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Semantic dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931265/increased-caspase-6-activity-in-the-human-anterior-olfactory-nuclei-of-the-olfactory-bulb-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment
#1
Benedicte Foveau, Steffen Albrecht, David A Bennett, José A Correa, Andrea C LeBlanc
Abnormally elevated hippocampal Caspase-6 (Casp6) activity is intimately associated with age-related cognitive impairment in humans and in mice. In humans, these high levels of Casp6 activity are initially localized in the entorhinal cortex, the area of the brain first affected by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, according to Braak staging. The reason for the high vulnerability of entorhinal cortex neurons to neurofibrillary tangle pathology and Casp6 activity is unknown. Casp6 activity is involved in axonal degeneration, therefore, one possibility to explain increased vulnerability of the entorhinal cortex neurons would be that the afferent neurons of the olfactory bulb, some of which project their axons to the entorhinal cortex, are equally degenerating...
December 8, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#2
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920731/do-you-read-how-i-read-systematic-individual-differences-in-semantic-reliance-amongst-normal-readers
#3
Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Gaston Madrid, Karalyn E Patterson
The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916672/famous-faces-and-voices-differential-profiles-in-early-right-and-left-semantic-dementia-and-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Simona Luzzi, Sara Baldinelli, Valentina Ranaldi, Katia Fabi, Viviana Cafazzo, Fabio Fringuelli, Mauro Silvestrini, Leandro Provinciali, Carlo Reverberi, Guido Gainotti
BACKGROUND: Famous face and voice recognition is reported to be impaired both in semantic dementia (SD) and in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), although more severely in the former. In AD a coexistence of perceptual impairment in face and voice processing has also been reported and this could contribute to the altered performance in complex semantic tasks. On the other hand, in SD both face and voice recognition disorders could be related to the prevalence of atrophy in the right temporal lobe (RTL)...
December 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915998/an-update-on-semantic-dementia-genetics-imaging-and-pathology
#5
REVIEW
Ramon Landin-Romero, Rachel Tan, John R Hodges, Fiona Kumfor
Progressive and relatively circumscribed loss of semantic knowledge, referred to as semantic dementia (SD) which falls under the broader umbrella of frontotemporal dementia, was officially identified as a clinical syndrome less than 50 years ago. Here, we review recent neuroimaging, pathological, and genetic research in SD. From a neuroimaging perspective, SD is characterised by hallmark asymmetrical atrophy of the anterior temporal pole and anterior fusiform gyrus, which is usually left lateralised. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed widespread changes in connectivity, implicating the anterior temporal regions in semantic deficits in SD...
December 5, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908787/fractionating-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-mvpa-reveals-differential-responses-to-input-and-conceptual-modality
#6
Charlotte Murphy, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, David Watson, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Words activate cortical regions in accordance with their modality of presentation (i.e., written vs. spoken), yet there is a long-standing debate about whether patterns of activity in any specific brain region capture modality-invariant conceptual information. Deficits in patients with semantic dementia highlight the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as an amodal store of semantic knowledge but these studies do not permit precise localisation of this function. The current investigation used multiple imaging methods in healthy participants to examine functional dissociations within ATL...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903817/effects-of-orthostatic-hypotension-on-cognition-in-parkinson-disease
#7
Justin Centi, Roy Freeman, Christopher H Gibbons, Sandy Neargarder, Alexander O Canova, Alice Cronin-Golomb
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between orthostatic hypotension (OH) and posture-mediated cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD) using a cross-sectional and within-group design. METHODS: Individuals without dementia with idiopathic PD included 18 with OH (PDOH) and 19 without OH; 18 control participants were also included. Neuropsychological tests were conducted in supine and upright-tilted positions. Blood pressure was assessed in each posture. RESULTS: The PD groups performed similarly while supine, demonstrating executive dysfunction in sustained attention and response inhibition, and reduced semantic fluency and verbal memory (encoding and retention)...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901073/thd-module-extractor-an-application-for-cen-module-extraction-and-interesting-gene-identification-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Tulika Kakati, Hirak Kashyap, Dhruba K Bhattacharyya
There exist many tools and methods for construction of co-expression network from gene expression data and for extraction of densely connected gene modules. In this paper, a method is introduced to construct co-expression network and to extract co-expressed modules having high biological significance. The proposed method has been validated on several well known microarray datasets extracted from a diverse set of species, using statistical measures, such as p and q values. The modules obtained in these studies are found to be biologically significant based on Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, pathway analysis, and KEGG enrichment analysis...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876444/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-verbal-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-correlates-of-recency-and-recognition-memory
#9
Adam M Staffaroni, Rebecca J Melrose, Lorraine P Leskin, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. METHOD: In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859539/clinicopathologic-heterogeneity-in-ftdp-17-due-to-mapt-p-p301l-mutation-including-a-patient-with-globular-glial-tauopathy
#10
Pawel Tacik, Monica Sanchez-Contreras, Michael DeTure, Melissa E Murray, Rosa Rademakers, Owen A Ross, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Joseph E Parisi, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Dennis W Dickson
AIM: The p.P301L mutation in microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a common cause of frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). We compare clinicopathologic features of five unrelated and three related (brother, sister and cousin) patients with FTDP-17 due to p.P301L mutation. METHODS: Genealogical, clinical, neuropathologic, and genetic data were reviewed from eight individuals RESULTS: The series consisted of five men and three women with an average age of death of 58 years (52-65 years) and average disease duration of 9 years (3-14 years)...
November 8, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847684/longitudinal-change-in-everyday-function-and-behavioral-symptoms-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#11
Claire M O'Connor, Lindy Clemson, Michael Hornberger, Cristian E Leyton, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Eneida Mioshi
BACKGROUND: The relationship between behavioral changes and functional decline in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is not well understood. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients (21 behavioral variant FTD [bvFTD], 18 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia [svPPA]) were followed up longitudinally (2-4 years follow-up). Functional (Disability Assessment for Dementia) and behavioral (Cambridge Behavioural Inventory Revised) assessments were included for between-group (pairwise comparisons, mixed model analysis) and within-group analyses (bivariate correlations)...
October 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844039/increased-prevalence-of-autoimmune-disease-within-c9-and-ftd-mnd-cohorts-completing-the-picture
#12
Zachary A Miller, Virginia E Sturm, Gamze Balci Camsari, Anna Karydas, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Lea T Grinberg, Adam L Boxer, Howard J Rosen, Katherine P Rankin, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Giovanni Coppola, Daniel H Geschwind, Rosa Rademakers, William W Seeley, Neill R Graff-Radford, Bruce L Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of autoimmune disease in symptomatic C9ORF72 (C9) mutation carriers and frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (FTD/MND) cohorts. METHODS: In this case-control study, we reviewed the clinical histories of 66 patients with FTD/MND and 57 symptomatic C9 carriers (24 overlapping cases), a total of 99 charts, for history of autoimmune disease. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in C9 and FTD/MND cohorts was determined by χ(2) and Fisher exact comparisons between the combined C9 and FTD/MND group with normal control, Alzheimer disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy cohorts, as well as comparisons within C9 and FTD/MND cohorts...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802229/diverging-progression-of-network-disruption-and-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-semantic-dementia
#13
Jennifer Andreotti, Thomas Dierks, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Matthias Grieder
The progression of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia is accompanied by grey matter atrophy and white matter deterioration. The impact of neuronal loss on the structural network connectivity in these dementia subtypes is, however, not well understood. In order to gain a more refined knowledge of the topological organization of white matter alterations in dementia, we used a network-based approach to analyze the brain's structural connectivity network. Diffusion-weighted and anatomical MRI images of groups with eighteen Alzheimer's disease and six semantic dementia patients, as well as twenty-one healthy controls were recorded to reconstruct individual connectivity networks...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702618/detecting-cognitive-changes-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review-of-its-feasibility
#14
REVIEW
Marion Mortamais, Jessica A Ash, John Harrison, Jeffrey Kaye, Joel Kramer, Christopher Randolph, Carine Pose, Bruce Albala, Michael Ropacki, Craig W Ritchie, Karen Ritchie
Significant progress has been made in characterizing the biological changes occurring in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive dysfunction has been viewed, however, as a late-stage phenomenon, despite increasing evidence that changes may be detected in the decades preceding dementia. In the absence of comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for preclinical cognitive assessment, longitudinal cohort and neuroimaging studies have been reviewed to determine the temporal order and brain biomarker correlates of specific cognitive functions...
October 1, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677318/successful-short-term-re-learning-and-generalisation-of-concepts-in-semantic-dementia
#15
Aida Suárez-González, Sharon A Savage, Diana Caine
Patients with semantic dementia (SD) can rapidly and successfully re-learn word labels during cognitive intervention. This new learning, however, usually remains rigid and context-dependent. Conceptual enrichment (COEN) training is a therapy approach aimed to produce more flexible and generalisable learning in SD. In this study we compare generalisation and maintenance of learning after COEN with performance achieved using a classical naming therapy (NT). The study recruited a 62-year-old woman with SD. An AB1ACAB2 experimental design was implemented, with naming performance assessed at baseline, post- intervention, 3 and 6 weeks after the end of each treatment phase...
September 28, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662315/the-role-of-single-subject-brain-metabolic-patterns-in-the-early-differential-diagnosis-of-primary-progressive-aphasias-and-in-prediction-of-progression-to-dementia
#16
Chiara Cerami, Alessandra Dodich, Lucia Greco, Sandro Iannaccone, Giuseppe Magnani, Alessandra Marcone, Elisabetta Pelagallo, Roberto Santangelo, Stefano F Cappa, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome due to different neurodegenerative conditions in which an accurate early diagnosis needs to be supported by a reliable diagnostic tool at the individual level. In this study, we investigated in PPA the FDG-PET brain metabolic patterns at the single-subject level, in order to assess the case-to-case variability and its relationship with clinical-neuropsychological findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 55 patients (i...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651170/lexical-semantic-deficits-in-processing-food-and-non-food-items
#17
Raffaella I Rumiati, Francesco Foroni, Giulio Pergola, Paola Rossi, Maria Caterina Silveri
The study of category specific deficits in brain-damaged patients has been instrumental in explaining how knowledge about different types of objects is organized in the brain. Much of this research focused on testing putative semantic sensory/functional subsystems that could explain the observed dissociations in performance between living things (e.g., animals and fruits/vegetables) and non-living things (e.g., tools). As neuropsychological patterns that did not fit the original living/non-living distinction were observed, an alternative organization of semantic memory in domains constrained by evolutionary pressure was hypothesized...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647568/somatic-symptom-disorder-in-semantic-dementia-the-role-of-alexisomia
#18
Joanna J Gan, Andrew Lin, Mersal S Samimi, Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic knowledge. SD may be associated with somatic symptom disorder due to excessive preoccupation with unidentified somatic sensations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of somatic symptom disorder among patients with SD in comparison to comparably demented patients with Alzheimer׳s disease. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using clinical data from a referral-based behavioral neurology program...
August 4, 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630558/anatomical-correlates-of-non-verbal-perception-in-dementia-patients
#19
Pin-Hsuan Lin, Hsiu-Hui Chen, Nai-Ching Chen, Wen-Neng Chang, Chi-Wei Huang, Ya-Ting Chang, Shih-Wei Hsu, Che-Wei Hsu, Chiung-Chih Chang
PURPOSE: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. METHODS: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629499/estrogen-receptor-beta-polymorphisms-and-cognitive-performance-in-women-associations-and-modifications-by-genetic-and-environmental-influences
#20
Karin Fehsel, Tamara Schikowski, Michaela Jänner, Anke Hüls, Mohammed Voussoughi, Thomas Schulte, Andrea Vierkötter, Tom Teichert, Christian Herder, Dorothea Sugiri, Ursula Krämer, Christian Luckhaus
Genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's dementia. Besides known genetic risk factors like the apolipoprotein (APO) Eε4 allele, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptors (ESRs) are candidate genetic risk factors, while air pollution represents an environmental risk factor for dementia. Effects of these risk factors and their interaction were investigated in the SALIA cohort of 834 non-demented elderly women. Cognitive function was assessed by the CERAD-plus test battery...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
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