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Bone mineral density

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633987/a-paradigm-shift-for-bone-quality-in-dentistry-a-literature-review
#1
REVIEW
Shinichiro Kuroshima, Masaru Kaku, Takuya Ishimoto, Muneteru Sasaki, Takayoshi Nakano, Takashi Sawase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to present the current concept of bone quality based on the proposal by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and some of the cellular and molecular factors that affect bone quality. STUDY SELECTION: This is a literature review which focuses on collagen, biological apatite (BAp), and bone cells such as osteoblasts and osteocytes. RESULTS: In dentistry, the term "bone quality" has long been considered to be synonymous with bone mineral density (BMD) based on radiographic and sensible evaluations...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633866/tea-consumption-may-decrease-the-risk-of-osteoporosis-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#2
REVIEW
Ming Guo, Hua Qu, Lin Xu, Da-Zhuo Shi
Several epidemiological investigations have evaluated the correlation between tea consumption and risk of osteoporosis, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. We searched for all relevant studies including cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies published from database inception to July 15, 2016, using MEDLINE EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Polled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the random-effect model...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632666/change-in-calcaneal-bone-strength-in-long-term-care-residents-treated-with-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound
#3
Hiroyasu Okuizumi, Kiyoshi Koyano, Kazuya Kurosawa, Naoto Kamide, Ayako Soyano
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone strength in osteoporotic elderly residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial. Elderly residents with osteoporosis in a long-term care facility were treated with LIPUS (oscillation frequency 100 KHz) that involved treatment of the heel bone for 2 minutes a day. The selection of the treated heel was decided randomly with a personal computer. The heel bone mineral density before and after treatment was measured by calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (GE-1000 Express)...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632554/the-correlation-between-cage-subsidence-bone-mineral-density-and-clinical-results-in-posterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#4
Kyu Won Oh, Jae Hyup Lee, Ji-Ho Lee, Do-Yoon Lee, Hee Jong Shim
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of prospectively collected radiographic and clinical data. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between cage subsidence and bone mineral density (BMD), and to reveal the clinical implications of cage subsidence. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has become one of the standard treatment modality for lumbar degenerative disease. However, cage subsidence might result in recurrent foraminal stenosis and deteriorate the clinical results...
July 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631217/24-month-open-label-teriparatide-once-weekly-efficacy-research-trial-examining-bone-mineral-density-in-subjects-with-primary-osteoporosis-and-high-fracture-risk
#5
Toshitsugu Sugimoto, Masataka Shiraki, Masao Fukunaga, Hiroshi Hagino, Teruki Sone, Tetsuo Nakano, Hideaki Kishimoto, Masako Ito, Hideki Yoshikawa, Mitsukazu Kishida, Chika Irie, Toshitaka Nakamura
INTRODUCTION: To clarify the additional efficacy and safety benefits of 24 months' treatment with the once-weekly formulation of teriparatide, which is currently used for 72 weeks. METHODS: This was a multicenter, open-label, single-arm study conducted in Japan. Subjects who were 65 years or older with prevalent vertebral fractures received once-weekly subcutaneous injection of 56.5 μg teriparatide for 24 months. The main outcome measure was percentage change from baseline in lumbar (L2-L4) BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
June 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631133/bone-density-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-observation-from-south-india
#6
Shiraz Salim Khan, Sagar S Patil
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) frequently manifests in the second and third decades of life. Malnutrition and corticosteroid therapy may affect bone mineralization and delay bone growth. Our aim was to study bone mineral density and factors associated low bone mineral density (BMD) in pediatric CD. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study in children with CD (aged 5 to <18 years) was done. Demographic and treatment details were noted. Vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL were considered as deficiency...
June 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630804/diversity-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-osteoporosis-and-osteopenia-patients
#7
Jihan Wang, Yangyang Wang, Wenjie Gao, Biao Wang, Heping Zhao, Yuhong Zeng, Yanhong Ji, Dingjun Hao
Some evidence suggests that bone health can be regulated by gut microbiota. To better understand this, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to analyze the intestinal microbial diversity in primary osteoporosis (OP) patients, osteopenia (ON) patients and normal controls (NC). We observed an inverse correlation between the number of bacterial taxa and the value of bone mineral density. The diversity estimators in the OP and ON groups were increased compared with those in the NC group. Beta diversity analyses based on hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) could discriminate the NC samples from OP and ON samples...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630761/partial-proximal-tibia-fractures
#8
Michael J Raschke, Christoph Kittl, Christoph Domnick
Partial tibial plateau fractures may occur as a consequence of either valgus or varus trauma combined with a rotational and axial compression component.High-energy trauma may result in a more complex and multi-fragmented fracture pattern, which occurs predominantly in young people. Conversely, a low-energy mechanism may lead to a pure depression fracture in the older population with weaker bone density.Pre-operative classification of these fractures, by Müller AO, Schatzker or novel CT-based methods, helps to understand the fracture pattern and choose the surgical approach and treatment strategy in accordance with estimated bone mineral density and the individual history of each patient...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630697/the-effect-of-position-on-the-precision-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-correlation-with-body-condition-score-in-dogs-and-cats
#9
Charlotte R Bjørnvad, Mie E Nielsen, Susanna E M Hansen, Dorte H Nielsen
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been used to assess body composition in dogs and cats in several studies, but studies are difficult to compare for several reasons. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether positioning of dogs or cats in either dorsal or ventral recumbency during DEXA scanning influences results. Dogs and cats that were brought to the University Hospital for Companion Animals for euthanasia during the period 15 September-6 November 2015 were consecutively recruited if owners signed a written consent...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630637/evaluation-of-circulating-srage-in-osteoporosis-according-to-bmi-adipokines-and-fracture-risk-a-pilot-observational-study
#10
Emanuela Galliera, Monica Gioia Marazzi, Carmine Gazzaruso, Pietro Gallotti, Adriana Coppola, Tiziana Montalcini, Arturo Pujia, Massimiliano M Corsi Romanelli
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic disease based on age-dependent imbalance between the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent studies on the pathogenesis of this disease identified that bone remodelling impairment, at the base of osteoporotic bone fragility, could be related to protein glycation, in association to oxidative stress. The glycation reactions lead to the generation of glycation end products (AGEs) which, in turn, accumulates into bone, where they binds to the receptor for AGE (RAGE)...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630567/a-clinical-prospective-observational-cohort-study-on-the-prevalence-and-primary-diagnostic-accuracy-of-occult-vertebral-fractures-in-aged-women-with-acute-lower-back-pain-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Atsushi Terakado, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuhide Inage, Go Kubota, Tomohiro Kanzaki, Hiroshi Mori, Yuji Shinohara, Junichi Nakamura, Yusuke Matsuura, Yasuchika Aoki, Takeo Furuya, Masao Koda, Seiji Ohtori
BACKGROUND: Elderly female patients complaints of acute low back pain (LBP) may involve vertebral fracture (VF), among which occult VF (OVF: early-stage VF without any morphological change) is often missed to be detected by primary X-ray examination. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of VF and OVF and the diagnostic accuracy of the initial X-ray in detecting OVF. METHOD: Subjects were elderly women (>70 years old) complaining of acute LBP with an accurate onset date...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630427/insulin-use-and-excess-fracture-risk-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-propensity-matched-cohort-analysis
#12
Eladio Losada-Grande, Samuel Hawley, Berta Soldevila, Daniel Martinez-Laguna, Xavier Nogues, Adolfo Diez-Perez, Manel Puig-Domingo, Dídac Mauricio, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra
Despite normal to high bone mineral density, patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased fracture risk. T2DM medications could partially account for this excess risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between insulin use and bone fracture risk in T2DM patients. A population-based matched cohort study based on a primary care records database validated for research use (Catalonia, Spain) was performed. Propensity score (PS) for insulin use was calculated using logistic regression including predefined predictors of fractures...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629592/measurement-and-clinical-utility-of-%C3%AE-ctx-in-serum-and-plasma
#13
Stephen A P Chubb, Samuel D Vasikaran
Biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM) are released during bone remodeling and can be measured in blood or urine as noninvasive surrogate markers for the bone remodeling rate. The C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) is released during bone resorption and is specific to bone tissue. Assays have been developed to measure βCTX in blood and in urine; most current use of βCTX measurement for research and in clinical practice is performed on a blood sample. Method-specific differences for serum and plasma βCTX have led to initiatives to standardize or harmonize βCTX commercial assays...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629344/antiresorptive-effect-of-a-cathepsin-k-inhibitor-ono-5334-and-its-relationship-to-bmd-increase-in-a-phase-ii-trial-for-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#14
Makoto Tanaka, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Chihiro Hasegawa, Steve Deacon, Richard Eastell
BACKGROUND: ONO-5334 is a cathepsin K inhibitor that induced bone mineral density (BMD) gain in a phase II study in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. Even though the antiresorptive effect could only be monitored in the morning during the study, simulation can allow the antiresorptive effect to be assessed over 24 h, with assessment of the relationship to BMD gain. METHODS: Inhibition of the serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) level at doses of ONO-5334 of 100 mg once daily (QD), 300 mg QD, and 50 mg twice daily (BID) was simulated using plasma ONO-5334 pharmacokinetic (PK) data for repeated dose administration in a phase I study and corresponding sCTX inhibition from the PK-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship...
June 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629266/polygonatum-sibiricum-polysaccharide-promotes-osteoblastic-differentiation-through-the-erk-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-vitro
#15
Xiaoming Peng, Jichen He, Jinmin Zhao, Yunle Wu, Xiongzhi Shi, Li Du, Mengni Nong, Shaohui Zong, Gao-Feng Zeng
Natural compound Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PSP) has a variety of biological actions such as reducing blood fat, antitumor, antioxidant activities, and enhancing immune function. In our previous study has revealed that PSP can promote osteoblastic differentiation in bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by increasing nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. This study was designed to investigate that PSP can upregulate nuclear β-catenin, which was prevented by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) activity, by effectively activating Wnt signaling independent of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP5) ...
June 19, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628374/effects-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-supplement-on-bone-health-in-osteopenic-postmenopausal-women-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#16
Sadegh Jafarnejad, Kurosh Djafarian, Mohammad Reza Fazeli, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Abdolrahman Rostamian, Seyed Ali Keshavarz
OBJECTIVE: The development of alternative approaches to prevent and/or treat osteoporosis, as a chronic progressive bone disease, is being considered currently. Among dietary supplements, probiotics may have favorable effects on bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a multispecies probiotic supplementation on bone biomarkers and bone density in osteopenic postmenopausal women. METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 50 patients with osteopenia aged 50-72 years...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627057/vitamin-d-metabolism-in-growing-pigs-influence-of-uvb-irradiation-and-dietary-vitamin-d-supply-on-calcium-homeostasis-its-regulation-and-bone-metabolism
#17
E Kolp, M R Wilkens, W Pendl, B Eichenberger, A Liesegang
The aim of this study was to prove whether pigs are able to synthesize vitamin D (vitD) in the skin and to investigate the influence of ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) on vitD status and calcium (Ca) homeostasis of growing pigs. Thirty-two 11-week-old pigs were kept without access to sunlight and divided into four groups receiving the following treatment in a 2 × 2 factorial design: (i) UVB irradiation or not and (ii) vitD in feed or not. Blood, urine and faeces were sampled every third week. In serum, vitD metabolites, Ca, phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and bone markers were analysed...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626757/actn3-gene-and-susceptibility-to-sarcopenia-and-osteoporotic-status-in-older-korean-adults
#18
Jinkyung Cho, Inhwan Lee, Hyunsik Kang
BACKGROUND: Little information is available about molecular markers for sarcopenia and osteoporosis in Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of the ACTN3 polymorphism with sarcopenia and osteoporotic status in older Korean adults. METHODS: Older Korean 62 men and 270 women (mean age 73.7 ± 6.6 years) participated in this study. Body mass index, percent body fatness, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, femur, and total body were analyzed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626628/assessing-fracture-risk-in-early-stage-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-aromatase-inhibitors-an-enhanced-screening-approach-incorporating-trabecular-bone-score
#19
Veronica Mariotti, David B Page, Oksana Davydov, Didier Hans, Clifford A Hudis, Sujata Patil, Siddharth Kunte, Monica Girotra, Azeez Farooki, Monica N Fornier
INTRODUCTION: Aromatase-inhibitors (AIs) are commonly used for treatment of patients with hormone-receptor positive breast carcinoma, and are known to induce bone density loss and increase the risk of fractures. The current standard-of-care screening tool for fracture risk is bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX®) may be used in conjunction with BMD to identify additional osteopenic patients at risk of fracture who may benefit from a bone-modifying agent (BMA)...
June 2017: Journal of Bone Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626166/efficacy-of-denosumab-for-osteoporosis-in-three-female-patients-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#20
Masashi Uehara, Yukio Nakamura, Jun Takahashi, Mikio Kamimura, Shota Ikegami, Takako Suzuki, Shigeharu Uchiyama, Tomomi Yamaguchi, Tomoki Kosho, Hiroyuki Kato
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited bone disorder that causes fractures due to impaired production of collagen type I. In recent years, denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), has become widely used as an anti-osteoclastic agent for osteoporosis. This study investigated osteoporotic cases of OI to examine effects of denosumab on bone fragility. This was a retrospective, consecutive case series that included 3 female patients aged 42, 40, and 14 years, respectively...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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