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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914295/sarcopenia-and-post-hospital-outcomes-in-older-adults-a-longitudinal-study
#1
Mario Ulises Pérez-Zepeda, Aldo Sgaravatti, Elsa Dent
INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia poses a significant problem for older adults, yet very little is known about this medical condition in the hospital setting. The aims of this hospital-based study were to determine: (i) the prevalence of sarcopenia; (ii) factors associated with sarcopenia; and (iii) the association of sarcopenia with adverse clinical outcomes post-hospitalisation. METHODS: This is a longitudinal analysis of consecutive patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a Geriatric Management and Evaluation Unit (GEMU) ward...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912747/the-three-dimensional-kinematics-and-spatiotemporal-parameters-of-gait-in-6-10-year-old-typically-developed-children-in-the-cape-metropole-of-south-africa-a-pilot-study
#2
Yvonne Smith, Quinette Louw, Yolandi Brink
BACKGROUND: Functional gait is an integral part of life, allowing individuals to function within their environment and participate in activities of daily living. Gait assessment forms an essential part of a physical examination and can help screen for physical impairments. No three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis studies of children have been conducted in South Africa. South African gait analysis laboratory protocols and procedures may differ from laboratories in other countries, therefore a South African data base of normative values is required to make a valid assessment of South African children's gait...
December 3, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909356/effects-of-three-weeks-of-whole-body-vibration-training-on-joint-position-sense-balance-and-gait-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Myung-Sook Ko, Yon Ju Sim, Do Hyun Kim, Hye-Seon Jeon
Purpose : To observe the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training in conjunction with conventional physical therapy (PT) on joint-position sense (JPS), balance, and gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 24 children with CP were randomly selected either to continue their conventional PT or to receive WBV in conjunction with their conventional PT programme. Exposure to the intervention was intermittent (3 min WBV, 3 min rest) for 20 minutes, twice weekly for 3 weeks...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#4
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901247/anabolic-steroids-for-rehabilitation-after-hip-fracture-in-older-people
#5
Vaqas Farooqi, Maayken E L van den Berg, Ian D Cameron, Maria Crotty
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898386/mixture-model-clustering-of-pathological-gait-patterns
#6
Elham Dolatabadi, Avril Mansfield, Kara Patterson, Babak Taati, Alex Mihailidis
This study applies mixture-model clustering to spatiotemporal gait parameters in order to characterize the pathological gait pattern and to generate a composite measure indicative of overall gait performance. Gait data from sixty-eight adults with stroke (age: 61.513.6 years) and twenty healthy adults (age: 28.87.1 years) were used in this study. Participants performed 3 passes across a GAITRite mat at different time points following stroke (poststroke adults only). Mixture-model clustering grouped participants' gait patterns based on their spatiotemporal gait features including symmetry, speed, and variability...
November 24, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898374/the-effect-of-intracortical-bone-pin-application-on-kinetics-and-tibiocalcaneal-kinematics-of-walking-gait
#7
Christian Maiwald, Anton Arndt, Chris Nester, Richard Jones, Arne Lundberg, Peter Wolf
Bone anchored markers using intracortical bone pins are one of the few available methods for analyzing skeletal motion during human gait in-vivo without errors induced by soft tissue artifacts. However, bone anchored markers require local anesthesia and may alter the motor control and motor output during gait. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of local anesthesia and the use of bone anchored markers on typical gait analysis variables. Five subjects were analyzed in two different gait analysis sessions...
November 4, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897431/prevalence-and-incidence-of-sarcopenia-in-the-very-old-findings-from-the-newcastle-85-study
#8
Richard Matthew Dodds, Antoneta Granic, Karen Davies, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Carol Jagger, Avan Aihie Sayer
INTRODUCTION: Recognition that an older person has sarcopenia is important because this condition is linked to a range of adverse outcomes. Sarcopenia becomes increasingly common with age, and yet there are few data concerning its descriptive epidemiology in the very old (aged 85 years and above). Our aims were to describe risk factors for sarcopenia and estimate its prevalence and incidence in a British sample of the very old. METHODS: We used data from two waves (2006/07 and 2009/10) of the Newcastle 85+ Study, a cohort born in 1921 and registered with a Newcastle/North Tyneside general practice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897415/sarcopenia-among-patients-receiving-hemodialysis-weighing-the-evidence
#9
Piyawan Kittiskulnam, Juan J Carrero, Glenn M Chertow, George A Kaysen, Cynthia Delgado, Kirsten L Johansen
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on how best to define low muscle mass in patients with end-stage renal disease. Use of muscle mass normalized to height-squared has been suggested by geriatric societies but may underestimate sarcopenia, particularly in the setting of excess adiposity. We compared four definitions of low muscle mass in a prevalent hemodialysis cohort. METHODS: ACTIVE/ADIPOSE enrolled prevalent patients receiving hemodialysis from the San Francisco and Atlanta areas from June 2009 to August 2011...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896949/sarcopenia-predicts-readmission-and-mortality-in-elderly-patients-in-acute-care-wards-a-prospective-study
#10
Ming Yang, Xiaoyi Hu, Haozhong Wang, Lei Zhang, Qiukui Hao, Birong Dong
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate the associations between sarcopenia and long-term mortality and readmission in a population of elderly inpatients in acute care wards. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in the acute care wards of a teaching hospital in western China. The muscle mass was estimated according to a previously validated anthropometric equation. Handgrip strength was measured with a handheld dynamometer, and physical performance was measured via a 4 m walking test...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894727/factors-associated-with-gait-speed-recovery-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-longitudinal-study
#11
Yong-Hao Pua, Felicia Jie-Ting Seah, Ross Allan Clark, Cheryl Lian-Li Poon, John Wei-Ming Tan, Hwei-Chi Chong
OBJECTIVES: Gait speed limitations can remain significant issues after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) but their associated factors are not well understood. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with acute gait speed recovery post-TKA. METHODS: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 1765 patients who underwent primary TKA between July 2013 and July 2015. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks postsurgery, fast gait speed was measured. The factors associated with gait speed over time since TKA were identified using multivariable generalized least squares modeling...
November 1, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893568/physical-function-in-older-adults-with-multiple-sclerosis-an-application-of-the-short-physical-performance-battery
#12
Robert W Motl, Gioella Chaparro, Manuel E Hernandez, Julia M Balto, Brian M Sandroff
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a growing prevalence of older persons living with multiple sclerosis (MS), and this cohort likely undergoes changes in physical function associated with MS and its progression as well as those associated with normal aging. This cross-sectional study examined physical function in a community-dwelling sample of older adults with MS compared with matched controls using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). METHODS: The sample (N = 40) included 20 older adults with MS and 20 older adults without MS who were matched on sex and age...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890581/total-hip-arthroplasty-using-a-cementless-dual-mobility-cup-provides-increased-stability-and-favorable-gait-parameters-at-five-years-follow-up
#13
A Acker, J-F Fischer, K Aminian, E Lécureux, B M Jolles
BACKGROUND: Rates of dislocation following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) vary from 0.5 to 10%. Dual-mobility cups in THA demonstrate increased stability. Clinical outcomes following THA with dual-mobility cups have been reported, but gait has not been assessed. Therefore we performed a retrospective case control study to answer: (1) is gait better in patients following THA with a dual-mobility cup than in frail, elderly patients of the same age? (2) Are clinical outcomes better in patients following THA with a dual-mobility cup than in frail, elderly patients? (3) What is the dislocation rate following THA with a dual-mobility cup? HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that patients who underwent THA with a dual-mobility cup have a better gait compared to frail, elderly patients of the same age...
November 24, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889188/dynamic-margin-of-stability-during-gait-is-altered-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Alexander T Peebles, Alyson Reinholdt, Adam P Bruetsch, Sharon G Lynch, Jessie M Huisinga
Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) have high fall risk due to altered balance. To measure dynamic balance during walking, margin of stability (MoS) examines how the extrapolated center of mass moves relative to the base of support. This study investigates how MoS is affected in PwMS during walking at preferred, slow, and fast speeds, as well as the relationship between MoS and the Expanded Disability Severity Score (EDSS), fall history, and self-report balance confidence questionnaire. MoS was evaluated in PwMS without clinical gait impairment (MS1; n=20), PwMS with clinical gait impairment (MS2; n=20), and age-matched healthy controls (HC) (n=20), in the anterior/posterior (AP) and medial/lateral (ML) direction at heel strike and midstance...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888736/activity-engagement-and-physical-function-in-old-age-sample
#15
Krupa N Shah, Feng V Lin, Fang Yu, James M McMahon
OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns of engagement in mental, physical, and social activity (MA, PA, and SA) and to examine the relationship between combined activity engagement and physical function among community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional correlational study. SETTING: Multiple communities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 466 individuals aged 55 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: Physical function was assessed using grip strength and gait speed...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888696/underwater-gait-analysis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Daniele Volpe, Davide Pavan, Meg Morris, Annamaria Guiotto, Robert Iansek, Sofia Fortuna, Giuseppe Frazzitta, Zimi Sawacha
Although hydrotherapy is one of the physical therapies adopted to optimize gait rehabilitation in people with Parkinson disease, the quantitative measurement of gait-related outcomes has not been provided yet. This work aims to document the gait improvements in a group of parkinsonians after a hydrotherapy program through 2D and 3D underwater and on land gait analysis. Thirty-four parkinsonians and twenty-two controls were enrolled, divided into two different cohorts. In the first one, 2 groups of patients underwent underwater or land based walking training; controls underwent underwater walking training...
November 10, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888695/automatic-identification-of-gait-events-during-walking-on-uneven-surfaces
#17
Nils Eckardt, Armin Kibele
The accurate detection of gait events is essential for clinical gait analysis. Aside from speed, surface characteristics like planarity and compliance can affect gait kinematics. Therefore detection of kinematic gait events on uneven surfaces may be inaccurate. To date, no study has investigated the possible influence of surface characteristics on gait event detection. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess and compare the performance of four kinematic-based gait event detection algorithms (horizontal heel-heel displacement, foot velocity, heel/toe-PSIS displacement, peak hip extension) during walking on three surfaces with different degrees of planarity...
November 18, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885410/is-osteoporosis-a-predictor-for-future-sarcopenia-or-vice-versa-four-year-observations-between-the-second-and-third-road-study-surveys
#18
N Yoshimura, S Muraki, H Oka, T Iidaka, R Kodama, H Kawaguchi, K Nakamura, S Tanaka, T Akune
: In a 4-year follow-up study that enrolled 1099 subjects aged ≥60 years, sarcopenia prevalence was estimated at 8.2%. Moreover, the presence of osteoporosis was significantly associated with short-term sarcopenia occurrence, but the reciprocal relationship was not observed, suggesting that osteoporosis would increase the risk of osteoporotic fracture and sarcopenia occurrence. INTRODUCTION: The present 4-year follow-up study was performed to clarify the prevalence, incidence, and relationships between sarcopenia (SP) and osteoporosis (OP) in older Japanese men and women...
November 24, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885229/the-effects-of-the-employment-of-physical-therapists-and-occupational-therapists-on-the-gait-function-of-adult-day-service-users-after-1-year
#19
Yuta Hayashi, Shinnosuke Hato, Tatsuyuki Imada, Osamu Kobayashi, Tsutomu Abe, Takeshi Oonuma, Hiroyuki Shimada
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the presence or absence of physical therapists (PTs) and occupational therapists (OTs) in an adult day service on the users' gait function, and to generalize the format of an effective service aimed at the preventing the exacerbation of the gait function and at promoting self-reliance in activities and participation. METHODS: The study population included 830 elderly day service users (mean age, 83...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885181/-clinical-manifestation-and-pathophyisological-bases-of-sarcopenia
#20
Sumito Ogawa
Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function is known as sarcopenia, and its diagnostic criteria is based on usual gait speed, grip strength, and skeletal muscle mass. Whereas underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia remains to be fully clarified, recent studies have suggested age-related changes in inflammatory status and humoral factors might contribute to the pathophysiology of sarcopenia and linkage between bone and muscle metabolism.
2016: Clinical Calcium
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