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Stress model for neurodegenerative disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721811/moving-to-the-rhythm-with-clock-circadian-genes-autophagy-mtor-and-sirt1-in-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#1
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: The mammalian circadian clock and its associated clock genes are increasingly be recognized as critical components for a number of physiological and disease processes that extend beyond hormone release, thermal regulation, and sleep-wake cycles. New evidence suggests that clinical behavior disruptions that involve prolonged shift work and even space travel may negatively impact circadian rhythm and lead to multi-system disease. METHODS: In light of the significant role circadian rhythm can hold over the body's normal physiology as well as disease processes, we examined and discussed the impact circadian rhythm and clock genes hold over lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders, and tumorigenesis...
July 17, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717189/cdk5-mediated-phosphorylation-of-xbp1s-contributes-to-its-nuclear-translocation-and-activation-in-mpp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-model
#2
Feng-Juan Jiao, Qing-Zhi Wang, Pei Zhang, Jian-Guo Yan, Zheng Zhang, Feng He, Qian Zhang, Ze-Xi Lv, Xiang Peng, Hong-Wei Cai, Bo Tian
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Growing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum stress is a hallmark of PD; however, its exact contribution to the disease process remains poorly understood. Here, we used molecular biology methods and RNA-Seq analysis to explored an unexpected role of spliced X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) in the nervous system. In this study, we determined that the IRE1α/XBP1 pathway is activated in MPP(+)-treated neurons...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684694/neuroprotective-effects-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-against-dopaminergic-neuron-injury-in-a-murine-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-induced-by-mptp
#3
Juan M Viveros-Paredes, Rocio E González-Castañeda, Juerg Gertsch, Veronica Chaparro-Huerta, Rocio I López-Roa, Eduardo Vázquez-Valls, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Antoni Camins-Espuny, Mario E Flores-Soto
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although the causes of PD are not understood, evidence suggests that its pathogenesis is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent studies have suggested a protective role of the cannabinoid signalling system in PD. β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is an agonist of the cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R)...
July 6, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674941/coffee-extract-and-caffeine-enhance-the-heat-shock-response-and-promote-proteostasis-in-an-hsf-1-dependent-manner-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Jessica Brunquell, Stephanie Morris, Alana Snyder, Sandy D Westerheide
As the population ages, there is a critical need to uncover strategies to combat diseases of aging. Studies in the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have demonstrated the protective effects of coffee extract and caffeine in promoting the induction of conserved longevity pathways including the insulin-like signaling pathway and the oxidative stress response. We were interested in determining the effects of coffee and caffeine treatment on the regulation of the heat shock response. The heat shock response is a highly conserved cellular response that functions as a cytoprotective mechanism during stress, mediated by the heat shock transcription factor HSF-1...
July 4, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673739/sirtuin-3-rescues-neurons-through-the-stabilisation-of-mitochondrial-biogenetics-in-the-virally-expressing-mutant-%C3%AE-synuclein-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#5
Jacqueline A Gleave, Lindsay R Arathoon, Dennison Trinh, Kristin E Lizal, Nicolas Giguère, James H M Barber, Zainab Najarali, M Hassan Khan, Sherri L Thiele, Mahin S Semmen, James B Koprich, Jonathan M Brotchie, James H Eubanks, Louis-Eric Trudeau, Joanne E Nash
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder, which affects approximately 1-2% of the population over 60years of age. Current treatments for PD are symptomatic, and the pathology of the disease continues to progresses over time until palliative care is required. Mitochondria are key players in the pathology of PD. Genetic and post mortem studies have shown a large number of mitochondrial abnormalities in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the parkinsonian brain. Furthermore, physiologically, mitochondria of nigral neurons are constantly under unusually high levels of metabolic stress because of the excitatory properties and architecture of these neurons...
July 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651456/phytochemical-treatments-target-kynurenine-pathway-induced-oxidative-stress
#6
K Parasram
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to link the phytochemical and metabolic research treating quinolinic acid induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: Quinolinic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, plays a role in the oxidative stress associated with many neurological disorders and is used to simulate disorders such as Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: In these models, phytochemicals have been shown to reduce striatal lesion size, reduce inflammation and prevent lipid peroxidation caused by quinolinic acid...
June 26, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642233/sembragiline-a-novel-selective-monoamine-oxidase-type-b-inhibitor-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Edilio Borroni, Bernd Bohrmann, Fiona Grueninger, Eric Prinssen, Stephane Nave, Hansruedi Loetscher, Shankar J Chinta, Subramanian Rajagopalan, Anand Rane, Almas Siddiqui, Bart Ellenbroek, Juerg Messer, Axel Pahler, Julie K Anderson, Rene Wyler, Andrea M Cesura
Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Increased MAO-B expression in astroglia has been observed adjacent to amyloid plaques in AD patient brains. This phenomenon is hypothesised to lead to increased production of hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby contributing to AD pathology. Therefore, reduction of ROS-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of MAO-B activity may delay the progression of the disease...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641540/metallothionein-is-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Shin-Ichi Ono
Lou Gehrig's disease, a synonym of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is an adult-onset lethal neurodegenerative disorder. Irrespective of extensive efforts to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and searches for therapies, no favorable pharmacotherapeutic strategies have yet to be proposed. In a popular rodent model of ALS, G93A SOD1 mice, intracellular copper conditions were geared toward copper accumulation inside cells, resulting in an acceleration of oxidative stress and apoptotic process. Disruption of intracellular copper homeostasis was common to transgenic mice expressing human mutant SOD1s...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#9
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611658/neuroprotective-and-anti-aging-potentials-of-essential-oils-from-aromatic-and-medicinal-plants
#10
REVIEW
Muhammad Ayaz, Abdul Sadiq, Muhammad Junaid, Farhat Ullah, Fazal Subhan, Jawad Ahmed
The use of essential oils (EOs) and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa, Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Piper nigrum and so many other plants are reported for neuroprotective effects...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592637/in-vivo-imaging-of-prodromal-hippocampus-ca1-subfield-oxidative-stress-in-models-of-alzheimer-disease-and-angelman-syndrome
#11
Bruce A Berkowitz, Jacob Lenning, Nikita Khetarpal, Catherine Tran, Johnny Y Wu, Ali M Berri, Kristin Dernay, E Mark Haacke, Fatema Shafie-Khorassani, Robert H Podolsky, John C Gant, Shaniya Maimaiti, Olivier Thibault, Geoffrey G Murphy, Brian M Bennett, Robin Roberts
Hippocampus oxidative stress is considered pathogenic in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), and in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Angelman syndrome (AS). Yet clinical benefits of antioxidant treatment for these diseases remain unclear because conventional imaging methods are unable to guide management of therapies in specific hippocampus subfields in vivo that underlie abnormal behavior. Excessive production of paramagnetic free radicals in nonhippocampus brain tissue can be measured in vivo as a greater-than-normal 1/T1 that is quenchable with antioxidant as measured by quench-assisted (Quest) MRI...
June 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588483/plastic-and-neuroprotective-mechanisms-involved-in-the-therapeutic-effects-of-cannabidiol-in-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Alline C Campos, Manoela V Fogaça, Franciele F Scarante, Sâmia R L Joca, Amanda J Sales, Felipe V Gomes, Andreza B Sonego, Naielly S Rodrigues, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Francisco S Guimarães
Beneficial effects of cannabidiol (CBD) have been described for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, psychosis, and depression. The mechanisms responsible for these effects, however, are still poorly understood. Similar to clinical antidepressant or atypical antipsychotic drugs, recent findings clearly indicate that CBD, either acutely or repeatedly administered, induces plastic changes. For example, CBD attenuates the decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and dendrite spines density induced by chronic stress and prevents microglia activation and the decrease in the number of parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons in a pharmacological model of schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577963/physiological-and-pathological-processes-of-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory-in-drug-discovery-do-not-forget-the-dose-response-curve
#13
Jos Prickaerts, Nick P Van Goethem, Walter Gulisano, Elentina K Argyrousi, Agostino Palmeri, Daniela Puzzo
The response of a biological system to an endogenous or exogenous molecule depends upon the dose. For this reason, performing dose-response curves is crucial to understand physiological and pathophysiological phenomena, and to predict the effect of a drug. Most of the studies in pharmacological research have been performed according to the classical threshold model, focusing on higher doses able to ensure a biological effect. However, recent evidences pointed out the need to investigate the effect of low doses...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575743/igf-ii-promotes-neuroprotection-and-neuroplasticity-recovery-in-a-long-lasting-model-of-oxidative-damage-induced-by-glucocorticoids
#14
E Martín-Montañez, C Millon, F Boraldi, F Garcia-Guirado, C Pedraza, E Lara, L J Santin, J Pavia, M Garcia-Fernandez
Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a naturally occurring hormone that exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and ageing. Accumulating evidence suggests that the effects of IGF-II in the brain may be explained by its binding to the specific transmembrane receptor, IGFII/M6P receptor (IGF-IIR). However, relatively little is known regarding the role of IGF-II through IGF-IIR in neuroprotection. Here, using adult cortical neuronal cultures, we investigated whether IGF-II exhibits long-term antioxidant effects and neuroprotection at the synaptic level after oxidative damage induced by high and transient levels of corticosterone (CORT)...
May 26, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571715/the-novel-multitarget-iron-chelating-and-propargylamine-drug-m30-affects-app-regulation-and-processing-activities-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models
#15
REVIEW
Tamar Amit, Orit Bar-Am, Danit Mechlovich, Lana Kupershmidt, Moussa B H Youdim, Orly Weinreb
In many of the neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD-related disorders, as well as in the regular ageing process, excessive generation of oxidative stress (OS) and accumulation of iron levels and deposition have been observed in specific affected-brain regions and thus, regarded as contributing factors to the pathogenesis of the diseases. In AD, iron promotes amyloid β (Aβ) neurotoxicity by producing free radical damage and OS in brain areas affected by neurodegeneration, presumably by facilitating the aggregation of Aβ...
May 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545724/the-role-of-ca-2-in-cell-death-caused-by-oxidative-glutamate-toxicity-and-ferroptosis
#16
REVIEW
Pamela Maher, Klaus van Leyen, Partha Narayan Dey, Birgit Honrath, Amalia Dolga, Axel Methner
Ca(2+) ions play a fundamental role in cell death mediated by oxidative glutamate toxicity or oxytosis, a form of programmed cell death similar and possibly identical to other forms of cell death like ferroptosis. Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space occurs late in a cascade characterized by depletion of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione, increases in cytosolic reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we aim to compare oxidative glutamate toxicity with ferroptosis, address the signaling pathways that culminate in Ca(2+) influx and cell death and discuss the proteins that mediate this...
May 12, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543594/the-neuroprotective-role-of-mir-124-3p-in-a-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-cell-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-via-the-regulation-of-anax5
#17
Rui-Fang Dong, Bing Zhang, Li-Wen Tai, Hong-Mei Liu, Fang-Kun Shi, Ning-Ning Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Several pathogenetic factors have been involved in the onset and progression of PD, including inflammation, oxidative stress, unfolded protein accumulation, and apoptosis. Ample evidence indicates that miRNAs could regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and neuronal disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects and mechanism of miR-124-3p on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542430/ros-regulation-of-axonal-mitochondrial-transport-is-mediated-by-ca2-and-jnk-in-drosophila
#18
Pin-Chao Liao, Lauren C Tandarich, Peter J Hollenbeck
Mitochondria perform critical functions including aerobic ATP production and calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, but are also a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To maintain cellular function and survival in neurons, mitochondria are transported along axons, and accumulate in regions with high demand for their functions. Oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial axonal transport are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, we know little about the connection between these two...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479719/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-cape-prevents-development-of-stz-icv-induced-dementia-in-rats
#19
Manish Kumar, Devinder Kaur, Nitin Bansal
BACKGROUND: Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation severely affect the normal physiology of neurons and lead to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Polyphenols proved a boon in the prevention of dementia due to their antioxidant and neuroprotective potential. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a natural polyphenolic compound attributed with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective properties. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the effect of CAPE on experimental dementia in rats...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479214/the-protective-effect-of-astaxanthin-on-learning-and-memory-deficits-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-mouse-model-of-repeated-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#20
Yan Xue, Zhenzhen Qu, Jian Fu, Junli Zhen, Wenjing Wang, Yunlei Cai, Weiping Wang
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The present study was performed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant astaxanthin (ATX) in a mouse model of VCI. VCI was induced in male ICR mice by repeated occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery, leading to repeated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. After surgery, the mice received ATX or an equal volume of vehicle by daily intragastric administration for 28days...
May 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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