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Drug utilisation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786873/in-vivo-profiling-of-four-centrally-administered-opioids-for-antinociception-constipation-and-respiratory-depression-between-colony-differences-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
A Kuo, M T Smith
Outbred rodent stocks including Sprague Dawley rats, are known for their genetic diversity and so they are often used to develop animal models of human disease. Although between-colony differences in pharmaco-behavioural studies have been published previously, a direct head-to-head comparison study, whereby all research was performed in the same laboratory by the same experimenter utilising the supraspinal route of drug administration in the same strain of rat, is lacking. Herein, we report our head-to-head comparison study, involving assessment of antinociception, constipation and respiratory depression evoked by single bolus intracerebroventricular (ICV) doses of morphine, buprenorphine, DPDPE and U69,593 using male Sprague Dawley rats sourced from a different breeding colony (BC2) from that (BC1) used by us previously...
May 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783926/neural-networks-for-link-prediction-in-realistic-biomedical-graphs-a-multi-dimensional-evaluation-of-graph-embedding-based-approaches
#2
Gamal Crichton, Yufan Guo, Sampo Pyysalo, Anna Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Link prediction in biomedical graphs has several important applications including predicting Drug-Target Interactions (DTI), Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) prediction and Literature-Based Discovery (LBD). It can be done using a classifier to output the probability of link formation between nodes. Recently several works have used neural networks to create node representations which allow rich inputs to neural classifiers. Preliminary works were done on this and report promising results...
May 21, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770512/x-ray-crystal-structures-of-the-type-ivb-secretion-system-dotb-atpases
#3
Marie S Prevost, Gabriel Waksman
Human infections by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila result in a severe form of pneumonia, the Legionnaire's disease. L. pneumophila utilises a type IVb secretion (T4bS) system termed "dot/icm" to secrete protein effectors to the host cytoplasm. The dot/icm system is powered at least in part by a functionally critical AAA+ ATPase, a protein called DotB, thought to belong to the VirB11 family of proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of DotB at 3.19 Å resolution, in its hexameric form...
May 17, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770440/approaches-to-increase-mechanistic-understanding-and-aid-in-the-selection-of-precipitation-inhibitors-for-supersaturating-formulations-a-pearrl-review
#4
REVIEW
Daniel J Price, Felix Ditzinger, Niklas J Koehl, Sandra Jankovic, Georgia Tsakiridou, Anita Nair, René Holm, Martin Kuentz, Jennifer B Dressman, Christoph Saal
OBJECTIVES: Supersaturating formulations hold great promise for delivery of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). To profit from supersaturating formulations, precipitation is hindered with precipitation inhibitors (PIs), maintaining drug concentrations for as long as possible. This review provides a brief overview of supersaturation and precipitation, focusing on precipitation inhibition. Trial-and-error PI selection will be examined alongside established PI screening techniques...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767472/the-impact-of-real-world-cardiovascular-related-pharmacogenetic-testing-in-an-insured-population
#5
Jennifer Billings, Patrick N Racsa, Kristine Bordenave, Charron L Long, Jeffrey J Ellis
BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenomics is intended to help clinicians provide the right drug to the right patient at an appropriate dose. However, limited evidence of clinical utility has slowed uptake of pharmacogenomic testing (PGT). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of real-world cardiovascular (CV)-related PGT on clinical outcomes, healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU) and cost in a large, heterogeneous population. METHODS: Individuals with Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug, Medicaid, or commercial coverage between 1/1/2011 and 9/30/2015 and ≥1 atherosclerotic CV-related diagnosis were identified...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766251/imaging-of-the-hip-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#6
REVIEW
Susan Cheng Shelmerdine, Pier Luigi Di Paolo, Laura Tanturri de Horatio, Clara Malattia, Silvia Magni-Manzoni, Karen Rosendahl
Hip involvement is common and estimated to occur in approximately 35-63% of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It is more prevalent in the aggressive systemic subtypes, with irreversible changes occurring as early as within 5 years of diagnosis. Whilst clinical parameters and joint examination can be useful for assessing disease severity, subclinical disease is known to exist and delayed treatment may herald a lifetime of disability and pain. Early recognition of JIA changes is therefore crucial in determining treatment options...
June 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760587/the-role-of-adipokines-in-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-and-insulin-sensitivity
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, David J Baker, Simon W Jones
Background: There is currently an unmet clinical need to develop better pharmacological treatments to improve glucose handling in Type II Diabetes patients with obesity. To this end, determining the effect of obesity-associated adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity has emerged as an important area of drug discovery research. This review draws together the data on the functional role of adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin signalling, highlights several understudied novel adipokines and provides a perspective on the direction of future research...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747650/hospital-financing-of-ischaemic-stroke-determinants-of-funding-and-usefulness-of-drg-subcategories-based-on-severity-of-illness
#8
Sarah Dewilde, Lieven Annemans, Hilde Pincé, Vincent Thijs
BACKGROUND: Several Western and Arab countries, as well as over 30 States in the US are using the "All-Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups" (APR-DRGs) with four severity-of-illness (SOI) subcategories as a model for hospital funding. The aim of this study is to verify whether this is an adequate model for funding stroke hospital admissions, and to explore which risk factors and complications may influence the amount of funding. METHODS: A bottom-up analysis of 2496 ischaemic stroke admissions in Belgium compares detailed in-hospital resource use (including length of stay, imaging, lab tests, visits and drugs) per SOI category and calculates total hospitalisation costs...
May 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743329/impacts-on-health-outcomes-and-on-resource-utilisation-of-home-based-parenteral-chemotherapy-administration-a-systematic-review-protocol
#9
Benedicte Mittaine-Marzac, Matthieu De Stampa, Emmanuel Bagaragaza, Joël Ankri, Philippe Aegerter
INTRODUCTION: Despite the demonstrated feasibility and policies to enable more to receive chemotherapy at home, in a few countries, parenteral chemotherapy administration at home remains currently marginal. Of note, findings of different studies on health outcomes and resources utilisation vary, leading to conflicting results. This protocol outlines a systematic review that seeks to synthesise and critically appraise the current state of evidence on the comparison between home setting and hospital setting for parenteral chemotherapy administration within the same high standards of clinical care...
May 9, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742159/medications-and-pregnancy-the-role-of-community-pharmacists-a-descriptive-study
#10
Hoi Ying Leung, Bandana Saini, Helen E Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Safe use of medications during pregnancy requires a comprehensive understanding of risk-benefit profiles for individual treatments. Pharmacists are supported in this aspect by clinical information agencies (e.g. MotherSafe, a telephone-based teratogen information service) and reference texts. To what extent and for what reasons Australian pharmacists utilise these services/resources are yet unknown. Further, debate on replacement of conventionally defined medication safety in pregnancy categories (A, B1-3, C, D, X) by narratively stated safety evidence may affect pharmacists' routine practice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731947/patterns-of-antibiotic-prescription-in-children-tirana-albania-region
#11
Joana Mihani, Suela Këlliçi
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics (abx) constitute the most prescribed therapeutic agent in the world. There is little data regarding antibiotic consumption by young children in Albania. AIM: This study aims to evaluate antibiotic prescription in children in quantitative and qualitative terms, and therefore, propose recommendations to improve overall clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional drug utilisation study was conducted based on unreimbursed prescriptions collected in 25 pharmacies, randomly selected within the district of Tirana, during the period beginning December 2015 to January 2016...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731288/the-impact-of-drug-policy-liberalisation-on-willingness-to-seek-help-for-problem-drug-use-a-comparison-of-20-countries
#12
Isabella Benfer, Renee Zahnow, Monica J Barratt, Larissa Maier, Adam Winstock, Jason Ferris
BACKGROUND: While the impact of changing drug policies on rates of drug use has been investigated, research into how help-seeking behaviour changes as drug policies become more public-health focused is limited. This paper investigates reported changes in confidence to utilise drug services following hypothetical changes in national drug policy among a sample of individuals who report recent illicit drug use. We predict that liberalising national drug policy will increase the propensity for people who take illegal drugs to utilise health services...
May 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730586/overlap-between-harm-reduction-and-hiv-service-utilisation-among-pwid-in-india-implications-for-hiv-combination-prevention
#13
M Kumi Smith, Sunil S Solomon, Derek A T Cummings, Aylur K Srikrishnan, M Suresh Kumar, C K Vasudevan, Allison M McFall, Gregory M Lucas, David D Celentano, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: In some regions, HIV incidence is rising among people who inject drugs (PWID). Combination prevention approaches are well suited to PWID who face multiple sources of HIV risk. This analysis investigates patterns of utilisation to basic HIV services (HIV counselling and testing [HCT], antiretroviral therapy [ART]) as well as harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange programs [NSEP] and opioid agonist therapy [OAT]) among PWID and how utilisation of harm reduction services is associated with HIV-related care seeking behaviours...
May 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724667/preventing-preterm-birth-new-approaches-to-labour-therapeutics-using-nanoparticles
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan W Paul, Roger Smith
Preterm birth remains a major obstetric problem with ramifications that extend beyond immediate health and safety concerns for the newborn to include massive societal and economic burden. Although three quarters of preterm birth-related deaths could be prevented with cost-effective interventions, there has been little progress towards achieving sustained tocolysis that translates into improved outcomes for the newborn. With private enterprise reluctant to venture into the sphere of tocolysis, due to potential litigation, advances in the field may fall to new approaches using existing tocolytic resources more effectively...
April 13, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718742/an-rnai-mediated-screen-identifies-novel-targets-for-next-generation-antiepileptic-drugs-based-on-increased-expression-of-the-homeostatic-regulator-pumilio
#15
Wei-Hsiang Lin, Miaomiao He, Yuen Ngan Fan, Richard A Baines
Despite availability of a diverse range of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), only about two-thirds of epilepsy patients respond well to drug treatment. Thus, novel targets are required to catalyse the design of next-generation AEDs. Manipulation of neuron firing-rate homoeostasis, through enhancing Pumilio (Pum) activity, has been shown to be potently anticonvulsant in Drosophila. In this study, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in S2R + cells, using a luciferase-based dPum activity reporter and identified 1166 genes involved in dPum regulation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715613/role-of-poly-beta-amino-esters-hydrolysis-and-electrostatic-attraction-in-gentamicin-release-from-layer-by-layer-coatings
#16
Yazan Al Thaher, Silvia Latanza, Stefano Perni, Polina Prokopovich
Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition is a versatile technique that has been employed in numerous industrial applications i.e. biomaterials, drug delivery and electronics to confer peculiar properties to the system. When LbL is employed for drug delivery, the active molecule is sandwiched between layers of polyelectrolytes and the release is controlled by the diffusion of the drug through the layers and the possible hydrolysis of the coating (delamination). Poly-beta-amino-esters (PBAEs) are a class of hydrolysable polyelectrolytes that have been widely used in DNA delivery and for LbL on medical devices...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682305/outpatient-directly-observed-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-among-people-who-use-drugs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
EDITORIAL
Cara L McDermott, Catherine M Lockhart, Beth Devine
Objective:  We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised studies that assessed the effectiveness of directly observed hepatitis C medication therapy delivered in outpatient clinics compared to treatment as usual. Methods:  We completed a systematic literature review up to the end of August 2017, including online databases, study abstracts and references of pertinent articles. We assessed the results of randomised studies using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias assessment tool, and observational studies using the ROBINS-I tool...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675844/delivery-of-therapeutics-for-deep-seated-ocular-conditions-status-quo
#18
REVIEW
Hubert Nguyen, Shawn Eng, Thanh Ngo, Crispin R Dass
OBJECTIVES: There is a need for research into designing effective pharmaceutical systems for delivering therapeutic drugs to the posterior of the eye for glaucoma-related pathology, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular oedema, retinitis and choroiditis. Conventionally, eye drops have been extensively utilised for topical drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye, but are less effective for delivery of therapeutics to the back of the eye due to significant barriers hampering drug penetration into the target intraocular tissue...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675789/experimental-platform-utilising-melting-curve-technology-for-detection-of-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#19
Agnieszka Broda, Vlad Nikolayevskyy, Nicki Casali, Huma Khan, Richard Bowker, Gemma Blackwell, Bhakti Patel, James Hume, Waqar Hussain, Francis Drobniewski
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly infections with approximately a quarter of cases not being identified and/or treated mainly due to a lack of resources. Rapid detection of TB or drug-resistant TB enables timely adequate treatment and is a cornerstone of effective TB management. We evaluated the analytical performance of a single-tube assay for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) on an experimental platform utilising RT-PCR and melting curve analysis that could potentially be operated as a point-of-care (PoC) test in resource-constrained settings with a high burden of TB...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661925/changing-antiepilepsy-drug-prescribing-trends-in-women-with-epilepsy-in-the-uk-and-ireland-and-the-impact-on-major-congenital-malformations
#20
Michael O Kinney, James Morrow, Chris C Patterson, Ellen Campbell, Aline Russell, Henry W Smithson, Linda Parsons, Patrick J Morrison, Rebecca Bromley, Brenda Liggan, Norman Delanty, Beth Irwin, Stephen J Hunt, John J Craig
OBJECTIVES: After 20 years of data collection, pregnancy registers have informed prescribing practice. Various populations show trends for a reduction in valproate prescribing, which is associated with an increased risk of anatomical teratogenesis and neurodevelopmental effects in those exposed in utero. Our aim was to determine if any shifts in prescribing trends have occurred in the UK and Ireland Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register cohort and to assess if there had been any change in the overall major congenital malformation (MCM) rate over time...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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