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Drug utilisation

Hadi Hasan Choudhary, Pratik Narain Srivastava, Subhash Singh, Kota Arun Kumar, Satish Mishra
In Plasmodium, the shikimate pathway is a potential target for malaria chemotherapy owing to its absence in the mammalian host. Chorismate, the end product of this pathway, serves as a precursor for aromatic amino acids, Para-aminobenzoic acid and ubiquinone, and is synthesised by Chorismate synthase (CS). Therefore, it follows that the Cs locus may be refractory to genetic manipulation. By utilising a conditional mutagenesis system of yeast Flp/FRT, we demonstrate an unexpectedly dispensable role of CS in Plasmodium...
January 12, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Upkar S Gill, Laura J Pallett, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
In order to optimally refine the multiple emerging drug targets for hepatitis B virus (HBV), it is vital to evaluate virological and immunological changes at the site of infection. Traditionally liver biopsy has been the mainstay of HBV disease assessment, but with the emergence of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, there has been a move away from tissue sampling. Here we argue that liver biopsy remains an important tool, not only for the clinical assessment of HBV but also for research progress and evaluation of novel agents...
January 13, 2018: Gut
Nadia Mazarakis, Jitraporn Vongsvivut, Keith R Bambery, Kenneth J Snibson, Simon G Royce, Tom C Karagiannis
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by airway inflammation, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness. The ability to replicate these asthma traits in the well-established ovalbumin induced chronic model of allergic airways disease is an important tool for asthma research and preclinical drug development. Here, spectra derived from focal plane array and Synchrotron-Fourier transform infrared maps were used to analyse biochemical changes in lung tissue from an ovalbumin-induced murine chronic allergic airways disease model...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
E O Mosaad, K F Chambers, K Futrega, J A Clements, M R Doran
Treatment following early diagnosis of Prostate cancer (PCa) is increasingly successful, whilst the treatment of advanced and metastatic PCa remains challenging. A major limitation in the development of new therapies is the prediction of drug efficacy using in vitro models. Classic in vitro 2-dimensional (2D) cell monolayer cultures are hypersensitive to anti-cancer drugs. As a result, there has been a surge in the development of platforms that enable three dimensional (3D) cultures thought to better replicate natural physiology and better predict drug efficacy...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Diver, R J Russell, C Brightling
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory condition of the airways affecting over 300 million people worldwide. In 5-10% of cases it is severe, with disproportionate healthcare resource utilisation including costs associated with frequent exacerbations and the long-term health effects of systemic steroids. Characterisation of inflammatory pathways in severe asthma has led to development of targeted biological and small molecule therapies which aim to achieve disease control whilst minimising corticosteroid-associated morbidity...
January 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
T Kordbacheh, J Honeychurch, F Blackhall, C Faivre-Finn, T Illidge
Despite the unheralded success of immune checkpoint blockade in delivering durable responses for some patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the majority of patients do not respond. PD-L1 tumour expression and pre-existing tumour T-cell infiltration have been correlated with improved clinical outcomes to anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1. However, patients with tumours that are negative for PD-L1 expression can also respond to treatment. Strategies to combine other treatment modalities like radiotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors are being investigated as means of improving the response rates to PD-1/PD-L1 antibody blockade...
December 22, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Hemal Mehta, Adnan Tufail, Vincent Daien, Aaron Lee, Vuong Nguyen, Mehmet Ozturk, Daniel Barthelmes, Mark C Gillies
Clinical trials identified intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGF agents) have the potential to stabilise or even improve visual acuity outcomes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a sight-threatening disease. Real-world evidence allows us to assess whether results from randomised controlled trials can be applied to the general population. We describe the development of global registries, in particular the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry that originated in Australia, the United Kingdom AMD Electronic Medical Records User Group and the IRIS registry in the USA...
January 2, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Niamh Day, Joshua Criss, Benjamin Griffiths, Shireen Kaur Gujral, Franklin John-Leader, Jennifer Johnston, Sabrina Pit
BACKGROUND: Drug checking is a harm reduction strategy which allows users to check the content and purity of illicit drugs. Although drug checking has been trialled internationally, with demonstrated value as a harm reduction and health promotion strategy, the use of such services in Australia remains a contentious issue. This study aimed to investigate the proportion and patterns of illicit drug use among young people, their attitudes towards drug checking at festivals and the potential impact of drug checking on intended drug use behaviour...
January 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Jing-Hao Qu, Li Li, Lei Tian, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Ravi Thomas, Xu-Guang Sun
BACKGROUND: To study basal epithelial cell (BEC), sub-basal nerve plexus (SBN) and Langerhans cell (LC) density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with corneal punctate epitheliopathy (CPE) and to assess their association with time to healing of CPE. METHODS: Retrospective study of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in 160 eyes from 160 patients with T2DM diagnosed with CPE due to a single cause. Key exclusion criteria included multiple-causes for CPE or treatment with autologous serum...
January 4, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
James Miles, Christopher J Applebee, Pierre Leboucher, Sonia Lopez-Fernandez, Dae-Jin Lee, Rosa Guarch, Stephen Ward, Peter J Parker, Jose I López, Banafshé Larijani
Purpose: Clear cell Renal Cell Carcinomas (ccRCC), the largest group of renal tumours, are resistant to classical therapies. The determination of the functional state of actionable biomarkers for the assessment of these adenocarcinomas is essential. The dysregulation of the oncoprotein, PKB/Akt has been linked with poor prognoses in human cancers. Material & methods: We analysed the status of the PKB/Akt pathway in a representative tumour tissue microarray obtained from the primary tumours and their metastases in 60 ccRCC with long term follow up...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
Andrew V Ewing, Sergei G Kazarian
Vibrational spectroscopic imaging and mapping approaches have continued in their development and applications for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. Obtaining spatially resolved chemical information about the distribution of different components within pharmaceutical formulations is integral for improving the understanding and quality of final drug products. This review aims to summarise some key advances of these technologies over recent years, primarily since 2010. An overview of FTIR, NIR, terahertz spectroscopic imaging and Raman mapping will be presented to give a perspective of the current state-of-the-art of these techniques for studying pharmaceutical samples...
December 21, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
N Kareem, E Yates, M Skidmore, D Hoole
The rapid emergence of drug resistance, unfavourable immunosuppression and mounting evidence to suggest the deleterious accumulation of drug breakdown residues within animal tissues has driven a strong desire to move away from these current methods of disease control. Some natural products such as β-glucan, which are extracted from, for example, plants and fungi, are able to modulate the immune system and increase protection against diseases. However, these products are heterogeneous and their effects can be variable thus limiting their applicability and reliability...
December 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rachana Shrestha, Sairu Philip, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Bir Rawal, Keshab Deuba
OBJECTIVES: To assess the demographic, behavioural, psychosocial and structural factors associated with non-utilisation of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services by female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men/transgender (MSM/TG). METHODS: This study involved a cross-sectional design. We used the national surveillance survey data of 2012, which included 610 FSWs and 400 MSM/TG recruited randomly from 22 and three districts of Nepal, respectively...
December 28, 2017: BMJ Open
Reynalyn Mosuela, Shelan Mustafa, Simon Gould, Hany Hassanin, Raid G Alany, Amr ElShaer
There is an immense research interest to utilise contact lens (CLs) as a popular platform for ocular drug delivery. However, CLs are the major predisposing factors of bacterial keratitis which is commonly caused by adhesion of microbes such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The aim of the current study is to explore the effect of surfactants; Poloxamer 188, Polysorbate 80 and Tetronic® 90R4 (at 0.25% - 3% v/v) on the characteristics of CLs and on the adhesion abilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the lenses' surfaces...
December 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jong Hyuck Park, Dong Shik Kim, Omer Mustapha, Abid Mehmood Yousaf, Jung Suk Kim, Dong Wuk Kim, Chul Soon Yong, Yu Seok Youn, Kyung Taek Oh, Soo-Jeong Lim, Jong Oh Kim, Han-Gon Choi
The aim of this research was to compare three strategies for enhancing the solubility of poorly water-soluble revaprazan hydrochloride: solid dispersion, solid SNEDDS and inclusion compound. The influence of polymers, surfactants and oils on the drug solubility was assessed, and via the chosen carriers, the three types of formulations were prepared utilising spray drying technique. Their physicochemical properties, solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetics in rats were performed compared with revaprazan powder...
December 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Sonam Bhargava, Tarun Patel, Ruchi Gaikwad, Umesh Kumar Patil, Shovanlal Gayen
There has been growing interest in the research of flavonoids due to their potential antiviral activities. Recently, some natural flavonoids have shown potential inhibitory activity against zika virus NS3-NS2B protease. In order to accelerate the drug discovery efforts using flavonoids, a Monte Carlo simulation-based QSAR method has been applied to find out the structural requirements for the inhibitory activity. The best QSAR model was obtained using SMILES descriptors and HSG descriptors with 1EC connectivity with the following statistical parameters: R2 = 0...
December 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
Tarik Asselah, Tarek Hassanein, Imam Waked, Abdellah Mansouri, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Edward Gane
Around 70 to 100 million people are chronically infected with HCV worldwide. HCV anti-viral drug development has been remarkable and this revolution led to several direct-acting antiviral agents achieving an HCV cure after only 8-12 weeks of treatment duration. Drug development has focused first on HCV genotype 1 infection, since it was the most prevalent worldwide, although clinical trials included all genotypes prevalent in the US and Europe. Because the earliest in vitro assays utilised the GT 1b and 2 replicons, the initial classes of direct acting antivirals (protease inhibitors, non-nucleotide polymerase inhibitors) were genotype 1-specific, albiet had an effect on other less prevalent genotypes...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Agofure Otovwe, Sarki Elizabeth
Background: Primary health care was designed to provide accessible health care for all. However, most primary health care facilities are in various states of disrepair, catering for less than 20% of potential patients in the population. This study was designed to investigate the utilisation of primary health care services in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional study design conducted among 383 respondents utilising simple random sampling techniques...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Saurav Ghimire, Colin Banks, Matthew D Jose, Ronald L Castelino, Syed Tabish R Zaidi
Background Medication nonadherence is a major problem in chronic kidney failure patients undergoing dialysis. Pharmacists play a vital role in improving medication-related patient outcomes, reducing drug-related problems, and improving medication adherence. However, little is known about how pharmacists assess medication adherence in dialysis patients. Objective To measure pharmacists' perceptions, current practices, and barriers to assessing adherence in dialysis patients. Setting Australian renal-specialised pharmacists...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Chen Ye, Hong Chi
Many drugs and proteins formulated for treatment of various diseases are not fully utilised due to environmentally problems such as degradation by enzymes or it being hydrophobic. To counter this problem, the drug and protein of interest are encapsulated by synthetic polymers where they are protected from the environment. This allows the molecule to reach its target safely and maximise its function. In this paper, we will discuss about the different techniques of encapsulation that includes emulsion evaporation, self-emulsifying drug delivery system and supercritical fluid...
February 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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