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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327203/an-appraisal-of-analytical-tools-used-in-predicting-clinical-outcomes-following-radiation-therapy-treatment-of-men-with-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#1
Elspeth Raymond, Michael E O'Callaghan, Jared Campbell, Andrew D Vincent, Kerri Beckmann, David Roder, Sue Evans, John McNeil, Jeremy Millar, John Zalcberg, Martin Borg, Kim Moretti
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer can be treated with several different modalities, including radiation treatment. Various prognostic tools have been developed to aid decision making by providing estimates of the probability of different outcomes. Such tools have been demonstrated to have better prognostic accuracy than clinical judgment alone. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken to identify papers relating to the prediction of clinical outcomes (biochemical failure, metastasis, survival) in patients with prostate cancer who received radiation treatment, with the particular aim of identifying whether published tools are adequately developed, validated, and provide accurate predictions...
March 21, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326819/inflammation-and-nitrosative-stress-effects-in-ovarian-and-prostate-pathology-and-carcinogenesis
#2
Amy J Burke, Pablo Garrido, Carol Johnson, Francis J Sullivan, Sharon A Glynn
SIGNIFICANCE: Prostate and ovarian cancers are major contributors to cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recently, inflammation and nitrosative stress have been implicated in carcinogenesis, with the overexpression of NOS2 and concomitant release of nitric oxide (NO) associated with cancer initiation and progression. Recent Advances: An increasing body of evidence indicates an association between NOS2 expression and aggressive ovarian cancer. Research also indicates a role for NO in prostate disease pathology and prostate cancer...
March 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325650/the-potential-role-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-in-the-cardiovascular-metabolic-skeletal-and-cognitive-effects-associated-with-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#3
REVIEW
E David Crawford, Andrew V Schally, Jehonathan H Pinthus, Norman L Block, Ferenc G Rick, Marc B Garnick, Robert H Eckel, Thomas E Keane, Neal D Shore, David N Dahdal, Thomas J R Beveridge, Dennis C Marshall
PURPOSE: To explore how follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) may contribute to cardiovascular, metabolic, skeletal, and cognitive events in men treated for prostate cancer, with various forms of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A colloquium of prostate cancer experts was convened in May 2015, to discuss the role of FSH in the development of unwanted effects associated with ADT. Subsequently, a literature review (Medline, PubMed, and relevant congress abstract databases) was performed to further explore and evaluate the collected evidence...
March 18, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325265/determinants-of-bone-specific-metastasis-in-prostate-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Paolo Manca, Francesco Pantano, Michele Iuliani, Giulia Ribelli, Delia De Lisi, Romano Danesi, Marzia Del Re, Bruno Vincenzi, Giuseppe Tonini, Daniele Santini
Prostate cancer is one of the most common type of cancer in Western countries. Although the majority of patients with PCa have a minimally aggressive disease, some of them will experience relapse and formation of metastasis. Bone metastasis are a major cause of quality of life impairment and death among patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Different "bone targeted therapies" and several follow-up strategies were developed in order to optimize bone metastasis prevention and treatment. Nevertheless there is still a great clinical need of identifying patients more likely to benefit from those interventions as not all patients will develop metastatic disease and not all patients with metastatic disease will develop bone metastasis...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323658/changing-face-of-metastatic-prostate-cancer-the-law-of-diminishing-returns-holds-true
#5
Ulka N Vaishampayan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer presents with a multitude of faces. It ranges from localized cancers staying quiescent for many years during active surveillance to the raging diffuse liver metastases causing terminal disease. The incidence of metastatic disease is increasing. This review will highlight some of the recent developments as well as ongoing challenges of managing advanced prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant strides are being made in managing metastatic prostate cancer...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323641/metal-artifacts-in-computed-tomography-for-radiation-therapy-planning-dosimetric-effects-and-impact-of-metal-artifact-reduction
#6
Drosoula Giantsoudi, Bruno De Man, Joost Verburg, Alexei Trofimov, Yannan Jin, Ge Wang, Lars Gjesteby, Harald Paganetti
A significant and increasing number of patients receiving radiation therapy present with metal objects close to, or even within, the treatment area, resulting in artifacts in computed tomography (CT) imaging, which is the most commonly used imaging method for treatment planning in radiation therapy. In the presence of metal implants, such as dental fillings in treatment of head-and-neck tumors, spinal stabilization implants in spinal or paraspinal treatment or hip replacements in prostate cancer treatments, the extreme photon absorption by the metal object leads to prominent image artifacts...
March 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323334/the-emerging-role-of-homologous-recombination-repair-and-parp-inhibitors-in-genitourinary-malignancies
#7
REVIEW
Kalen J Rimar, Phuoc T Tran, Richard S Matulewicz, Maha Hussain, Joshua J Meeks
As cells age and are exposed to genotoxic stress, preservation of the genomic code requires multiple DNA repair pathways to remove single-strand or double-strand breaks. Loss of function somatic genomic aberrations or germline deficiency in genes involved in DNA repair can result in acute cell death or, after a latency period, cellular transformation. Therapeutic exploitation of DNA repair by inhibition of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]) ribose polymerases (PARP), a family of enzymes involved in the repair of single-strand and in some cases double-strand breaks, has become a novel cancer treatment...
March 21, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321463/-when-is-surgical-resection-of-the-primary-tumor-indicated-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-and-what-is-the-scientific-rationale
#8
J Noldus
Similar to other tumour entities, analyses of cancer databases giving hope that patients with advanced prostate cancer with osseous metastases benefit from cytoreductive surgery. Prospective clinical trials are in the process of proving this hypothesis. This review article focuses on molecular genetic pathways and clinical data.
March 20, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320379/mirnas-associated-with-prostate-cancer-risk-and-progression
#9
REVIEW
Hung N Luu, Hui-Yi Lin, Karina Dalsgaard Sørensen, Olorunseun O Ogunwobi, Nagi Kumar, Ganna Chornokur, Catherine Phelan, Dominique Jones, LaCreis Kidd, Jyotsna Batra, Kosj Yamoah, Anders Berglund, Robert J Rounbehler, Mihi Yang, Sang Haak Lee, Nahyeon Kang, Seung Joon Kim, Jong Y Park, Giuliano Di Pietro
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men in the US. Though considerable improvement in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has been achieved in the past decade, predicting disease outcome remains a major clinical challenge. Recent expression profiling studies in prostate cancer suggest microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as potential biomarkers for prostate cancer risk and disease progression. miRNAs comprise a large family of about 22-nucleotide-long non-protein coding RNAs, regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and participate in the regulation of numerous cellular processes...
March 20, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319318/urinary-continence-recovery-after-radical-prostatectomy-anatomic-reconstructive-and-nerve-sparing-techniques-to-improve-outcomes
#10
REVIEW
Christian P Pavlovich, Bernardo Rocco, Sasha C Druskin, John W Davis
In an editorial board moderated debate format, two experts in prostate cancer surgery are challenged with presenting the key strategies in radical prostatectomy that improve urinary functional outcomes. Dr Bernardo Rocco was tasked with arguing the facts that support the anatomic preservation and reconstruction steps that improve continence. Drs. Christian Pavlovich and Sasha Druskin were tasked with arguing the facts supporting neurovascular bundle and high anterior release surgical planes that improve continence...
March 20, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319243/association-of-antioxidant-supplement-use-and-dementia-in-the-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-vitamin-e-and-selenium-trial-preadvise
#11
Richard J Kryscio, Erin L Abner, Allison Caban-Holt, Mark Lovell, Phyllis Goodman, Amy K Darke, Monica Yee, John Crowley, Frederick A Schmitt
Importance: Oxidative stress is an established dementia pathway, but it is unknown if the use of antioxidant supplements can prevent dementia. Objective: To determine if antioxidant supplements (vitamin E or selenium) used alone or in combination can prevent dementia in asymptomatic older men. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease by Vitamin E and Selenium (PREADViSE) trial began as a double-blind randomized clinical trial in May 2002, which transformed into a cohort study from September 2009 to May 2015...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318726/low-risk-prostate-cancer-identification-management-and-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Marco Moschini, Peter R Carroll, Scott E Eggener, Jonathan I Epstein, Markus Graefen, Rodolfo Montironi, Christopher Parker
CONTEXT: The incidence of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) has increased as a consequence of prostate-specific antigen testing. OBJECTIVE: In this collaborative review article, we examine recent literature regarding low-risk PCa and the available prognostic and therapeutic options. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a literature review of the Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. The search strategy included the terms: prostate cancer, low risk, active surveillance, focal therapy, radical prostatectomy, watchful waiting, biomarker, magnetic resonance imaging, alone or in combination...
March 15, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317581/radical-prostatectomy-in-denmark-survival-analysis-and-temporal-trends-in-clinicopathological-parameters-with-up-to-20-years-of-follow-up
#13
Mikael Heering, Kasper Drimer Berg, Klaus Brasso, Peter Iversen, Martin Andreas Røder
OBJECTIVES: To describe mortality, cause of death, and temporal trends in clinicopathological parameters with up to 20 years of follow-up in a nationwide cohort of prostate cancer (PCa) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 6857 patients with PCa treated with RP at six different hospitals in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. Data were extracted from the nationwide DaPCa database. Histopathology reports from the RP specimens were manually reviewed...
March 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315377/patient-derived-xenografts-a-platform-for-accelerating-translational-research-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Alastair H Davies, Yuzhuo Wang, Amina Zoubeidi
Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development and characterization of patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDX) models. Numerous PDX models have been established for prostate cancer and, importantly, retain the principal molecular, genetic, and histological characteristics of the donor tumour. As such, these models provide significant improvements over standard cell line xenograft models for biological studies, preclinical drug development, and personalized medicine strategies. This review summarizes the current state of the art in this field, illustrating the opportunities and limitations of PDX models in translational prostate cancer research...
March 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314971/-when-is-surgical-treatment-indicated-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-and-what-is-the-scientific-rationale
#15
A Kretschmer, A Herlemann, C G Stief, C Gratzke
BACKGROUND: Recent improvements in imaging diagnostics has led to a rising incidence of oligometastatic prostate cancer and, most notably, an increasing incidence of nodal-only biochemical recurrences. In this clinical setting, systemic therapy is still the treatment of choice. However, there is increasing evidence for surgical approaches in this challenging clinical setting. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this comprehensive review article, current evidence regarding surgical approaches of primary nodal metastases, nodal-only biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy, and osseous metastatic prostate cancer will be discussed...
March 17, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306604/role-of-mri-in-low-risk-prostate-cancer-finding-the-wolf-in-sheep-s-clothing-or-the-sheep-in-wolf-s-clothing
#16
Ivo G Schoots, Caroline M Moore, Olivier Rouvière
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In men on active surveillance for localized prostate cancer, MRI and MRI-targeted biopsies can be used prior to confirmatory or surveillance biopsy, to detect individuals with high-grade cancer (the wolf in sheep's clothing). However, some men will have low-risk disease despite adverse MRI findings (the sheep in wolf's clothing). We review the value addition of MRI-targeted biopsies in comparison to systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies, using pathological reclassification as an end-point...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303694/lutetium-177-psma-radionuclide-therapy-for-men-with-prostate-cancer-a-review-of-the-current-literature-and-discussion-of-practical-aspects-of-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Louise Emmett, Kathy Willowson, John Violet, Jane Shin, Ashley Blanksby, Jonathan Lee
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a receptor on the surface of prostate cancer cells that is revolutionising the way we image and treat men with prostate cancer. New small molecule peptides with high-binding affinity for the PSMA receptor have allowed high quality, highly specific PET imaging, in addition to the development of targeted radionuclide therapy for men with prostate cancer. This targeted therapy for prostate cancer has, to date, predominately used Lutetium 177 (Lu) labelled PSMA peptides...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302349/influence-of-pathologist-experience-on-positive-surgical-margins-following-radical-prostatectomy
#18
Jacob E Tallman, Vignesh T Packiam, Kristen E Wroblewski, Gladell P Paner, Scott E Eggener
BACKGROUND: A positive surgical margin (PSM) following radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer is associated with increased risk of biochemical recurrence. We sought to examine whether the pathologist is an independent predictor of PSMs. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 3,557 men who underwent RP for localized prostate cancer at our institution from 2003 to 2015. We evaluated 29 separate pathologists. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to test variables previously shown to influence PSM rates...
March 13, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301631/androgen-receptor-function-and-androgen-receptor-targeted-therapies-in-breast-cancer-a-review
#19
Miho Kono, Takeo Fujii, Bora Lim, Meghan Sri Karuturi, Debasish Tripathy, Naoto T Ueno
Importance: The androgen receptor (AR) pathway is emerging as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. To date, AR-targeted drugs have been approved only for treatment of prostate cancer; however, AR-targeted treatment for breast cancer is an area of active investigation. Through review of preclinical studies, retrospective clinical studies, and clinical trials, we examined the biology of AR and AR-related pathways, the potential for AR-targeted therapies in breast cancer, and potential biomarkers for AR-targeted treatments...
March 16, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299719/the-non-coding-transcriptome-of-prostate-cancer-implications-for-clinical-practice
#20
REVIEW
Irene V Bijnsdorp, Martin E van Royen, Gerald W Verhaegh, Elena S Martens-Uzunova
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Despite extensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa initiation and progression remain unclear, and there is increasing need of better biomarkers that can distinguish indolent from aggressive and life-threatening disease. With the advent of advanced genomic technologies in the last decade, it became apparent that the human genome encodes tens of thousands non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with yet to be discovered function...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
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