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Traumatic cerebrovascular injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210211/app-as-a-protective-factor-in-acute-neuronal-insults
#1
REVIEW
Dimitri Hefter, Andreas Draguhn
Despite its key role in the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the physiological function of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is unknown. Increasing evidence, however, points towards a neuroprotective role of this membrane protein in situations of metabolic stress. A key observation is the up-regulation of APP following acute (stroke, cardiac arrest) or chronic (cerebrovascular disease) hypoxic-ischemic conditions. While this mechanism may increase the risk or severity of AD, APP by itself or its soluble extracellular fragment APPsα can promote neuronal survival...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179120/novel-therapeutic-approaches-for-disease-modification-of-epileptogenesis-for-curing-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Bryan L Clossen, Doodipala Samba Reddy
This article describes the recent advances in epileptogenesis and novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention of epilepsy, with a special emphasis on the pharmacological basis of disease-modification of epileptogenesis for curing epilepsy. Here we assess animal studies and human clinical trials of epilepsy spanning 1982-2016. Epilepsy arises from a number of neuronal factors that trigger epileptogenesis, which is the process by which a brain shifts from a normal physiologic state to an epileptic condition...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156136/plasma-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-levels-predict-intensive-care-unit-mortality-early-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Daniel Simon, Joice Evaldt, Débora Dreher Nabinger, Mariano Feraboli Fontana, Mirelli Gabardo Klein, Julia do Amaral Gomes, Andrea Regner
OBJECTIVES: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an inducible metalloproteinase that can degrade the cerebrovascular matrix leading to disruption of the blood-brain barrier and exacerbation of oedema in neurotrauma. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether MMP-9 plasma levels were associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) despite the presence of extracerebral injuries. METHODS: This cohort enrolled 80 patients who suffered severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale: 3-8 at hospital admission)...
February 3, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143715/neuroprotective-effect-of-breviscapine-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-associated-with-the-inhibition-of-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#4
Ling Jiang, Qing-Jie Xia, Xiu-Juan Dong, Yue Hu, Zhi-Wei Chen, Kang Chen, Kun-Hua Wang, Jia Liu, Ting-Hua Wang
Breviscapine, a standardized Chinese herbal medicine extracted from Erigeron breviscapine, has been widely used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. However, there are no reports about the neuroprotective effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of breviscapine on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of breviscapine on rats with TBI insult and illuminate the underlying mechanism. We created a traumatic brain-injured model with breviscapine lateral ventricle injection and evaluated the expressional changes of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) as well as the GSK3β-involved signaling pathways including apoptosis and axonal growth...
January 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142100/epilepsy-and-treatment-gap-in-urban-and-rural-areas-of-the-southern-kazakhstan-in-adults
#5
Alla Guekht, Nazira Zharkinbekova, Alexander Shpak, W Allen Hauser
PURPOSE: There are no data in the English literature about the epidemiology of epilepsy in the large countries in the Asian region of the former Soviet Union. This paper presents the results of epidemiological studies of active epilepsy in the population 14years of age and older in the Province of South Kazakhstan. METHODS: The study population consisted of 306.44 thousand persons: 139.42 in the urban Enbekshinskiy district of the city of Shymkent and 167.02 in the rural Sairam district...
January 27, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043994/long-term-results-following-emergency-stent-graft-repair-for-traumatic-rupture-of-the-aortic-isthmus%C3%A2
#6
Cecile Martin, Frederic Thony, Mathieu Rodiere, Pierre Bouzat, Pierre Lavagne, Michel Durand, Olivier Chavanon
OBJECTIVES: Endovascular repair of traumatic injury of the aortic isthmus is a safe technique that has shown good short-term results. However, the future of these stent grafts remains unexamined, especially in relation to young patients. METHOD: Between January 2000 and December 2014, 60 patients were treated with endovascular aortic stent graft for injury of the aortic isthmus. Follow-up was done by computed tomography scans with intravenous contrast or magnetic resonance imaging associated with a chest X-ray in order to control the stent graft...
January 2, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030918/to-treat-or-not-to-treat-drug-refractory-epilepsy-by-the-ketogenic-diet-that-is-the-question
#7
REVIEW
Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Ryszard Pluta, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Stanisław J Czuczwar
Epilepsy is a serious neurologic disorder worldwide which affects about 1% of the population (ca. 50 million people), the highest prevalence occurring in both children and elderly. Apart from idiopathic forms, etiology of the disease involves multiple brain risk factors - the most frequent being cerebrovascular diseases, tumours and traumatic injuries. Several treatment options exist, including, for instance, pharmacotherapy, vagal nerve stimulation or epilepsy surgery. In spite of treatment, about 30% of patients with epilepsy still have seizures and become drug-refractory...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030563/the-involvement-of-pial-microvessels-in-leukocyte-invasion-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Rongzi Shan, Nicole Thomasian, Adam Chodobski
The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are not well understood, but likely involve neuroinflammation. Here the controlled cortical impact model of mTBI in rats was used to test this hypothesis. Mild TBI caused a rapid (within 6 h post-mTBI) upregulation of synthesis of TNF-α and IL-1β in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, followed by an increase in production of neutrophil (CXCL1-3) and monocyte (CCL2) chemoattractants. While astrocytes were not a significant source of CXC chemokines, they highly expressed CCL2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000131/transcranial-doppler-monitoring-of-intracranial-pressure-plateau-waves
#9
Danilo Cardim, Bernhard Schmidt, Chiara Robba, Joseph Donnelly, Corina Puppo, Marek Czosnyka, Peter Smielewski
BACKGROUND: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) has been used to estimate ICP noninvasively (nICP); however, its accuracy varies depending on different types of intracranial hypertension. Given the high specificity of TCD to detect cerebrovascular events, this study aimed to compare four TCD-based nICP methods during plateau waves of ICP. METHODS: A total of 36 plateau waves were identified in 27 patients (traumatic brain injury) with TCD, ICP, and ABP simultaneous recordings...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931776/cd47-deficiency-improves-neurological-outcomes-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#10
Song Zhao, Zhanyang Yu, Yu Liu, Yang Bai, Yinghua Jiang, Klaus van Leyen, Yong-Guang Yang, Josephine M Lok, Michael J Whalen, Eng H Lo, Xiaoying Wang
CD47 is a receptor for signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) in self-recognition by the innate immune system, and a receptor of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) contributing to vascular impairment in response to stress. However, the roles of CD47 in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been investigated. In this study we aimed to test our hypothesis that CD47 mediates early neutrophil brain infiltration and late brain vascular remodeling after TBI. Mice were subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916030/-short-term-outcomes-of-lung-transplant-recipients-using-organs-from-brain-death-donors
#11
W X He, C Jiang, X G Liu, W Huang, C Chen, L Jiang, B Yang, K Wu, Q K Chen, Y Yang, Y M Yu, G N Jiang
Objective: To assess short-term outcomes after lung transplantation with organs procured following brain death. Methods: Between April 2015 and July 2016, all 17 recipients after lung transplantation using organs from brain death donors (DBD) at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine were enrolled in this study. All patients were male, aging (60±7) years, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 5 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 1 silicosis...
December 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907955/decompressive-craniectomy-in-neurocritical-care
#12
Erik G Hayman, David B Kurland, Zachary Grunwald, Sebastian Urday, Kevin N Sheth, J Marc Simard
Neurosurgeons increasingly use decompressive craniectomy (DC) in neurocritical care. In this review, the authors summarize the topic of DC for the neurointensivist. Following a brief overview of the procedure, the major indications for the procedure are described. This includes a review of the literature regarding well-established indications, such as infarction and traumatic brain injury, as well as lesser known indications, including intracerebral hemorrhage, ruptured cerebrovascular malformations, sinus thrombosis, and infection...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834539/chronic-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Cillian E Lynch, Gogce Crynen, Scott Ferguson, Benoit Mouzon, Daniel Paris, Joseph Ojo, Paige Leary, Fiona Crawford, Corbin Bachmeier
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of the cerebrovasculature following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: TBI is a risk factor for development of various neurodegenerative disorders. A common feature of neurodegenerative disease is cerebrovascular dysfunction which includes alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF). TBI can result in transient reductions in CBF, with severe injuries often accompanied by varying degrees of vascular pathology post-mortem...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815845/the-craniocervical-junction-embryology-anatomy-biomechanics-and-imaging-in-blunt-trauma
#14
REVIEW
Curtis Edward Offiah, Emily Day
: Imaging of the blunt traumatic injuries to the craniocervical junction can be challenging but central to improving morbidity and mortality related to such injury. The radiologist has a significant part to play in the appropriate management of patients who have suffered injury to this vital junction between the cranium and the spine. Knowledge of the embryology and normal anatomy as well as normal variant appearances avoids inappropriate investigations in these trauma patients. Osseous injury can be subtle while representing important radiological red flags for significant underlying ligamentous injury...
February 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767400/reliability-assessment-of-the-biffl-scale-for-blunt-traumatic-cerebrovascular-injury-as-detected-on-computer-tomography-angiography
#15
Paul M Foreman, Christoph J Griessenauer, Kimberly P Kicielinski, Philip G R Schmalz, Brandon G Rocque, Matthew R Fusco, Joseph C Sullivan, John P Deveikis, Mark R Harrigan
OBJECTIVE Blunt traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI) represents structural injury to a vessel due to high-energy trauma. The Biffl Scale is a widely accepted grading scheme for these injuries that was developed using digital subtraction angiography. In recent years, screening CT angiography (CTA) has been used to identify patients with TCVI. The reliability of this scale, with injuries assessed using CTA, has not yet been determined. METHODS Seven independent raters, including 2 neurosurgeons, 2 neuroradiologists, 2 neurosurgical residents, and 1 neurosurgical vascular fellow, independently reviewed each presenting CTA of the neck performed in 40 patients with confirmed TCVI and assigned a Biffl grade...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755938/arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-of-the-brain-emerging-clinical-applications
#16
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740992/positron-emission-tomography-and-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-neurology
#17
Robert S Miletich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are now available for routine clinical applications in neurology. This article discusses their diagnostic use in dementia, brain tumors, epilepsy, parkinsonism, cerebrovascular disease, and traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromolecular imaging, also known as nuclear neurology, involves clinical imaging of both basal regional physiology (perfusion, metabolism, and transport mechanisms) and specific neurochemical physiology (currently, only the dopamine transporter)...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736719/cerebrovascular-dysfunction-following-subfailure-axial-stretch
#18
E David Bell, Anthony J Donato, Kenneth L Monson
Cerebral blood vessels are vital to maintaining the health of the brain. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly results in autoregulatory dysfunction and associated failure of cerebral vessels to maintain homeostasis in the brain. While post-injury changes to brain biochemistry are known to contribute to this dysfunction, tissue deformation may also directly alter vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) function. As a first step toward understanding stretch-induced dysfunction, this study investigates the effect of overstretch on the contractile behavior of SMCs in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs)...
January 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693818/correlation-of-homocysteine-with-cerebral-hemodynamic-abnormality-endothelial-dysfunction-markers-and-cognition-impairment-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Masoud Hatefi, Someyeh Behzadi, Masoud Moghadas Dastjerdi, Alireza Abootalebi Ghahnavieh, Asghar Rahmani, Fatemeh Mahdizadeh, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi, Khairollah Asadollahi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess any correlation between serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and markers of cerebral hemodynamics, endothelial dysfunction, and cognition impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: By a cross-sectional study, all clinical data and serum levels of homocysteine of 85 TBI patients were collected. The pulsatility indices (PIs) of the middle cerebral artery were recorded by transcranial color-coded Doppler ultrasonography and cerebrovascular reactivity was measured by the increase in middle cerebral artery flow velocity in response to 5% inhaled CO2...
January 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693768/the-role-of-intraoperative-cerebral-angiography-in-transorbital-intracranial-penetrating-trauma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Jonathan P Riley, Andrew B Boucher, Denise S Kim, Daniel L Barrow, Matthew R Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Transorbital intracranial penetrating trauma with a retained intracranial foreign body is a rare event lacking a widely accepted diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. Intraoperative catheter angiography (IOA) has been advocated by some authorities to rule out cerebrovascular injury before and/or after removal of the object, but no standard of care currently exists. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 19-year-old man was involved in a construction site accident whereby a framing nail penetrated the left globe, traversed the lateral bony orbit, and terminated in the midtemporal lobe...
January 2017: World Neurosurgery
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