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Phagocytic activity of neutrophils

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632731/cd47-overexpression-is-associated-with-decreased-neutrophil-apoptosis-phagocytosis-and-poor-prognosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#1
Lourdes Barrera, Edgar Montes-Servín, Juan-Manuel Hernandez-Martinez, María de Los Ángeles García-Vicente, Elizabeth Montes-Servín, Marytere Herrera-Martínez, José C Crispín, José Rafael Borbolla-Escoboza, Oscar Arrieta
BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients often exhibit neutrophilia, which has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, the mechanisms that lead to neutrophilia have not been fully established. CD47 is an antiphagocytic molecule that promotes neutrophil recruitment. METHODS: Blood was collected from 50 treatment-naive patients with advanced NSCLC and from 25 healthy subjects. The frequency of CD66b(+) cells and the expression of CD47 were determined by flow cytometry...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628214/unconventional-role-of-voltage-gated-proton-channels-vsop-hv1-in-regulation-of-microglial-ros-production
#2
Takafumi Kawai, Yoshifumi Okochi, Tomohiko Ozaki, Yoshio Imura, Schuichi Koizumi, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Toshihide Yamashita, Yasushi Okamura
It has been established that voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1), encoded by Hvcn1, support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytic activities of neutrophils (El Chemaly et al. 2010) and antibody production in B lymphocytes (Capasso et al. 2010). VSOP/Hv1 is a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia, since Hvcn1 deficiency reduces microglial ROS production and protects brain from neuronal damage (Wu et al. 2012). In the present study, we report that VSOP/Hv1 has paradoxical suppressive role in ROS production in microglia...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608441/transfusion-related-acute-lung-injury-critical-neutrophil-activation-by-anti-hla-a2-antibodies-for-endothelial-permeability
#3
Kathy Khoy, Minh Vu Chuong Nguyen, Dominique Masson, Béatrice Bardy, Christian Drouet, Marie-Hélène Paclet
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a major complication of hemotherapy that may occur after the transfusion of any blood type component. Several clinical reports have suggested the presence of anti-HLA antibodies in the blood product. This study sought to examine the role of anti-HLA-A2 antibodies in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation and thus in endothelial permeability. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PMN activation was assessed by both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
June 13, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601846/nadph-oxidase-depletion-in-neutrophils-from-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-restoration-via-toll-like-receptor-7-8-activation
#4
Loïc Rolas, Abdelali Boussif, Emmanuel Weiss, Philippe Lettéron, Oualid Haddad, Jamel El-Benna, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Richard Moreau, Axel Périanin
OBJECTIVE: Cirrhosis downregulates phagocyte oxidant production via their antibacterial superoxide-generating system, NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and increases patients' susceptibility to infection and mortality rate. To explore novel biochemical parameters that explain susceptibility to infections, we investigated the expression of NOX2 and partners in neutrophils of patients with severe alcoholic cirrhosis and have provided a novel approach to restore superoxide production capacity in patients' neutrophils and blood...
June 10, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584999/assessment-of-post-vaccination-phagocytic-activation-using-candida-albicans-killing-assays
#5
Wenqing Li, Yan Hu
Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen. It is now the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections and a great threat to the immuncompromised patients attributed to the disseminated candidiasis with the mortality up to 40%. Phagocytic cells are the first line of defense against Candida infections. Antibodies induced by vaccination can effectively enhance the capacities of phagocytosis and killing of neutrophils and macrophages. In this chapter, flow cytometric analysis (FACS) and killing assay by plate culture methods are introduced to evaluate the phagocytosis and killing of strains of Candida albicans opsonized with immune serum obtained from mice vaccinated with yeast and recombinant enolase...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569730/inflammasomes-and-il-1-biology-in-the-pathogenesis-of-allograft-dysfunction
#6
REVIEW
S Samuel Weigt, Vyacheslav Palchevskiy, John A Belperio
Inflammasomes are high-molecular-weight cytosolic complexes that mediate the activation of caspases. There are many inflammasomes, and each is influenced by a unique pattern-recognition receptor response. Two signals are typically involved in the inflammasome pathways. Signal one involves recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as LPS or other colonizing/invading microbes, that interact with TLRs, which induce the downstream production of pro-IL-1β. This is followed by signal two, which involves recognition of PAMPs or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), such as uric acid or ATP, via NLRP3, which leads to caspase-1-dependent cleavage of pro-IL-1β to active IL-1β and pyroptosis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554712/the-role-of-cr3-cd11b-cd18-and-cr4-cd11c-cd18-in-complement-mediated-phagocytosis-and-podosome-formation-by-human-phagocytes
#7
Szilvia Lukácsi, Zsuzsa Nagy-Baló, Anna Erdei, Noémi Sándor, Zsuzsa Bajtay
CR3 and CR4 belong to the family of β2-integrins and play an important role in phagocytosis, cellular adherence and migration. CR3 and CR4 are generally expected to mediate similar functions due to their structural homology, overlapping ligand specificity and parallel expression on human phagocytes. Although the different signalling pathways of these receptors suggest distinct functions, possible differences are just being revealed. Previously we proved that CR3 plays a key role in the uptake of iC3b-opsonized particles by human dendritic cells...
May 26, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553230/the-lrrc8a-mediated-swell-activated-chloride-conductance-is-dispensable-for-vacuolar-homeostasis-in-neutrophils
#8
Philippe Behe, Juliet R Foote, Adam P Levine, Craig D Platt, Janet Chou, Fernando Benavides, Raif S Geha, Anthony W Segal
The dialysis of human and mouse neutrophils in patch clamp experiments in the conventional whole-cell mode induces the emergence of a chloride (Cl(-)) current that appeared to be primarily regulated by cytoplasmic ionic strength. The characteristics of this current resembled that of the classical, and ubiquitous volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl(-) current: strong outward rectification, selectivity sequence of the Eisenman1 type, insensitivity to external pH and strong inhibition by tamoxifen, DCPIB and WW781...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550115/involvement-of-cell-surface-90-kda-heat-shock-protein-hsp90-in-pattern-recognition-by-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages
#9
Małgorzata Bzowska, Anna Nogieć, Krystian Bania, Magdalena Zygmunt, Mirosław Zarębski, Jerzy Dobrucki, Krzysztof Guzik
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are typical intracellular chaperones which also appear on the cell surface and in extracellular milieu. HSP90, which chaperones many proteins involved in signal transduction, is also a regular component of LPS-signaling complexes on Mϕ. As LPS is a prototypical PAMP, we speculated that HSP90 is engaged in pattern recognition by professional phagocytes. In this report, we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of the geldanamycin (Ge)-inhibitable HSP90 on the surface of live monocyte-derived Mϕs (hMDMs)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532685/nitroxide-4-hydroxy-2-2-6-6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-tempol-inhibits-the-reductase-activity-of-protein-disulfide-isomerase-via-covalent-binding-to-the-cys400-residue-on-cxxc-redox-motif-at-the-a-active-site
#10
Gérsika Bitencourt Santos, Lucia Gonzalez-Perilli, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Adrián Aicardo, Cláudio Daniel Cerdeira, Andrés Trostchansky, Maísa Ribeiro Pereira Lima Brigagão
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oxidative stress arising from inflammatory processes is a serious cause of cell and tissue damage. Tempol is an efficient antioxidant with superoxide dismutase-like activity. The purpose of this paper is to address the inhibition of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an essential redox chaperone whose active sites contain the Cys-Gly-His-Cys (CXXC) motif, by the nitroxide Tempol. RESULTS: In the presence of Tempol (5-120 μM), the reductase activity of PDI was reversibly affected both in vitro and in activated mice neutrophils, with an IC50 of 22...
June 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495931/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-drive-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#11
Elmar Pieterse, Nils Rother, Marjolein Garsen, Julia Hofstra, Simon Satchell, Markus Hoffmann, Markus Loeven, Hanneke Knaapen, Olivier van der Heijden, Jo Berden, Luuk Hilbrands, Johan van der Vlag
OBJECTIVE: An excessive release and impaired degradation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) leads to the continuous exposure of NETs to the endothelium in a variety of hematologic and autoimmune disorders, including lupus nephritis. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms through which NETs jeopardize vascular integrity. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells were exposed to NETs, and subsequent effects on endothelial integrity and function were determined in vitro and in vivo...
May 11, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495524/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-wegener-granulomatosis-a-proteinase-3-driven-disease
#12
Véronique Witko-Sarsat, Nathalie Thieblemont
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener granulomatosis) is a systemic autoimmune vasculitis that affects small arteries, arterioles, and capillaries, most notably in the kidneys and lungs. In this disease, proteinase-3 (PR3), produced by neutrophils, is targeted by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Recent work by our group has shown how PR3 impairs the resolution of inflammation and deregulates the immune system. Normally, the clearance of activated neutrophils triggers an anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution process...
May 8, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494242/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-effector-exos-inhibits-ros-production-in-human-neutrophils
#13
Chairut Vareechon, Stephanie Elizabeth Zmina, Mausita Karmakar, Eric Pearlman, Arne Rietsch
Neutrophils are the first line of defense against bacterial infections, and the generation of reactive oxygen species is a key part of their arsenal. Pathogens use detoxification systems to avoid the bactericidal effects of reactive oxygen species. Here we demonstrate that the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is susceptible to reactive oxygen species but actively blocks the reactive oxygen species burst using two type III secreted effector proteins, ExoS and ExoT. ExoS ADP-ribosylates Ras and prevents it from interacting with and activating phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which is required to stimulate the phagocytic NADPH-oxidase that generates reactive oxygen species...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492700/coagulation-factor-xi-improves-host-defence-during-murine-pneumonia-derived-sepsis-independent-of-factor-xii-activation
#14
Ingrid Stroo, Sacha Zeerleder, Chao Ding, Brenda M Luken, Joris J T H Roelofs, Onno J de Boer, Joost C M Meijers, Francis J Castellino, Cornelis van 't Veer, Tom van der Poll
Bacterial pneumonia, the most common cause of sepsis, is associated with activation of coagulation. Factor XI (FXI), the key component of the intrinsic pathway, can be activated via factor XII (FXII), part of the contact system, or via thrombin. To determine whether intrinsic coagulation is involved in host defence during pneumonia and whether this is dependent on FXII activation, we infected in parallel wild-type (WT), FXI knockout (KO) and FXII KO mice with two different clinically relevant pathogens, the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, via the airways...
May 11, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480538/glucuronides-of-phytoestrogen-flavonoid-enhance-macrophage-function-via-conversion-to-aglycones-by-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-in-macrophages
#15
Atsushi Kaneko, Takashi Matsumoto, Yosuke Matsubara, Kyoji Sekiguchi, Junichi Koseki, Ryo Yakabe, Katsuyuki Aoki, Setsuya Aiba, Kenshi Yamasaki
INTRODUCTION: Flavonoids are converted to inactive metabolites like glucuronides in the gut, and circulate mainly as glucuronides in blood stream, resulting in low concentrations of active aglycones in plasma. It is therefore unclear how oral flavonoids exert their effects in tissues. We recently reported the plasma pharmacokinetics of some flavonoids and suggested the possibility that the absorbed flavonoids modified macrophage functions leading to enhance bacterial clearance. We aimed to confirm their pharmacological profiles focusing on tissue macrophages...
May 8, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480416/in-vitro-effects-of-a-commercial-herbal-medicine-used-as-african-traditional-medicine-on-human-neutrophils
#16
Mmamosheledi Elsie Mothibe, Christinah Kahler-Venter, Elżbieta Osuch
BACKGROUND: Commercial herbal medicines (CHMs) being marketed as immune boosters or tonics, have gained widespread popularity. The many herbal mixtures sold have not been tested for efficacy and safety, despite their modern packaging and presentations. It is imperative that these herbal mixtures be investigated for their effects on human neutrophils. METHODS: The selected herbal mixture (HM), Stametta™ Body healing liquid, is common in retail outlets in Pretoria, South Africa (SA) and is used as an immune booster or intended to strengthen the body...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467721/reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-both-priming-and-established-arthritis-but-with-different-mechanisms
#17
Outi Sareila, Cecilia Hagert, Tiina Kelkka, Marjo Linja, Bingze Xu, Jan Kihlberg, Rikard Holmdahl
AIMS: Neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1) is a key regulatory component of the phagocytic NOX2 complex, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polymorphism of the Ncf1 gene is associated with increased arthritis severity. In this study, we generated targeted Ncf1 knock-in mice with inducible Ncf1 expression and determined the critical time window during which the NOX2-derived ROS protect the mice from arthritis. RESULTS: Targeted Ncf1 knock-in mice lacked NOX2-derived ROS, and in vivo allelic conversion of Ncf1 by the CreER(T2) recombinase led to full protein expression and ROS production within 10 days...
June 1, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448042/imaging-the-neutrophil-phagosome-and-cytoplasm-using-a-ratiometric-ph-indicator
#18
Juliet R Foote, Adam P Levine, Philippe Behe, Michael R Duchen, Anthony W Segal
Neutrophils are crucial to host innate defense and, consequently, constitute an important area of medical research. The phagosome, the intracellular compartment where the killing and digestion of engulfed particles take place, is the main arena for neutrophil pathogen killing that requires tight regulation. Phagosomal pH is one aspect that is carefully controlled, in turn regulating antimicrobial protease activity. Many fluorescent pH-sensitive dyes have been used to visualize the phagosomal environment. S-1 has several advantages over other pH-sensitive dyes, including its dual emission spectra, its resistance to photo-bleaching, and its high pKa...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448018/live-imaging-of-antifungal-activity-by-human-primary-neutrophils-and-monocytes-in-response-to-a-fumigatus
#19
Shan F Brunel, Jude M Bain, Jill King, Lena J Heung, Shinji Kasahara, Tobias M Hohl, Adilia Warris
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen causing invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts with a high case-fatality rate. Research investigating immunological responses against A. fumigatus has been limited by the lack of consistent and reliable assays for measuring the antifungal activity of specific immune cells in vitro. A new method is described to assess the antifungal activity of primary monocytes and neutrophils from human donors against A. fumigatus using FLuorescent Aspergillus REporter (FLARE) conidia...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435198/association-between-udder-morphology-and-in-vitro-activity-of-milk-leukocytes-in-high-yielding-crossbred-cows
#20
Tripti Sharma, Pradip Kumar Das, Prabal Ranjan Ghosh, Dipak Banerjee, Joydip Mukherjee
AIM: The present investigation was conducted to study the association between udder morphology and in vitro activity of milk leukocytes in high yielding crossbred cows. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 48 healthy high yielding crossbred cows were selected for the study. The udder configuration and teat/udder morphology were recorded before milking. Milk samples (100 ml/cow) were collected aseptically. Milk somatic cell counts (SCC) and milk differential leukocyte counts were performed microscopically...
March 2017: Veterinary World
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