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Phagocytic activity of neutrophils

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238967/potent-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-resolving-effects-of-anabasum-in-a-human-model-of-self-resolving-acute-inflammation
#1
Madhur P Motwani, Frances Bennett, Paul C Norris, Alexander A Maini, Marc J George, Justine Newson, Alice Henderson, Adrian J Hobbs, Mark Tepper, Barbara White, Charles N Serhan, Raymond MacAllister, Derek W Gilroy
Anabasum is a synthetic analogue of Δ8 - tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-11-oic acid that in pre-clinical models of experimental inflammation exerts potent anti-inflammatory actions with minimal CNS cannabimimetic activity. Here we used a novel model of acute inflammation driven by i.d. UV-killed E. coli in healthy humans and found that Anabasum (5mg) exerted a potent anti-inflammatory effect equivalent to that of prednisolone in terms of inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, the hallmark of acute inflammation. These effects arose from the inhibition of the neutrophil chemoattractant LTB4 , while the inhibition of anti-phagocytic prostanoids (PGE2 , TxB2 and PGF2 α) resulted in enhanced clearance of inflammatory stimulus from the injected site...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193757/effects-of-the-consumption-of-milk-biofortified-with-selenium-vitamin-e-and-different-fatty-acid-profile-on-immune-response-in-the-elderly
#2
Karina Pfrimer, Eduardo Ferriolli, Paula Lumy Takeuchi, Márcia Msv Salles, Arlindo Saran-Netto, Marcus A Zanetti, Luiz C Roma-Junior, Camila Bitu Moreno Braga, Fernanda A Domenici, Yara Ml Valim, Adriana Bp Paschoalato, Larissa F Marchi, Ana Ecs Azzolini, Eduardo A Donadi, Edson Martinez, Helio Vannucchi
SCOPE: Nutrition is a major contributing factor for immunocompetence. The aim was to assess the immune status of older after consuming a milk produced by lactating cows fed with one of the following diets: control diet(C), C+vitaminE+selenium(C+A), C+sunfloweroil(C+O), orC+sunflower oil+vitaminE+selenium(A+O). METHODS AND RESULTS: 60elderly received one of these biofortified milks during 12weeks. Immune response was assessed by measurement of the expression of COX-1,2, MCP-1, PPAR(δ,α and β/δ)genes, neutrophil production of oxygen reactive species induced by immune complexes, neutrophil phagocytosis and lytic activity of the alternative pathway of the complement system and cytokine levels...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183754/nitroxide-tempol-down-regulates-kinase-activities-associated-with-nadph-oxidase-function-in-phagocytic-cells-and-potentially-decreases-their-fungicidal-response
#3
Gérsika B Santos, Ana C G Ribeiro, Samuel N P Lima, Andrés Trostchansky, Cláudio Daniel Cerdeira, Maísa R P L Brigagão
AIMS: The identification of novel targets to control inflammation in humans is probably the primary challenge that impairs the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. Therefore, the modulation of intracellular signaling pathways in phagocytes may be an interesting means of achieving this goal. However, this change to signaling can compromise the host's susceptibility to invading pathogens. We investigated whether the antioxidant nitroxide Tempol regulates the activity of kinases associated with the production of oxidants in neutrophils, which affects the fungicidal capability of these cells...
November 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180834/increased-levels-of-s100a8-a9-in-patients-with-peritonsillar-abscess-a-new-promising-diagnostic-marker-to-differentiate-between-peritonsillar-abscess-and-peritonsillitis
#4
Christoph Spiekermann, Antonella Russo, Markus Stenner, Claudia Rudack, Johannes Roth, Thomas Vogl
Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is a very frequent reason for urgent outpatient consultation and otolaryngological hospital admission. Early, correct diagnosis and therapy of peritonsillar abscess are important to prevent possible life-threatening complications. Based on physical examinations, a reliable differentiation between peritonsillar cellulitis and peritonsillar abscess is restricted. A heterodimeric complex called calprotectin consists of the S100 proteins A8 and A9 (S100A8/A9) and is predominantly expressed not only in monocytes and neutrophils but also in epithelial cells...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173534/canine-neutrophils-activate-effector-mechanisms-in-response-to-leishmania-infantum
#5
REVIEW
Maria Pereira, Ana Valério-Bolas, David Santos-Mateus, Graça Alexandre-Pires, Marcos Santos, Armanda Rodrigues, Hugo Rocha, Ana Santos, Catarina Martins, Ana Tomas, Filipe Passero, Isabel Pereira da Fonseca, Gabriela Santos-Gomes
Canine leishmaniosis caused by L. infantum is a severe zoonotic disease. Although macrophages are the definitive host cells, neutrophils are the first cells to encounter the parasite soon after its inoculation in the dermis by the phlebotomine vector. To study the interaction of dog neutrophils and L. infantum promastigotes, blood neutrophils were isolated from healthy donors and the infection was established in vitro. In the majority of the dogs, L. infantum was efficiently phagocytized by neutrophils, and oxidative (superoxide production) and non-oxidative (neutrophil elastase exocytosis) intracellular effector mechanisms were activated, but the release of neutrophil extracellular traps was minimized...
December 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162744/atp-promotes-the-fast-migration-of-dendritic-cells-through-the-activity-of-pannexin-1-channels-and-p2x7-receptors
#6
Pablo J Sáez, Pablo Vargas, Kenji F Shoji, Paloma A Harcha, Ana-María Lennon-Duménil, Juan C Sáez
Upon its release from injured cells, such as infected, transformed, inflamed, or necrotic cells, extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) acts as a danger signal that recruits phagocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), to the site of injury. The sensing of extracellular ATP occurs through purinergic (P2) receptors. We investigated the cellular mechanisms linking purinergic signaling to DC motility. We found that ATP stimulated fast DC motility through an autocrine signaling loop, which was initiated by the activation of P2X7 receptors and further amplified by pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels...
November 21, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136024/severe-oxidative-stress-in-an-acute-inflammatory-demyelinating-model-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#7
Jordon Dunham, Reinofke van de Vis, Jan Bauer, Jacqueline Wubben, Nikki van Driel, Jon D Laman, Bert A 't Hart, Yolanda S Kap
Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated as a co-factor of tissue injury in inflammatory/demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models diverge from human demyelinating disorders with respect to limited oxidative injury, we observed that in a non-human primate (NHP) model for MS, namely EAE in the common marmoset, key pathological features of the disease were recapitulated, including oxidative tissue injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132841/pelargonidin-3-o-glucoside-and-its-metabolites-have-modest-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-human-whole-blood-cultures
#8
Anna M Amini, Karolin Muzs, Jeremy Pe Spencer, Parveen Yaqoob
This study hypothesized that the predominant strawberry anthocyanin, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pg-3-glc), and 3 of its plasma metabolites (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, and phloroglucinaldehyde [PGA]) would affect phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and the production of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in a whole blood culture model. For the assessment of phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity of monocytes and neutrophils, whole blood was preincubated in the presence or absence of the test compounds at concentrations up to 5 μmol/L, followed by analysis of phagocytic and oxidative burst activity using commercially available test kits...
September 21, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119117/blocking-age-rage-signaling-improved-functional-disorders-of-macrophages-in-diabetic-wound
#9
Qi Wang, Guanya Zhu, Xiaozan Cao, Jiaoyun Dong, Fei Song, Yiwen Niu
Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) accumulate in diabetic wounds. Interactions between AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) leads to dermatologic problems in diabetes. Macrophage, which plays important roles in wound healing, highly expresses RAGE. Therefore, we investigated whether RAGE-expressing macrophages might be responsible for impaired wound healing on diabetes. We used anti-RAGE antibody applied topically on diabetic wounds. After confirming that wound healing was improved in anti-RAGE antibody group compared with normal mice, our results showed that macrophages appeared insufficient in the early stage and fading away slowly in the later proliferative phase compared with the control group, which was ameliorated in anti-RAGE antibody-applied wounds...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109234/maresin-1-promotes-inflammatory-resolution-neuroprotection-and-functional-neurological-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Isaac Francos Quijorna, Eva Santos-Nogueira, Karsten Gronert, Aaron B Sullivan, Marcel A Kopp, Benedikt Brommer, Samuel David, Jan M Schwab, Ruben Lopez Vales
Resolution of inflammation is defective after spinal cord injury (SCI), which impairs tissue integrity and remodelling, and leads to functional deficits. Effective treatments for SCI are not currently available. Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a highly conserved specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) hosting potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties with potent tissue regenerative actions. Here, we provide evidence that the inappropriate biosynthesis of SPM in the lesioned spinal cord hampers the resolution of inflammation and leads to deleterious consequences on neurological outcome in adult female mice...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109176/candidalysin-drives-epithelial-signaling-neutrophil-recruitment-and-immunopathology-at-the-vaginal-mucosa
#11
Jonathan P Richardson, Hubertine M E Willems, David L Moyes, Saeed Shoaie, Katherine S Barker, Shir Lynn Tan, Glen E Palmer, Bernhard Hube, Julian R Naglik, Brian M Peters
Unlike other forms of candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, is a disease of immunocompetent and otherwise healthy women. Despite its prevalence, the fungal factors responsible for initiating symptomatic infection remain poorly understood. One of the hallmarks of vaginal candidiasis is the robust recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection, which seemingly do not clear the fungus, but rather exacerbate disease symptomatology. Candidalysin, a newly discovered peptide toxin secreted by C...
November 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103982/phagocyte-nadph-oxidase-oxidative-stress-and-lipids-anti-or-pro-ageing
#12
Laura Baciou, Rawand Masoud, Hager Souabni, Xavier Serfaty, Gilda Karimi, Tania Bizouarn, Chantal Houée Levin
The role of NADPH oxidase in ageing is debated because of the dual roles of free radicals, toxic though necessary. In this paper we summarize some results about two aspects linked to the regulation of the activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Nox2), encountered frequently in elderly people: inflammation and hypercholesterolemia. In the presence of a high amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) created by itself or by any other source, the enzyme activity is mostly lowered. Oxidation of the membrane and/or of one of the cytosolic partners could be responsible for this loss of activity...
November 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099763/vitamin-c-and-immune-function
#13
REVIEW
Anitra C Carr, Silvia Maggini
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress...
November 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099326/disarming-staphylococcus-aureus-from-destroying-human-cells-by-simultaneously-neutralizing-six-cytotoxins-with-two-human-monoclonal-antibodies
#14
Harald Rouha, Susanne Weber, Philipp Janesch, Barbara Maierhofer, Karin Gross, Ivana Dolezilkova, Irina Mirkina, Zehra C Visram, Stefan Malafa, Lukas Stulik, Adriana Badarau, Eszter Nagy
Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized to be driven by powerful toxins. Staphylococcus aureus employs up to six pore-forming toxins to subvert the human host defense and to promote bacterial invasion: alpha-hemolysin that disrupts epithelial and endothelial barriers and five leukocidins that lyse phagocytes involved in bacterial clearance. Previously, we described two human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), ASN-1 that neutralizes alpha-hemolysin and four leukocidins (LukSF-PV, LukED, HlgAB, HlgCB), and ASN-2 that inactivates the 5(th) leukocidin, LukGH...
November 3, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097502/inhibitor-of-serine-peptidase-2-enhances-leishmania-major-survival-in-the-skin-through-control-of-monocytes-and-monocyte-derived-cells
#15
Amy Goundry, Audrey Romano, Ana Paula C A Lima, Jeremy C Mottram, Elmarie Myburgh
Leishmania major is the causative agent of the neglected tropical disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the mouse, protective immunity to Leishmania is associated with inflammatory responses. Here, we assess the dynamics of the inflammatory responses at the lesion site during experimental long-term, low-dose intradermal infection of the ear, employing noninvasive imaging and genetically modified L. major Significant infiltrates of neutrophils and monocytes occurred at 1-4 d and 2-4 wk, whereas dermal macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) numbers were only slightly elevated in the first days...
November 2, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093651/current-understanding-in-neutrophil-differentiation-and-heterogeneity
#16
REVIEW
Chang-Won Hong
Neutrophils are professional phagocytes that conduct effectors functions in the innate immune systems. They are differentiated in the bone marrow (BM) and terminally differentiated neutrophils are then released into systemic circulation. Neutrophils migrate into inflammatory foci through extravasation, reverse transmigration, and chemotaxis. As neutrophils arrive at a target site, they actively participate in eliminating pathogens. They phagocytose bacteria, and eliminate them through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of protease-enriched granules, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
October 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079028/modulating-effect-of-mgo-sio2-nanoparticles-on-immunological-and-histopathological-alterations-induced-by-aflatoxicosis-in-rats
#17
Sara S Essa, Eiman M El-Saied, Osama S El-Tawil, Manal B Mahmoud, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman
INTRODUCTION: AflatoxinB1 (AFB1) is well-known as a feed borne-hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive mycotoxin. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of nanocomposite magnesium oxide and silicon oxide (MgO-SiO2) in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1on the immunity and histological alterations in liver, spleen and intestine of adult male rats. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Animals were divided into a control (Gp1) and three experimental groups (Gps); Gp2 received feed contained 200 ppb AFB1, Gp3 received feed contained 200 ppb AFB1 and 0...
October 25, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063637/phenotypic-prenatal-diagnosis-of-chronic-granulomatous-disease-cgd-a-useful-tool-in-the-absence-of-molecular-diagnosis
#18
Manasi Kulkarni, Maya Gupta, Manisha Madkaikar
Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder affecting the microbicidal function of the phagocytes. It is characterized by susceptibility to recurrent infections leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis though has significantly reduced the rate and severity of the infections; the breakthrough infections still remain a challenge. Currently allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative option which is very expensive and unavailable for many due to lack of suitable donor...
October 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052524/soluble-cd40l-is-associated-with-increased-oxidative-burst-and-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#19
Sandro Félix Perazzio, Paulo Vitor Soeiro-Pereira, Viviane Cardoso Dos Santos, Marlon Vilela de Brito, Bruno Salu, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva, Anne Margherite Stevens, Alexandre Wagner Silva de Souza, Hans D Ochs, Troy R Torgerson, Antonio Condino-Neto, Luis Eduardo Coelho Andrade
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that soluble factors in plasma from patients with active (aBD) and inactive (iBD) Behçet's disease (BD) stimulate neutrophil function. Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is an important mediator of inflammation in BD. Its expression and effect on neutrophil oxidative burst and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release have not been characterized. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of plasma and the CD40L pathway on NET release and the oxidative burst profile in patients with aBD and iBD...
October 19, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046035/-laboratorial-alteration-preceding-staphylococcal-infection-clinical-manifestations-after-intestinal-transplantation
#20
Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte, Alliny Oliveira Carvalho Galvan, Pedro Salem Molino, Thais Roque, Tainá Mosca, Wangles Soler
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infection, often with Staphylococcus aureus, is an important complication in intestinal transplant. CLINICAL CASE: A 2-year-old girl underwent small bowel transplantation owing to a small bowel volvulus. On the first postoperative day, lymphocyte phenotypes, serum immunoglobulins and chemotactic and phagocytic activity of neutrophils were assessed in peripheral blood. A decrease in the ingestion phase of phagocytosis by neutrophils was identified, in comparison with the results of 20 healthy children...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
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