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HESC and dopaminergic neurons

Venkatesan Dhivya, Vellingiri Balachandar
The selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) has made an idol target for cell replacement therapies and other emerging surgical treatments. Certainly, by transplantation method, the therapeutic regimens such as human fetal ventral midbrain (hfVM) cells, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human neural stem/precursor/ progenitor cells (hNSCs/hNPCs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), human induced neural stem cells (hiNSCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been used into DA deficient striatum...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
Agnete Kirkeby, Malin Parmar, Roger A Barker
The treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) has for over 50 years relied on dopaminergic therapies that are highly effective especially in the early years of the condition, but ultimately are limited by the development of side effects that relate to the nonphysiological stimulation of dopamine receptors including in nonstriatal areas. Targeted regenerative therapies designed to restore specifically the lost dopaminergic innervation of the striatum would therefore represent a major advance in treating PD. Transplantation of human fetal ventral midbrain tissue to the striatum of PD patients has provided proof-of-principle that such an approach can provide long-term clinical benefits with a reduced dependency on any oral dopaminergic agents...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Ammar Natalwala, Tilo Kunath
Parkinson's disease is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative condition that is characterized by the severe loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons, which innervate the striatum. Cell transplantation therapies to rebuild this dopaminergic network have been attempted for over 30 years. The most promising outcomes were observed when human fetal mesencephalic tissue was used as the source of cells for transplantation. However, reliance on terminations for a Parkinson's therapy presents significant logistical and ethical hurdles...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Maroof M Adil, Tandis Vazin, Badriprasad Ananthanarayanan, Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Antara T Rao, Rishikesh U Kulkarni, Evan W Miller, Sanjay Kumar, David V Schaffer
Cell replacement therapies have broad biomedical potential; however, low cell survival and poor functional integration post-transplantation are major hurdles that hamper clinical benefit. For example, following striatal transplantation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), only 1-5% of the neurons typically survive in preclinical models and in clinical trials. In general, resource-intensive generation and implantation of larger numbers of cells are used to compensate for the low post-transplantation cell-survival...
May 5, 2017: Biomaterials
Haishuang Lin, Qiang Li, Yuguo Lei
A recently emerged approach for tissue engineering is to biofabricate tissues using cellular spheroids as building blocks. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), can be cultured to generate large numbers of cells and can presumably be differentiated into all the cell types of the human body in vitro, thus are an ideal cell source for biofabrication. We previously developed a hydrogel-based cell culture system that can economically produce large numbers of hPSC spheroids...
April 24, 2017: Biofabrication
Ninuo Xia, Fang Fang, Pengbo Zhang, Jun Cui, Chhavy Tep-Cullison, Tim Hamerley, Hyun Joo Lee, Theo Palmer, Brian Bothner, Jin Hyung Lee, Renee Reijo Pera
Generation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons from human pluripotent stem cells provides a platform for inquiry into basic and translational studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, heterogeneity in differentiation in vitro makes it difficult to identify mDA neurons in culture or in vivo following transplantation. Here, we report the generation of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line with a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-RFP (red fluorescent protein) reporter. We validated that RFP faithfully mimicked TH expression during differentiation...
March 7, 2017: Cell Reports
Zhimin Xu, Xingkun Chu, Houbo Jiang, Haley Schilling, Shengdi Chen, Jian Feng
Motor symptoms that define Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by the selective loss of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Cell replacement therapy for PD has been focused on midbrain DA neurons derived from human fetal mesencephalic tissue, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Recent development in the direct conversion of human fibroblasts to induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons offers new opportunities for transplantation study and disease modeling in PD. The iDA neurons are generated directly from human fibroblasts in a short period of time, bypassing lengthy differentiation process from human pluripotent stem cells and the concern for potentially tumorigenic mitotic cells...
April 2017: Redox Biology
Agnete Kirkeby, Sara Nolbrant, Katarina Tiklova, Andreas Heuer, Nigel Kee, Tiago Cardoso, Daniella Rylander Ottosson, Mariah J Lelos, Pedro Rifes, Stephen B Dunnett, Shane Grealish, Thomas Perlmann, Malin Parmar
Stem cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases are expected to reach clinical trials soon. Most of the approaches currently under development involve transplantation of immature progenitors that subsequently undergo phenotypic and functional maturation in vivo, and predicting the long-term graft outcome already at the progenitor stage remains a challenge. Here, we took an unbiased approach to identify predictive markers expressed in dopamine neuron progenitors that correlate with graft outcome in an animal model of Parkinson's disease through gene expression analysis of >30 batches of grafted human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived progenitors...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
Qingxi Zhang, Wanling Chen, Sheng Tan, Tongxiang Lin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by a low level of dopamine being expressing in the striatum and a deterioration of dopaminergic neurons (DAn) in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Generation of PD-derived DAn, including differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, human neural stem cells, human-induced pluripotent stem cells, and direct reprogramming, provides an ideal tool to model PD, creating the possibility of mimicking key essential pathological processes and charactering single-cell changes in vitro...
January 2017: Human Gene Therapy
Boxian Huang, Song Ning, Qinjing Zhang, Aiqin Chen, Chunyan Jiang, Yugui Cui, Jian Hu, Hong Li, Guoping Fan, Lianju Qin, Jiayin Liu
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous compound emerging as a possible toxicant during embryonic development. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) promises a valuable model for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on human prenatal development. In our study, 1 μM BPA were applied to hESC-derived embryoid bodies (hEBs) and effects of BPA on neural cell differentiation were investigated. The expression level of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and marker genes for ectoderm, neuron progenitor cells, and dopaminergic (DA) neurons were all repressed upon BPA exposure...
July 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Mingming Li, Yu Zou, Qiqi Lu, Ning Tang, Alexis Heng, Intekhab Islam, Huei Jinn Tong, Gavin S Dawe, Tong Cao
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons. Derivation of dopaminergic neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could provide new therapeutic options for PD therapy. Dopaminergic neurons are derived from SOX(-) floor plate (FP) cells during embryonic development in many species and in human cell culture in vitro. Early treatment with sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been reported to efficiently convert hESCs into FP lineages...
March 8, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Wen Li, Shengdi Chen, Jia-Yi Li
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are two novel cell sources for studying neurodegenerative diseases. Dopaminergic neurons derived from hiPSCs/hESCs have been implicated to be very useful in Parkinson's disease (PD) research, including cell replacement therapy, disease modeling and drug screening. Recently, great efforts have been made to improve the application of hiPSCs/hESCs in PD research. Considerable advances have been made in recent years, including advanced reprogramming strategies without the use of viruses or using fewer transcriptional factors, optimized methods for generating highly homogeneous neural progenitors with a larger proportion of mature dopaminergic neurons and better survival and integration after transplantation...
November 2015: Progress in Neurobiology
Mi-Sun Lim, Min-Seop Shin, Soo Young Lee, Yang-Ki Minn, Jeong-Kyu Hoh, Youl-Hee Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, Sang-Hun Lee, Chun-Hyung Kim, Chang-Hwan Park
Directed methods for differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into dopaminergic (DA) precursor cells using stromal cells co-culture systems are already well established. However, not all of the hESCs differentiate into DA precursors using these methods. HSF6, H1, H7, and H9 cells differentiate well into DA precursors, but CHA13 and CHA15 cells hardly differentiate. To overcome this problem, we modified the differentiation system to include a co-culturing step that exposes the cells to noggin early in the differentiation process...
2015: PloS One
Zhixing Hu, Jiali Pu, Houbo Jiang, Ping Zhong, Jingxin Qiu, Feng Li, Xiaomin Wang, Baorong Zhang, Zhen Yan, Jian Feng
The lack of robust Parkinson's disease (PD) phenotype in parkin knockout rodents and the identification of defective dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission in midbrain DA neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) of PD patients with parkin mutations demonstrate the utility of patient-specific iPSCs as an effective system to model the unique vulnerabilities of midbrain DA neurons in PD. Significant efforts have been directed at developing efficient genomic engineering technologies in human iPSCs to study diseases such as PD...
November 1, 2015: Stem Cells and Development
Jeong Eun Lee, Mi Sun Lim, Jae Hyun Park, Chang Hwan Park, Hyun Chul Koh
It has recently been reported that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway regulates neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from rats or mice and is essential for the self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, the roles of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways during proliferation and dopaminergic neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of regulation of these intracellular signaling pathways in hNSCs on the potential to maintain proliferation and induce dopaminergic neuronal differentiation...
August 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Parinya Noisa, Taneli Raivio, Wei Cui
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to proliferate in vitro indefinitely without losing their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. Particularly, the ability of hESCs to differentiate into neuronal subtypes is fundamental to develop cell-based therapies for several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In this study, we differentiated hESCs to dopaminergic neurons via an intermediate stage, neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
2015: Stem Cells International
M Oktar Guloglu, Anna Larsen
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising source for cell replacement therapies. Parkinson's disease is one of the candidate diseases for the cell replacement therapy since the motor manifestations of the disease are associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) is the most commonly used method for the dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs. This chapter describes a simple, reliable, and scalable dopaminergic induction method of hESCs using PA6-derived adipocytes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julius A Steinbeck, Se Joon Choi, Ana Mrejeru, Yosif Ganat, Karl Deisseroth, David Sulzer, Eugene V Mosharov, Lorenz Studer
Recent studies have shown evidence of behavioral recovery after transplantation of human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neural cells in animal models of neurological disease. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying graft function. Here we use optogenetics to modulate in real time electrophysiological and neurochemical properties of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In mice that had recovered from lesion-induced Parkinsonian motor deficits, light-induced selective silencing of graft activity rapidly and reversibly re-introduced the motor deficits...
February 2015: Nature Biotechnology
Fan Yang, Yunhui Liu, Jie Tu, Jun Wan, Jie Zhang, Bifeng Wu, Shanping Chen, Jiawei Zhou, Yangling Mu, Liping Wang
Astrocytes provide neuroprotective effects against degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and play a fundamental role in DA differentiation of neural stem cells. Here we show that light illumination of astrocytes expressing engineered channelrhodopsin variant (ChETA) can remarkably enhance the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and significantly promote the DA differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro. Light activation of transplanted astrocytes in the substantia nigra (SN) also upregulates bFGF levels in vivo and promotes the regenerative effects of co-transplanted stem cells...
2014: Nature Communications
Ali Fathi, Hassan Rasouli, Meghdad Yeganeh, Ghassem Hosseini Salekdeh, Hossein Baharvand
Direct differentiation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in the absence of gene manipulation is the most desired alternative to clinical treatment of Parkinson disease. Protein transduction-based methods could be efficient, safe approaches to enhance direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to DA neurons. In the present study, we compared the differentiation efficiency of DA neurons from hESCs with and without the application of LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 alpha (LMX1A), a master regulatory protein in the development of the midbrain neurons and SHH proteins...
February 2015: Molecular Biotechnology
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