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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161715/management-of-biochemical-recurrence-after-primary-curative-treatment-for-prostate-cancer-a-review
#1
Walter Artibani, Antonio Benito Porcaro, Vincenzo De Marco, Maria A Cerruto, Salvatore Siracusano
How to manage patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following primary curative treatment is a controversial issue. Importantly, this prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-only recurrence is a surrogate neither of PCa-specific survival nor of overall survival. Physicians are therefore challenged with preventing or delaying the onset of clinical progression in those deemed at risk, while avoiding over-treating patients whose disease may never progress beyond PSA-only recurrence. Adjuvant therapy for radical prostatectomy (RP) or local radiotherapy (RT) has a role in certain at-risk patients, although it is not recommended in low-risk PCa owing to the significant side-effects associated with RT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)...
November 21, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159872/the-dark-side-of-glucose-transporters-in-prostate-cancer-are-they-a-new-feature-to-characterize-carcinomas
#2
REVIEW
Pedro Gonzalez-Menendez, David Hevia, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz
One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is the increased ability to acquire nutrients, particularly glucose and glutamine. Proliferating cells need precursors for cell growth and NADPH reducing equivalents for survival. The principal responsible for glucose uptake is facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), which usually are overexpressed in cancer cells. Besides their role in glucose uptake, GLUT transporters are able to transport other compounds such as dehydroascorbic acid or uric acid. They play a major role in tumor progression and cellular processes such as regulated cell death...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158792/association-between-8q24-gene-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Ran Li, Zhiqiang Qin, Jingyuan Tang, Peng Han, Qianwei Xing, Feng Wang, Shuhui Si, Xiaolu Wu, Min Tang, Wei Wang, Wei Zhang
Though numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the associations between five 8q24 polymorphisms (rs6983267 T>G, rs1447295 C>A, rs16901979 C>A, rs6983561 A>C and rs10090154 C>T) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk, the available results remained contradictory. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to derive a precise estimation of such associations. We searched electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Wan Fang for the relevant available studies up to February 1st, 2017, and 39 articles were ultimately adopted in this meta-analysis...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157875/prostatic-calculi-do-they-matter
#4
REVIEW
Jun-Jie Cao, Wei Huang, Hong-Shen Wu, Min Cao, Yan Zhang, Xiao-Dong Jin
INTRODUCTION: Prostatic calculi (PC) are frequently detected at computed tomography or ultrasound in men attending the health center or the urology outpatient department. PC have attracted more attention from urologists, but the clinical significance of PC is unknown. AIM: To review the available literature on the effects of PC on prostatic diseases and sexual function in men. METHODS: Relevant clinical trials were identified by searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases...
November 17, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156895/survival-analysis-of-malignant-epidural-spinal-cord-compression-after-palliative-radiotherapy-using-tokuhashi-scoring-system-and-the-impact-of-systemic-therapy
#5
Wing Ho Mui, Tai Chung Lam, Frank Chi Sing Wong, Wing King Sze
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown similar clinical outcomes of both single and multi-fraction (Fr) radiation therapy among malignant epidural spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients with poor prognosis; whereas, patients expected to have longer survival may require long-course radiotherapy to prevent local failure. However, such a poor prognosis risk group has not yet been clearly identified for use in daily clinical practice. We examined if the known predictive Tokuhashi scoring system could be adapted in MSCC patients treated with palliative radiation therapy...
August 29, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155624/functional-and-targeted-lymph-node-imaging-in-prostate-cancer-current-status-and-future-challenges
#6
Harriet C Thoeny, Sebastiano Barbieri, Johannes M Froehlich, Baris Turkbey, Peter L Choyke
Patients with prostate cancer who have regional lymph node (LN) metastases face an increased risk of death from disease and are therefore treated aggressively. Surgical LN dissection is the established method of staging regional nodes; however, this invasive technique carries substantial morbidities and a noninvasive imaging method is needed to reduce or eliminate the need for extended pelvic LN dissections (ePLND). Conventional computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have proven insensitive and nonspecific because both use nodal size criteria, which is notoriously inaccurate...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155240/matrix-metalloproteinases-a-challenging-paradigm-of-cancer-management
#7
REVIEW
Ali Alaseem, Khalid Alhazzani, Priya Dondapati, Saad Alobid, Anupam Bishayee, Appu Rathinavelu
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are members of zinc-dependent endopeptidases implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Over the decades, MMPs have been studied for their role in cancer progression, migration, and metastasis. As a result, accumulated evidence of MMPs incriminating role has made them an attractive therapeutic target. Early generations of broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors exhibited potent inhibitory activities, which subsequently led to clinical trials. Unexpectedly, these trials failed to meet the desired goals, mainly due to the lack of efficacy, poor oral bioavailability, and toxicity...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154022/the-anti-tumor-effect-of-rankl-inhibition-in-malignant-solid-tumors-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
A F de Groot, N M Appelman-Dijkstra, S H van der Burg, J R Kroep
At present, accumulating evidence suggests that inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) does not only induce an increase in bone mass and strength, but also has anti-tumor effects. Denosumab, an antibody targeting RANKL, is used to treat osteoporosis and to prevent skeletal related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases originating from solid tumors. However, expression of RANKL and its receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) is not solely restricted to cells involved in homeostasis of the bone and RANKL-RANK signalling appears to play a substantial role in many other processes in the body like mammary physiology, mammary tumorigenesis and the immune system...
November 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152838/commissioning-of-the-world-s-first-compact-pencil-beam-scanning-proton-therapy-system
#9
Rajesh Pidikiti, Bijal C Patel, Matthew R Maynard, Joseph P Dugas, Joseph Syh, Narayan Sahoo, Hsinshun Terry Wu, Lane R Rosen
This paper summarizes clinical commissioning of the world's first commercial, clinically utilized installation of a compact, image-guided, pencil-beam scanning, intensity-modulated proton therapy system, the IBA Proteus(®) ONE, at the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center (WKCC) in Shreveport, LA. The Proteus(®) ONE is a single-room, compact-gantry system employing a cyclotron-generated proton beam with image guidance via cone-beam CT as well as stereoscopic orthogonal and oblique planar kV imaging. Coupling 220° of gantry rotation with a 6D robotic couch capable of in plane patient rotations of over 180° degrees allows for 360° of treatment access...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152681/trichothecenes-immunomodulatory-effects-mechanisms-and-anti-cancer-potential
#10
REVIEW
Qinghua Wu, Xu Wang, Eugenie Nepovimova, Anca Miron, Qianying Liu, Yun Wang, Dongxiao Su, Hualin Yang, Li Li, Kamil Kuca
Paradoxically, trichothecenes have both immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory effects. The underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored. Early studies show that dose, exposure timing, and the time at which immune function is assessed influence whether trichothecenes act in an immunosuppressive or immunostimulatory fashion. Recent studies suggest that the immunomodulatory function of trichothecenes is also actively shaped by competing cell-survival and death-signaling pathways. Autophagy may also promote trichothecene immunosuppression, although the mechanism may be complicated...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152153/molecular-determinants-of-prostate-cancer-metastasis
#11
REVIEW
Kiera Rycaj, Dean G Tang
Metastatic cancer remains largely incurable and fatal. The general course of cancer, from the initiation of primary tumor formation and progression to metastasis, is a multistep process wherein tumor cells at each step must display specific phenotypic features. Distinctive capabilities required for primary tumor initiation and growth form the foundation, and sometimes may remain critical, for subsequent metastases. These phenotypic features must remain easily malleable during the acquisition of additional capabilities unique and essential to the metastatic process such as dissemination to distant tissues wherein tumor cells interact with foreign microenvironments...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151782/salvage-low-dose-rate-brachytherapy-for-recurrent-prostate-cancer-after-external-beam-radiotherapy-results-from-a-single-institution-with-focus-on-toxicity-and-functional-outcomes
#12
F Barbera, L Triggiani, M Buglione, P Ghirardelli, P Vitali, B Caraffini, P Borghetti, D Greco, L Bardoscia, N Pasinetti, L Costa, M Maddalo, B Ghedi, B La Face, S M Magrini
Background/aim: Low dose rate brachytherapy has been used as salvage therapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer (PC) after primary external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), along with surgery and cryotherapy. All these techniques, in particular, when applied to the whole gland, involve a relatively high risk of toxicity and may worsen the patient's quality of life. Our aim is to evaluate the results of whole-gland salvage brachytherapy (SBT) after primary EBRT in terms of toxicity, functional outcomes, and efficacy...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151227/significance-of-prostate-specific-antigen-kinetics-after-three-dimensional-conformal-radiotherapy-with-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-patients-with-localized-prostate-cancer
#13
Wataru Fukuokaya, Sangji Kim, Takao Natsuyama, Kanako Matsuzaki, Homare Shiomi, Hiroki Kitoh, Nobuko Utsumi, Hiromasa Kurosaki, Masafumi Inoue, Koichiro Akakura
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between biochemical recurrence and post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in patients with localized prostate cancer treated by radiotherapy with various durations of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: We reviewed our single-institution, retrospectively maintained data of 144 patients with T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) between December 2005 and December 2015 and 113 patients were fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150967/drug-delivery-strategies-for-chemoprevention-of-uvb%C3%A2-induced-skin-cancer-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Arvind Bagde, Arindam Mondal, Mandip Singh
Annually, more skin cancer cases are diagnosed than the collective incidence of the colon, lung, breast and prostate cancer. Persistent contact with sunlight is a primary cause for all the skin malignancies. UVB radiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the skin which eventually leads to DNA damage and mutation. Various delivery approaches for the skin cancer treatment/prevention have been evolving and are directed towards improvements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of therapeutics delivery...
November 18, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150464/testosterone-therapy-in-hypogonadal-men-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#15
Jesse Elliott, Shannon E Kelly, Adam C Millar, Joan Peterson, Li Chen, Amy Johnston, Ahmed Kotb, Becky Skidmore, Zemin Bai, Muhammad Mamdani, George A Wells
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative effects of individual testosterone products among hypogonadal men. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, and grey literature (25 May 2017) for randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies (NRS) that involved hypogonadal men given testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for ≥3 months. Comparators were placebo, another TRT, or the same product at a different dose...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149895/novel-insights-into-chromosomal-conformations-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Ruobing Jia, Peiwei Chai, He Zhang, Xianqun Fan
Exploring gene function is critical for understanding the complexity of life. DNA sequences and the three-dimensional organization of chromatin (chromosomal interactions) are considered enigmatic factors underlying gene function, and interactions between two distant fragments can regulate transactivation activity via mediator proteins. Thus, a series of chromosome conformation capture techniques have been developed, including chromosome conformation capture (3C), circular chromosome conformation capture (4C), chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C), and high-resolution chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C)...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149887/prostate-cancer-in-firefighting-and-police-work-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-epidemiologic-studies
#17
REVIEW
Jeavana Sritharan, Manisha Pahwa, Paul A Demers, Shelley A Harris, Donald C Cole, Marie-Elise Parent
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate potential associations between firefighting and police occupations, and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: Original epidemiological studies published from 1980 to 2017 were identified through PubMed and Web of Science. Studies were included if they contained specific job titles for ever/never firefighting and police work and associated prostate cancer risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149380/psa-kinetics-following-primary-focal-cryotherapy-hemiablation-in-organ-confined-prostate-cancer-patients
#18
Michael Kongnyuy, Shahidul Islam, Alfred K Mbah, Daniel M Halpern, Glenn T Werneburg, Kaitlin E Kosinski, Connie Chen, David J Habibian, Jeffrey T Schiff, Anthony T Corcoran, Aaron E Katz
PURPOSE: We aim to evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) trends in post-primary focal cryotherapy (PFC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study of PFC patients from 2010 to 2015. Patients with at least one post-PFC PSA were included in the study. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was determined using the Phoenix criteria. PSA bounce was also assessed. We analyzed rates of change of PSA over time of post-PFC between BCR and no BCR groups...
November 17, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147733/-inhibitors-of-the-androgen-receptor-n%C3%A2-terminal-domain-therapies-targeting-the-achilles-heel-of-various-androgen-receptor-molecules-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#19
REVIEW
M C Hupe, A Offermann, F Perabo, C Chandhasin, S Perner, A S Merseburger, M V Cronauer
Although prostate cancer responds well to primary endocrine therapies, tumor progression with castration resistant tumor cells almost invariably occurs within a few years. Unfortunately, some CRPC patients do not respond to second-line therapies with abiraterone or enzalutamide. Moreover, patients who initially responded well to second-line hormone therapy develop resistance to abiraterone and/or enzalutamide within a short period of time. Besides an increase of intracellular androgen receptor (AR) levels, the predominant resistance mechanisms include AR aberrations (point mutations, AR splice variants) occurring predominantly at the androgen or ligand binding domain of the AR...
November 16, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147564/a-review-of-orexin-s-unprecedented-potential-as-a-novel-highly-specific-treatment-for-various-localized-and-metastatic-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Nicole L Graybill, Volkmar Weissig
A systematic review was conducted to categorize the types of cancerous tissues that express orexin receptors and also to examine the effect of in vitro administration of orexin A or B to corresponding cell samples. Comprehensive literature analyses of primary experimental studies were performed. The results of the review included an increased frequency of orexin receptor expression in many colon and prostate cancer tissues and an upward trend of pro-apoptotic activity in these aggressive cell types.
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
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