engineered a three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinted CAVD model that recapitulates leaflet layer biomechanics for the first time...
May 3, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747049/thromboembolic-findings-in-patients-with-heart-failure-at-autopsy
#11
Isabella Sales de Macedo, Layara Fernanda Lipari Dinardi, Thiago Vicente Pereira, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues de Almeida, Thaisa Silveira Barbosa, Luiz Alberto Benvenuti, Silvia Moreira Ayub-Ferreira, Edimar Alcides Bocchi, Victor Sarli Issa
BACKGROUND: The risk of thromboembolic events is increased in patients with heart failure (HF); however, few studies have reported thromboembolic findings in HF patients who have undergone autopsy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed 1457 autopsies (January 2000/July 2006) and selected 595 patients with HF. We studied the occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients' autopsy reports. Mean age was 61.8±15.9 years; 376 (63.2%) were men and 219 (36.8%) women; left ventricular ejection fraction was 42...
April 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745463/therapeutic-implications-of-a-combined-diagnostic-workup-including-endomyocardial-biopsy-in-an-all-comer-population-of-patients-with-heart-failure-a-retrospective-analysis
#12
Efthymios Sotiriou, Susanne Heiner, Thomas Jansen, Moritz Brandt, Kai Helge Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich Kreitner, Tilman Emrich, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Eberhard Schulz, Thomas Münzel, Philip Wenzel
BACKGROUND: Aetiology of heart failure (HF) often remains obscure. We therefore evaluated the usefulness of a combined diagnostic approach including cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) to assess the cause of unexplained cardiomyopathy underlying HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively investigated 100 consecutive patients (36% women, mean age 53.6 ± 18.8 years) presenting with unexplained cardiomyopathy (HF with reduced ejection fraction or left ventricular hypertrophy; excluding ischaemic and valvular heart disease; left ventricular ejection fraction 31...
May 10, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743347/computational-modeling-guides-tissue-engineered-heart-valve-design-for-long-term-in-vivo-performance-in-a-translational-sheep-model
#13
Maximilian Y Emmert, Boris A Schmitt, Sandra Loerakker, Bart Sanders, Hendrik Spriestersbach, Emanuela S Fioretta, Leon Bruder, Kerstin Brakmann, Sarah E Motta, Valentina Lintas, Petra E Dijkman, Laura Frese, Felix Berger, Frank P T Baaijens, Simon P Hoerstrup
Valvular heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current heart valve prostheses have considerable clinical limitations due to their artificial, nonliving nature without regenerative capacity. To overcome these limitations, heart valve tissue engineering (TE) aiming to develop living, native-like heart valves with self-repair, remodeling, and regeneration capacity has been suggested as next-generation technology. A major roadblock to clinically relevant, safe, and robust TE solutions has been the high complexity and variability inherent to bioengineering approaches that rely on cell-driven tissue remodeling...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740951/clinical-risk-factors-for-acute-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis
#14
Ives Valenzuela, Madeleine D Hunter, Kathryn Sundheim, Bradley Klein, Lauren Dunn, Robert Sorabella, Sang M Han, Joshua Willey, Isaac George, Jose Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Stroke as a complication of infective endocarditis portends a poor prognosis, yet risk factors for stroke subtype have not been well defined. AIM: To identify risk factors associated with ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. METHODS: A retrospective patient chart review was performed at a single U.S. academic center to identify risk factors and imaging for patients 18 years or older with infectious endocarditis and stroke diagnoses...
May 9, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740591/postnatal-and-adult-aortic-heart-valves-have-distinctive-transcriptional-profiles-associated-with-valve-tissue-growth-and-maintenance-respectively
#15
Emily Nordquist, Stephanie LaHaye, Casey Nagel, Joy Lincoln
Heart valves are organized connective tissues of high mechanical demand. They open and close over 100,000 times a day to preserve unidirectional blood flow by maintaining structure-function relationships throughout life. In affected individuals, structural failure compromises function and often leads to regurgitant blood flow and progressive heart failure. This is most common in degenerative valve disease due to age-related wear and tear, or congenital malformations. At present, the only effective treatment of valve disease is surgical repair or replacement and this is often impermanent and requires anti-coagulation therapy throughout life...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739707/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-increased-risk-of-all-cause-mortality-in-elderly-patients-admitted-for-acute-heart-failure
#16
Filippo Valbusa, Davide Agnoletti, Luca Scala, Cristina Grillo, Pietro Arduini, Stefano Bonapace, Stefano Calabria, Giuliana Scaturro, Alessandro Mantovani, Giacomo Zoppini, Emanuela Turcato, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Guido Arcaro, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for incident heart failure (HF). It is currently unknown whether NAFLD predicts all-cause mortality in patients admitted for acute HF. We aimed to assess whether NAFLD and its severity (diagnosed by ultrasonography and non-invasive fibrosis biomarkers) were associated with increased all-cause mortality in this particularly high-risk patient population. METHODS: We studied 264 elderly patients, who were consecutively admitted for acute HF to the hospital between years 2013 and 2015, after excluding those with acute myocardial infarction, severe valvular heart diseases, kidney failure, cancer, cirrhosis of any etiology or known chronic liver diseases...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731322/infective-endocarditis-surgical-management-and-prognostic-predictors
#17
Rita Ilhão Moreira, Madalena Coutinho Cruz, Luísa Moura Branco, Ana Galrinho, Luís Coutinho Miranda, José Fragata, Rui Cruz Ferreira
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is important to determine which factors increase the risk of poor outcome in order to enable early detection and aggressive treatment, including surgery. The aim of our study was to identify factors predicting complications and in-hospital mortality in patients with IE and to analyze conditions predisposing to surgery and its outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study including patients with IE who underwent transesophageal echocardiography in a tertiary hospital center (2006-2014)...
May 3, 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727769/lymphocyte-and-monocyte-subpopulations-in-severe-aortic-stenosis-at-the-time-of-surgical-intervention
#18
Piotr Mazur, Aleksandra Mielimonka, Joanna Natorska, Ewa Wypasek, Bogusław Gawęda, Dorota Sobczyk, Przemysław Kapusta, Krzysztof Piotr Malinowski, Bogusław Kapelak
INTRODUCTION: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common acquired valvular heart disease in adults. Immune system involvement becomes evident during AS development. We sought to investigate the role of different circulating lymphocyte and monocyte subpopulations, with focus on CD4+ CD8+ and natural killer T (NKT) cells, in AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples and aortic valves were obtained from patients undergoing elective aortic valve surgery. Valves were dissected and underwent genetic analyses and calcium content assessment...
April 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724358/valvular-heart-disease-in-patients-%C3%A2-80-years-of-age
#19
REVIEW
Susheel K Kodali, Poonam Velagapudi, Rebecca T Hahn, Dawn Abbott, Martin B Leon
In the United States, the octogenarian population is projected to triple by 2050. With this aging population, the prevalence of valvular heart disease (VHD) is on the rise. The etiology, approach to treatment, and expected outcomes of VHD are different in the elderly compared with younger patients. Both stenotic and regurgitant lesions are associated with unfavorable outcomes if left untreated. Surgical mortality remains high due to multiple co-morbidities, and long-term survival benefit is dependent on many variables including valvular pathology...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723895/anticancer-drug-related-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-challenges-in-management-and-antithrombotic-strategies
#20
Antonella Tufano, Maurizio Galderisi, Luca Esposito, Valentina Trimarco, Daniela Sorriento, Guy Gerusalem, Marco Picardi, Patrizio Lancellotti, Fabrizio Pane
Cancer patients may experience nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) as a manifestation of cardiotoxicity. AF may be a direct effect of a neoplasm or, more often, appear as a postsurgical complication, especially after thoracic surgery. AF may also develop as a consequence of anticancer therapy (chemotherapy or radiotherapy), a condition probably underestimated. Cancer patients with AF require a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists/hematologists, cardiologists, and coagulation experts. An echocardiogram should be performed to detect possible abnormalities of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, as well as left atrial dilation and the existence of valvular heart disease, to determine pretest probability of sinus rhythm restoration, and identify the best treatment...
May 3, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
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