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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942096/evaluation-of-students-knowledge-about-paediatric-dosage-calculations
#1
Nurcan Özyazıcıoğlu, Ayla İrem Aydın, Semra Sürenler, Hava Gökdere Çinar, Dilek Yılmaz, Burcu Arkan, Gülseren Çıtak Tunç
Medication errors are common and may jeopardize the patient safety. As paediatric dosages are calculated based on the child's age and weight, risk of error in dosage calculations is increasing. In paediatric patients, overdose drug prescribed regardless of the child's weight, age and clinical picture may lead to excessive toxicity and mortalities while low doses may delay the treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of nursing students about paediatric dosage calculations. This research, which is of retrospective type, covers a population consisting of all the 3rd grade students at the bachelor's degree in May, 2015 (148 students)...
September 19, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934624/gamification-of-medication-adherence-in-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Mohammad Izzat Abdul Rahim, Rhys Huw Thomas
Adherence to medication regimens is a crucial factor in seizure-freedom and well-being for people with epilepsy. In contrast, taking medication inconsistently increases the risk of not only seizures and their adverse effects, but drug side-effects and unnecessary modifications to treatment plans. Epilepsy is prevalent across all age groups and we have been slow to utilise both the technologies and psychologies derived from computer gaming. Gaming has broken through to the mainstream and is no longer the preserve of younger males, mirroring the adoption of smart-phones...
September 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933757/the-mechanisms-for-within-host-influenza-virus-control-affect-model-based-assessment-and-prediction-of-antiviral-treatment
#3
Pengxing Cao, James M McCaw
Models of within-host influenza viral dynamics have contributed to an improved understanding of viral dynamics and antiviral effects over the past decade. Existing models can be classified into two broad types based on the mechanism of viral control: models utilising target cell depletion to limit the progress of infection and models which rely on timely activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to control the infection. In this paper, we compare how two exemplar models based on these different mechanisms behave and investigate how the mechanistic difference affects the assessment and prediction of antiviral treatment...
July 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933367/targeting-metabolic-modulation-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Abbey Steggall, Ify R Mordi, Chim C Lang
Despite significant improvements in morbidity and mortality with current evidence-based pharmaceutical-based treatment of heart failure (HF) over the previous decades, the burden of HF remains high. An alternative approach is currently being developed, which targets myocardial energy efficiency and the dysfunction of the cardiac mitochondria. Emerging evidence suggests that the insufficient availability of ATP to the failing myocardium can be attributed to abnormalities in the myocardial utilisation of its substrates rather than an overall lack of substrate availability...
May 10, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928177/adherence-and-dosing-interval-of-subcutaneous-antitumour-necrosis-factor-biologics-among-patients-with-inflammatory-arthritis-analysis-from-a-canadian-administrative-database
#5
Peter Bhoi, Louis Bessette, Mary J Bell, Cathy Tkaczyk, Francois Nantel, Karina Maslova
OBJECTIVES: Subcutaneous tumour necrosis factor alpha TNFαinhibitors (SC-TNFis) such as golimumab (GLM), adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETA) and certolizumab pegol (CZP) have been used for many years for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Non-adherence to therapy is an important modifiable factor that may compromise patient outcomes. The aim of this analysis was to compare adherence and dosing interval of SC-TNFis in the treatment of people with inflammatory arthritis. DESIGN: We used the IMS Brogan database combining both Canadian private and public drug plan databases of Ontario and Quebec...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925566/raman-spectroscopy-for-accurately-characterising-biomolecular-changes-in-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer-cells
#6
Stella Corsetti, Thomas Rabl, David McGloin, Ghulam Nabi
Metastatic prostate cancer resistant to hormonal manipulation is considered the advanced stage of the disease and leads to most cancer related mortality. With new research focusing on modulating cancer growth, it is essential to understand the biochemical changes in cells that can then be exploited for drug discovery and for improving responsiveness to treatment. Raman spectroscopy has a high chemical specificity and can be used to detect and quantify molecular changes at the cellular level. Collection of large datasets generated from biological samples can be employed to form discriminatory algorithms for detection of subtle and early changes in cancer cells...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923009/apophysomyces-variabilis-draft-genome-sequence-and-comparison-of-predictive-virulence-determinants-with-other-medically-important-mucorales
#7
Hariprasath Prakash, Shivaprakash Mandya Rudramurthy, Prasad S Gandham, Anup Kumar Ghosh, Milner M Kumar, Chandan Badapanda, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Apophysomyces species are prevalent in tropical countries and A. variabilis is the second most frequent agent causing mucormycosis in India. Among Apophysomyces species, A. elegans, A. trapeziformis and A. variabilis are commonly incriminated in human infections. The genome sequences of A. elegans and A. trapeziformis are available in public database, but not A. variabilis. We, therefore, performed the whole genome sequence of A. variabilis to explore its genomic structure and possible genes determining the virulence of the organism...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916961/practical-computational-toolkits-for-dendrimers-and-dendrons-structure-design
#8
Nuno Martinho, Liana C Silva, Helena F Florindo, Steve Brocchini, Teresa Barata, Mire Zloh
Dendrimers and dendrons offer an excellent platform for developing novel drug delivery systems and medicines. The rational design and further development of these repetitively branched systems are restricted by difficulties in scalable synthesis and structural determination, which can be overcome by judicious use of molecular modelling and molecular simulations. A major difficulty to utilise in silico studies to design dendrimers lies in the laborious generation of their structures. Current modelling tools utilise automated assembly of simpler dendrimers or the inefficient manual assembly of monomer precursors to generate more complicated dendrimer structures...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910608/strengthening-advocacy-efforts-with-empirical-evidence-a-case-example-of-the-conduct-uptake-and-utilisation-of-research-in-drug-policy-decision-making-in-vietnam
#9
Thu Vuong, Alison Ritter, Nhu Nguyen, Robert Ali
During the last decade, international aid agencies and advocates have been working with Southeast Asian governments to move away from punitive responses towards people who use drugs to more public health, humane approaches. The lack of local scientific evidence about the effectiveness of different treatment approaches has made this advocacy work more challenging. This paper reflects on a generation of treatment research evidence and how it can assist advocacy efforts. The case example is the cost-effectiveness research, comparing centre-based compulsory treatment with community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam (2012-2015)...
September 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899369/nursing-care-needs-and-services-utilised-by-home-dwelling-elderly-with-complex-health-problems-observational-study
#10
Gro Næss, Marit Kirkevold, Wenche Hammer, Jørund Straand, Torgeir Bruun Wyller
BACKGROUND: In Norway, as in many Western countries, a shift from institutional care to home care is taking place. Our knowledge is limited regarding which needs for nursing interventions patients being cared for in their home have, and how they are met. We aimed at assessing aspects of health and function in a representative sample of the most vulnerable home-dwelling elderly, to identify their needs for nursing interventions and how these needs were met. METHODS: In this observational study we included patients aged 75+ living in their own homes in Oslo, who received daily home care, had three or more chronic diagnoses, received daily medication, and had been hospitalized during the last year...
September 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898565/the-projected-burden-of-osteoarthritis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-australia-a-population-level-analysis
#11
Ilana N Ackerman, Clare Pratt, Alexandra Gorelik, Danny Liew
OBJECTIVE: To forecast the prevalence and direct healthcare costs of osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Australia to the year 2030. METHODS: An epidemiological model of the Australian population was developed. Data on the national prevalence of OA and RA were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2014-2015 National Health Survey. Future prevalence was estimated using ABS population projections for 2020, 2025 and 2030. Available government data on direct healthcare expenditure for OA and RA were modelled to forecast costs (in AUD) for the years 2020, 2025 and 2030, from the perspective of the Australian public healthcare system...
September 12, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891235/financial-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#12
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Elizabeth Paulsen, Simon Lewin, Agustín Ciapponi, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Gabriel Rada, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: One target of the Sustainable Development Goals is to achieve "universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all". A fundamental concern of governments in striving for this goal is how to finance such a health system. This concern is very relevant for low-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effects of financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries...
September 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890435/pain-control-in-thoracic-oncology
#13
Christine Peeters-Asdourian, Gilbert Massard, Paragi H Rana, Paul Van Houtte, Andrew P White, Bogdan Grigoriu, Dominique Lossignol, Mohammed Almalki, Jean Alexiou, Jean-Luc Engelholm, Jean-Paul Sculier
This review of pain management in lung cancer is based on the presentation of four cases of thoracic oncology patients with pain at various stages of their disease. The approach will be multidisciplinary, involving a thoracic oncologist, radiologist, thoracic and orthopaedic spine surgeon, radiation therapist, pain medicine specialist, and palliative care specialist. This multispecialty approach to the management of different painful presentations in thoracic oncology will demonstrate the complexity of each case and the improved patient outcomes which result from the involvement of different disciplines working in concert...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886163/effectiveness-of-a-training-program-for-police-officers-who-come-into-contact-with-people-with-mental-health-problems-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Arabella Scantlebury, Caroline Fairhurst, Alison Booth, Catriona McDaid, Nicola Moran, Adwoa Parker, Rebecca Payne, William J Scott, David Torgerson, Martin Webber, Catherine Hewitt
INTRODUCTION: Police officers frequently come into contact with individuals with mental health problems. Specialist training in this area for police officers may improve how they respond to individuals with mental health problems; however, evidence to support this is sparse. This study evaluated the effectiveness of one bespoke mental health training package for frontline police officers relative to routine training. DESIGN: Pragmatic, two-armed cluster randomised controlled trial in one police force in England...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879491/profiling-of-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-and-medication-utilisation-among-type-ii-diabetes-patients-in-ghana-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Eric Adua, Peter Roberts, Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Francis Agyemang Yeboah, Albert Dompreh, Kwasi Frimpong, Enoch Odame Anto, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complicated by multiple cardio-metabolic risk factors. Controlling these factors requires lifestyle modifications alongside utilisation of anti-diabetic medications. Different glucose lowering [(biguanides (BIGs), sulfonylureas (SUAs), thiazolidinediones (TNZ)], lipid lowering (statins), and anti-hypertensive medicines [angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and central acting drugs (CADs)] have been approved for controlling hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension respectively...
September 7, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876902/amino-acid-functionalised-inorganic-nanoparticles-as-cutting-edge-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-agents
#16
Amlan Chakraborty, Jennifer Carla Boer, Cordelia Selomulya, Magdalena Plebanski
The field of medical diagnostics and therapeutics is being revolutionized by nanotechnology, from targeted drug delivery to cancer immunotherapy. Inorganic nanoparticles are widely used, albeit problems with agglutination, cytotoxicity, free radical generation and instability in some biological environments, limits their utility. Conjugation of biomolecules such as peptides to the surface of nanoparticles can mitigate such problems, as well as confer specialized theranostic (therapeutic and/or diagnostic) properties, useful across biomedical applications such as vaccines, drug delivery and in vivo imaging...
September 6, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876347/temporally-controlled-growth-factor-delivery-from-a-self-assembling-peptide-hydrogel-and-electrospun-nanofibre-composite-scaffold
#17
Kiara F Bruggeman, Yi Wang, Francesca L Maclean, Clare L Parish, Richard J Williams, David R Nisbet
Tissue-specific self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels designed based on biologically relevant peptide sequences have great potential in regenerative medicine. These materials spontaneously form 3D networks of physically assembled nanofibres utilising non-covalent interactions. The nanofibrous structure of SAPs is often compared to that of electrospun scaffolds. These electrospun nanofibers are produced as sheets that can be engineered from a variety of polymers that can be chemically modified to incorporate many molecules including drugs and growth factors...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870192/development-of-a-framework-for-the-co-production-and-prototyping-of-public-health-interventions
#18
Jemma Hawkins, Kim Madden, Adam Fletcher, Luke Midgley, Aimee Grant, Gemma Cox, Laurence Moore, Rona Campbell, Simon Murphy, Chris Bonell, James White
BACKGROUND: Existing guidance for developing public health interventions does not provide information for researchers about how to work with intervention providers to co-produce and prototype the content and delivery of new interventions prior to evaluation. The ASSIST + Frank study aimed to adapt an existing effective peer-led smoking prevention intervention (ASSIST), integrating new content from the UK drug education resource Talk to Frank ( www.talktofrank.com ) to co-produce two new school-based peer-led drug prevention interventions...
September 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859940/downstream-drug-product-processing-of-itraconazole-nanosuspension-factors-influencing-tablet-material-properties-and-dissolution-of-compacted-nanosuspension-layered-sugar-beads
#19
En Hui Tan, Johannes Parmentier, Ariana Low, Jan Peter Möschwitzer
There has been limited research done on the downstream processing of nanosuspensions into solid oral dosage forms. This paper demonstrates the bead layering process with a layering level at 150% and 240%, as well as the selection and justification of the outer phase excipients for tabletability and disintegrating properties. In a previous study, an itraconazole nanosuspension stabilised by SDS and HPMC E5 was layered onto sugar beads with coating polymer HPMC VLV. In the current study, compression studies with these layered beads utilising the small bead size at 150% or 240% layering levels with outer phase cushioning excipients MCC, copovidone or isomalt were performed...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859901/use-of-hydrogel-scaffolds-to-develop-an-in-vitro-3d-culture-model-of-human-intestinal-epithelium
#20
R H Dosh, A Essa, N Jordan-Mahy, C Sammon, C L Le Maitre
The human intestinal cell lines: Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells have been used extensively in 2D and 3D cell cultures as simple models of the small intestinal epithelium in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the potential of three hydrogel scaffolds to support the 3D culture of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells and critically assess their use as scaffolds to stimulate villi formation to model a small intestinal epithelium in vitro. Here, alginate, L-pNIPAM, and L-pNIPAM-co-DMAc hydrogels were investigated. The cells were suspended within or layered on these hydrogels and maintained under static or dynamic culture conditions for up to 21 days...
August 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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