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Traumatic cerebrovascular injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412926/acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-geriatric-patients-with-multiple-risk-factors-a-diagnostic-challenge
#1
Ralf Landwehr, Robert Liszka
Acute symptomatic seizures and epileptic disorders are frequent health problems of elderly patients. An early and reliable distinction of the seizure etiology is important to ensure adequate treatment, and to prevent unwarranted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The most common causes of acute symptomatic seizures - acute cerebrovascular disorders, metabolic disorders, traumatic brain injury, meningo-encephalitis, cerebral tumors, and withdrawal of alcohol and other central agents - are well-defined and seem to permit straightforward diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
April 13, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399527/blunt-traumatic-extracranial-cerebrovascular-injury-and-ischemic-stroke
#2
Paul M Foreman, Mark R Harrigan
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke occurs in a significant subset of patients with blunt traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI). The patients are victims of motor vehicle crashes, assaults or other high-energy collisions, and suffer ischemic stroke due to injury to the extracranial carotid or vertebral arteries. SUMMARY: An increasing number of patients with TCVI are being identified, largely because of the expanding use of computed tomography angiography for screening patients with blunt trauma...
April 11, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377126/vascular-impairment-as-a-pathological-mechanism-underlying-long-lasting-cognitive-dysfunction-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Ichkova Aleksandra, Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Claire Bar, Frederic Villega, Jan Pieter Konsman, Jerome Badaut
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Indeed, the acute mechanical injury often evolves to a chronic brain disorder with long-term cognitive, emotional and social dysfunction even in the case of mild TBI. Contrary to the commonly held idea that children show better recovery from injuries than adults, pediatric TBI patients actually have worse outcome than adults for the same degree of injury severity. Acute trauma to the young brain likely interferes with the fine-tuned developmental processes and may give rise to long-lasting consequences on brain's function...
April 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331228/traumatic-brain-injury-results-in-acute-rarefication-of-the-vascular-network
#4
Andre Obenaus, Michelle Ng, Amanda M Orantes, Eli Kinney-Lang, Faisal Rashid, Mary Hamer, Richard A DeFazio, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce
The role of the cerebrovascular network and its acute response to TBI is poorly defined and emerging evidence suggests that cerebrovascular reactivity is altered. We explored how cortical vessels are physically altered following TBI using a newly developed technique, vessel painting. We tested our hypothesis that a focal moderate TBI results in global decrements to structural aspects of the vasculature. Rats (naïve, sham-operated, TBI) underwent a moderate controlled cortical impact. Animals underwent vessel painting perfusion to label the entire cortex at 1 day post TBI followed by whole brain axial and coronal images using a wide-field fluorescence microscope...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330412/early-asymmetric-cardio-cerebral-causality-and-outcome-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Lei Gao, Peter Smieleweski, Marek Czosnyka, Ari Ercole
The brain and heart are two vital systems in health and disease, increasingly recognised as a complex, interdependent network with constant information flow in both directions. After severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the causal, directed interactions between the brain, heart and autonomic nervous system have not been well established. Novel methods are needed to probe unmeasured, potentially prognostic information in complex biological networks that are not revealed via traditional means. In this study, we examined potential bi-directional causality between intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) and its relationship to mortality in a 24-hour period early after TBI...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261100/endocannabinoids-a-promising-impact-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
Lesley D Schurman, Aron H Lichtman
The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system regulates a diverse array of physiological processes and unsurprisingly possesses considerable potential targets for the potential treatment of numerous disease states, including two receptors (i.e., CB1 and CB2 receptors) and enzymes regulating their endogenous ligands N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG). Increases in brain levels of endocannabinoids to pathogenic events suggest this system plays a role in compensatory repair mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249552/hypertension-induced-enhanced-myogenic-constriction-of-cerebral-arteries-is-preserved-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Nikolett Szarka, Krisztina Amrein, Peter Horvath, Ivan Ivic, Endre Czeiter, Andras Buki, Akos Koller, Peter Toth
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was shown to impair pressure-induced myogenic response of cerebral arteries, which is associated with vascular and neural dysfunction and increased mortality of TBI patients. Hypertension was shown to enhance myogenic tone of cerebral arteries via increased vascular production of 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETE). This adaptive mechanism protects brain tissue from pressure/volume overload; however, it can also lead to increased susceptibility to cerebral ischemia. Although both effects may potentiate the detrimental vascular consequences of TBI, it is not known how hypertension modulates the effect of TBI on myogenic responses of cerebral vessels...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246625/endovascular-management-of-a-combined-subclavian-and-vertebral-artery-injury-in-an-unstable-polytrauma-patient-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Christian David Weber, Philipp Kobbe, Christian Herren, Andreas H Mahnken, Frank Hildebrand, Hans-Christoph Pape
While blunt trauma of the head and neck are a common pattern of injury, significant problems related to the prompt diagnosis and optimal management of traumatic artery injuries have been reported in the literature. While patients with major artery injuries might develop hemorrhagic shock very rapidly, patients with blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) can present asymptomatic, but complications like basilar territory infarction, cortical blindness and death may occur. We report the life- and limb-saving management in a 57-year-old hemodynamically unstable trauma patient...
January 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222542/ecologically-relevant-outcome-measure-for-post-inpatient-rehabilitation
#9
Carlos Marquez de la Plata, Devin Qualls, Patrick Plenger, James F Malec, Mary Ellen Hayden
BACKGROUND: Transfer of skills learned within the clinic environment to patients' home or community is important in post-inpatient brain injury rehabilitation (PBIR). Outcome measures used in PBIR assess level of independence during functional tasks; however, available functional instruments do not quantitate the environment in which the behaviors occur. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and validity of an instrument used to assess patients' functional abilities while quantifying the amount of structure and distractions in the environment...
2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210211/app-as-a-protective-factor-in-acute-neuronal-insults
#10
REVIEW
Dimitri Hefter, Andreas Draguhn
Despite its key role in the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the physiological function of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is unknown. Increasing evidence, however, points towards a neuroprotective role of this membrane protein in situations of metabolic stress. A key observation is the up-regulation of APP following acute (stroke, cardiac arrest) or chronic (cerebrovascular disease) hypoxic-ischemic conditions. While this mechanism may increase the risk or severity of AD, APP by itself or its soluble extracellular fragment APPsα can promote neuronal survival...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179120/novel-therapeutic-approaches-for-disease-modification-of-epileptogenesis-for-curing-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Bryan L Clossen, Doodipala Samba Reddy
This article describes the recent advances in epileptogenesis and novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention of epilepsy, with a special emphasis on the pharmacological basis of disease-modification of epileptogenesis for curing epilepsy. Here we assess animal studies and human clinical trials of epilepsy spanning 1982-2016. Epilepsy arises from a number of neuronal factors that trigger epileptogenesis, which is the process by which a brain shifts from a normal physiologic state to an epileptic condition...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156136/plasma-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-levels-predict-intensive-care-unit-mortality-early-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Daniel Simon, Joice Evaldt, Débora Dreher Nabinger, Mariano Feraboli Fontana, Mirelli Gabardo Klein, Julia do Amaral Gomes, Andrea Regner
OBJECTIVES: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an inducible metalloproteinase that can degrade the cerebrovascular matrix leading to disruption of the blood-brain barrier and exacerbation of oedema in neurotrauma. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether MMP-9 plasma levels were associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) despite the presence of extracerebral injuries. METHODS: This cohort enrolled 80 patients who suffered severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale: 3-8 at hospital admission)...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143715/neuroprotective-effect-of-breviscapine-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-associated-with-the-inhibition-of-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#13
Ling Jiang, Qing-Jie Xia, Xiu-Juan Dong, Yue Hu, Zhi-Wei Chen, Kang Chen, Kun-Hua Wang, Jia Liu, Ting-Hua Wang
Breviscapine, a standardized Chinese herbal medicine extracted from Erigeron breviscapine, has been widely used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. However, there are no reports about the neuroprotective effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of breviscapine on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of breviscapine on rats with TBI insult and illuminate the underlying mechanism. We created a traumatic brain-injured model with breviscapine lateral ventricle injection and evaluated the expressional changes of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) as well as the GSK3β-involved signaling pathways including apoptosis and axonal growth...
January 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142100/epilepsy-and-treatment-gap-in-urban-and-rural-areas-of-the-southern-kazakhstan-in-adults
#14
Alla Guekht, Nazira Zharkinbekova, Alexander Shpak, W Allen Hauser
PURPOSE: There are no data in the English literature about the epidemiology of epilepsy in the large countries in the Asian region of the former Soviet Union. This paper presents the results of epidemiological studies of active epilepsy in the population 14years of age and older in the Province of South Kazakhstan. METHODS: The study population consisted of 306.44 thousand persons: 139.42 in the urban Enbekshinskiy district of the city of Shymkent and 167.02 in the rural Sairam district...
February 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043994/long-term-results-following-emergency-stent-graft-repair-for-traumatic-rupture-of-the-aortic-isthmus
#15
Cecile Martin, Frederic Thony, Mathieu Rodiere, Pierre Bouzat, Pierre Lavagne, Michel Durand, Olivier Chavanon
OBJECTIVES: Endovascular repair of traumatic injury of the aortic isthmus is a safe technique that has shown good short-term results. However, the future of these stent grafts remains unexamined, especially in relation to young patients. METHOD: Between January 2000 and December 2014, 60 patients were treated with endovascular aortic stent graft for injury of the aortic isthmus. Follow-up was done by computed tomography scans with intravenous contrast or magnetic resonance imaging associated with a chest X-ray in order to control the stent graft...
April 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030918/to-treat-or-not-to-treat-drug-refractory-epilepsy-by-the-ketogenic-diet-that-is-the-question
#16
REVIEW
Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Ryszard Pluta, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Stanisław J Czuczwar
Epilepsy is a serious neurologic disorder worldwide which affects about 1% of the population (ca. 50 million people), the highest prevalence occurring in both children and elderly. Apart from idiopathic forms, etiology of the disease involves multiple brain risk factors - the most frequent being cerebrovascular diseases, tumours and traumatic injuries. Several treatment options exist, including, for instance, pharmacotherapy, vagal nerve stimulation or epilepsy surgery. In spite of treatment, about 30% of patients with epilepsy still have seizures and become drug-refractory...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030563/the-involvement-of-pial-microvessels-in-leukocyte-invasion-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Rongzi Shan, Nicole Thomasian, Adam Chodobski
The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are not well understood, but likely involve neuroinflammation. Here the controlled cortical impact model of mTBI in rats was used to test this hypothesis. Mild TBI caused a rapid (within 6 h post-mTBI) upregulation of synthesis of TNF-α and IL-1β in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, followed by an increase in production of neutrophil (CXCL1-3) and monocyte (CCL2) chemoattractants. While astrocytes were not a significant source of CXC chemokines, they highly expressed CCL2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000131/transcranial-doppler-monitoring-of-intracranial-pressure-plateau-waves
#18
Danilo Cardim, Bernhard Schmidt, Chiara Robba, Joseph Donnelly, Corina Puppo, Marek Czosnyka, Peter Smielewski
BACKGROUND: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) has been used to estimate ICP noninvasively (nICP); however, its accuracy varies depending on different types of intracranial hypertension. Given the high specificity of TCD to detect cerebrovascular events, this study aimed to compare four TCD-based nICP methods during plateau waves of ICP. METHODS: A total of 36 plateau waves were identified in 27 patients (traumatic brain injury) with TCD, ICP, and ABP simultaneous recordings...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931776/cd47-deficiency-improves-neurological-outcomes-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#19
Song Zhao, Zhanyang Yu, Yu Liu, Yang Bai, Yinghua Jiang, Klaus van Leyen, Yong-Guang Yang, Josephine M Lok, Michael J Whalen, Eng H Lo, Xiaoying Wang
CD47 is a receptor for signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) in self-recognition by the innate immune system, and a receptor of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) contributing to vascular impairment in response to stress. However, the roles of CD47 in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been investigated. In this study we aimed to test our hypothesis that CD47 mediates early neutrophil brain infiltration and late brain vascular remodeling after TBI. Mice were subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916030/-short-term-outcomes-of-lung-transplant-recipients-using-organs-from-brain-death-donors
#20
W X He, C Jiang, X G Liu, W Huang, C Chen, L Jiang, B Yang, K Wu, Q K Chen, Y Yang, Y M Yu, G N Jiang
Objective: To assess short-term outcomes after lung transplantation with organs procured following brain death. Methods: Between April 2015 and July 2016, all 17 recipients after lung transplantation using organs from brain death donors (DBD) at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine were enrolled in this study. All patients were male, aging (60±7) years, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 5 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 1 silicosis...
December 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
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