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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#1
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527055/cluster-headache-present-and-future-therapy
#2
Massimo Leone, Alessandro Giustiniani, Alberto Proietti Cecchini
Cluster headache is characterized by severe, unilateral headache attacks of orbital, supraorbital or temporal pain lasting 15-180 min accompanied by ipsilateral lacrimation, rhinorrhea and other cranial autonomic manifestations. Cluster headache attacks need fast-acting abortive agents because the pain peaks very quickly; sumatriptan injection is the gold standard acute treatment. First-line preventative drugs include verapamil and carbolithium. Other drugs demonstrated effective in open trials include topiramate, valproic acid, gabapentin and others...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521762/clinical-experience-with-transcutaneous-supraorbital-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-refractory-migraine-or-with-migraine-and-intolerance-to-topiramate-a-prospective-exploratory-clinical-study
#3
Michail Vikelis, Emmanouil V Dermitzakis, Konstantinos C Spingos, Georgios G Vasiliadis, George S Vlachos, Evaggelia Kararizou
BACKGROUND: Migraine is included in the top-ten disabling diseases and conditions among the Western populations. Non-invasive neurostimulation, including the Cefaly® device, for the treatment of various types of pain is a relatively new field of interest. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical experience with Cefaly® in a cohort of migraine patients previously refractory or intolerant to topiramate prophylaxis. METHODS: A prospective, multi-center clinical study was performed in patients diagnosed with episodic or chronic migraine with a previous failure to topiramate treatment requiring prevention with Cefaly® according to the treating physician's suggestion...
May 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513409/-a-woman-with-acute-bilateral-vision-loss
#4
N Meijer, H T Nguyen, R Wolff
A 46-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with progressive bilateral loss of vision followed by headache. She had been taking topiramate 25 mg daily for eight days before presentation. In the end, she was diagnosed with topiramate-induced acute glaucoma for which she received appropriate treatment.
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482206/sensitive-inexpensive-spectrophotometric-and-spectrofluorimetric-analysis-of-ezogabine-levetiracetam-and-topiramate-in-tablet-formulations-using-hantzsch-condensation-reaction
#5
F A Ibrahim, A F El-Yazbi, M M Wagih, M A Barary
Two highly sensitive, simple and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric assays have been investigated for the analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in their pure and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The suggested methods depend on the condensation of the primary amino-groups in the three drugs with acetylacetone and formaldehyde according to Hantzsch reaction yielding highly fluorescent yellow colored dihydropyridine derivatives. The reaction products of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate were measured spectrophotometrically at 418, 390 and 380nm or spectrofluorimetrically at λem/ex of 495/425nm, 490/415nm and 488/410nm, respectively...
April 27, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481729/anticonvulsant-drugs-for-generalized-tonic-clonic-epilepsy
#6
Giangennaro Coppola, Alessandra Piccorossi, Francesca Felicia Operto, Alberto Verrotti
Primary generalized tonic clonic seizures (pGTCS) are still linked to major concerns for the clinic and hazards for patients suffering from idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), so a quick search of the most effective and appropriate therapy is needed to control them. The key criteria for proper treatment are syndromic diagnosis and distinction between newly diagnosed and refractory patients. Other criteria include age, gender and comorbidities. Areas covered: Treatment for pGTCS has expanded in the last two years, with new antiepileptic drugs like perampanel joining valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, topiramate, while further evidence-based data are required for zonisamide and lacosamide...
May 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479797/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#7
Bhanu Pratap Rathaur, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar Sharma, Rajesh Verma, Ravi Uniyal
OBJECTIVES: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy. In Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, seizures are resistant to pharmacological treatment. In this prospective study, we evaluated the clinical features, neuroimaging, and response to treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three consecutive newly diagnosed patients of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were enrolled in the study. Baseline clinical assessment included seizure semiology, seizure frequency, electroencephalography, and neuroimaging...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472982/comparative-safety-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-congenital-malformations-and-prenatal-outcomes
#8
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Elise Cogo, Patricia Rios, Sharon E Straus, Yaron Finkelstein, Ryan Kealey, Emily Reynen, Charlene Soobiah, Kednapa Thavorn, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Fatemeh Yazdi, Jennifer D'Souza, Heather MacDonald, Andrea C Tricco
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with epilepsy frequently experience seizures related to pregnancy complications and are often prescribed anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) to manage their symptoms. However, less is known about the comparative safety of AED exposure in utero. We aimed to compare the risk of congenital malformations (CMs) and prenatal outcomes of AEDs in infants/children who were exposed to AEDs in utero through a systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis...
May 5, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462579/pharmacological-management-of-obesity
#9
Amanda Velazquez, Caroline M Apovian
Current management of obesity includes three main arms: behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy, and bariatric surgery. Decades prior, the only pharmacological agents available to treat obesity were approved only for short-term use (≤ 12 weeks) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, in the last several years, the FDA has approved several medications for longer term treatment of obesity. This highlights the important progression that we, as a society, better appreciate now the chronicity and complexity of obesity as a disease...
April 28, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461749/treatment-resistant-lennox-gastaut-syndrome-therapeutic-trends-challenges-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Adam P Ostendorf, Yu-Tze Ng
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a severe, childhood-onset electroclinical syndrome comprised of multiple seizure types, intellectual and behavioral disturbances and characteristic findings on electroencephalogram of slow spike and wave complexes and paroxysmal fast frequency activity. Profound morbidity often accompanies a common and severe seizure type, the drop attack. Seizures often remain refractory, or initial treatment efficacy fades. Few individuals are seizure free despite the development of multiple generations of antiseizure medications over decades and high-level evidence on several choices...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458102/ivabradine-attenuates-the-anticonvulsant-potency-of-lamotrigine-but-not-that-of-lacosamide-pregabalin-and-topiramate-in-the-tonic-clonic-seizure-model-in-mice
#11
Katarzyna M Sawicka, Katarzyna Załuska, Agnieszka Wawryniuk, Karolina Załuska-Patel, Michał Szczyrek, Bartłomiej Drop, Jadwiga Daniluk, Monika Szpringer, Dorota Żółkowska, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are involved not only in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability under physiological conditions, but also in seizure activity. To determine the influence of ivabradine (an HCN channel inhibitor) on the anticonvulsant potency of four novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: lacosamide, lamotrigine, pregabalin and topiramate) in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. Adult male albino Swiss mice were challenged with maximal electroconvulsions (electric current of 25mA delivered via auricular electrodes)...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455281/cardiometabolic-disease-staging-predicts-effectiveness-of-weight-loss-therapy-to-prevent-type-2-diabetes-pooled-results-from-phase-iii-clinical-trials-assessing-phentermine-topiramate-extended-release
#12
Fangjian Guo, W Timothy Garvey
OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of medication-assisted weight loss to prevent diabetes as a function of the baseline weighted Cardiometabolic Disease Staging (CMDS) score. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We pooled data from 3,040 overweight and obese participants in three randomized controlled trials-CONQUER, EQUIP, and SEQUEL- assessing efficacy and safety of phentermine/topiramate extended release (ER) for weight loss. In these double-blind phase III trials, overweight/obese adult patients were treated with a lifestyle intervention and randomly assigned to placebo versus once-daily oral phentermine/topiramate ER...
April 28, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449218/development-and-pharmacologic-characterization-of-the-rat-6-hz-model-of-partial-seizures
#13
Cameron S Metcalf, Peter J West, Kyle E Thomson, Sharon F Edwards, Misty D Smith, H S White, Karen S Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: The mouse 6 Hz model of psychomotor seizures is a well-established and commonly used preclinical model for antiseizure drug (ASD) discovery. Despite its widespread use both in the identification and differentiation of novel ASDs in mice, a corresponding assay in rats has not been developed. We established a method for 6 Hz seizure induction in rats, with seizure behaviors similar to those observed in mice including head nod, jaw clonus, and forelimb clonus. METHODS: A convulsive current that elicits these seizure behaviors in 97% of rats (CC97 ) was determined using a Probit analysis...
April 27, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446038/clinical-criteria-of-positional-vertical-nystagmus-in-vestibular-migraine
#14
Mohamed Mohamed El-Badry, Hesham Samy, Abdel Mageed Kabel, Fatma Mohamed Rafat, Hossam Sanyelbhaa
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to identify key diagnostic criteria for positional vertical nystagmus caused by vestibular migraine (VM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group included a case series of 13 subjects with VM (10 females and three males with age 38.6 ± 8.9 years); they were complaining of positional vertigo. They were subjected to thorough audiovestibular examination and treated with cinnarizine or topiramate Results: The entire study group demonstrated positional vertical nystagmus (eight patients had up-beating nystagmus and five patients had down-beating nystagmus)...
April 27, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434203/topiramate-monotherapy-for-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#15
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a newer broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED). Some studies have shown the benefits of topiramate monotherapy in the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). However, there are no current systematic reviews to determine the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate monotherapy in people with JME. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 12, 2015. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate monotherapy in the treatment of JME...
April 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428093/migraine-prevention-using-different-frequencies-of-transcutaneous-occipital-nerve-stimulation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Yinglu Liu, Zhao Dong, Rongfei Wang, Ran Ao, Xun Han, Wenjing Tang, Shengyuan Yu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of transcutaneous occipital nerve stimulation (tONS) in patients with migraine, and to explore whether different tONS frequencies influenced treatment effectiveness. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled trial of tONS for prevention of migraine. Patients were randomized to one of five therapeutic groups prior to treatment for 1 month. Groups A-C received tONS at different frequencies (2 Hz, 100 Hz, and 2/100 Hz), group D underwent sham tONS intervention, and group E received topiramate orally...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424953/treatment-update-of-chronic-migraine
#17
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Cho, Tae-Jin Song, Min Kyung Chu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although chronic migraine (CM) is a common disorder that severely impacts patient functioning and quality of life, it is usually underdiagnosed, and treatment responses often remain poor even after diagnosis. In addition, effective treatment options are limited due to the rarity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with CM. In the present review, we discuss updated pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and neurostimulation treatment options for CM...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421338/tailoring-pharmacotherapy-to-specific-eating-behaviours-in-obesity-can-recommendations-for-personalised-therapy-be-made-from-the-current-data
#18
Carl A Roberts, Paul Christiansen, Jason C G Halford
Pharmacotherapy provides an adjunct to behaviour modification in the management of obesity. There are a number of new drug therapies purportedly targeting appetite; liraglutide, and bupropion/naltrexone, which are European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, and lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, which have FDA approval only. Each of the six drugs, used singly or in combination, has distinct pharmacological, and presumably distinct behavioural, mechanisms of action, thus the potential to provide defined therapeutic options to personalise the management of obesity...
April 19, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409827/topiramate-for-essential-tremor
#19
REVIEW
Elisa Bruno, Alessandra Nicoletti, Graziella Quattrocchi, Roberta Allegra, Graziella Filippini, Carlo Colosimo, Mario Zappia
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders. The management is primarily based on pharmacological agents and in clinical practice propranolol and primidone are considered the first-line therapy. However, these treatments can be ineffective in 25% to 55% of people and are frequently associated with serious adverse events (AEs). For these reasons, it is worthwhile evaluating other treatments for ET. Topiramate has been suggested as a potentially useful agent for the treatment of ET but there is uncertainty about its efficacy and safety...
April 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405886/pharmacokinetic-variability-of-drugs-used-for-prophylactic-treatment-of-migraine
#20
REVIEW
Peer Tfelt-Hansen, Frederik Nybye Ågesen, Agniezka Pavbro, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen
In this review, we evaluate the variability in the pharmacokinetics of 11 drugs with established prophylactic effects in migraine to facilitate 'personalized medicine' with these drugs. PubMed was searched for 'single-dose' and 'steady-state' pharmacokinetic studies of these 11 drugs. The maximum plasma concentration was reported in 248 single-dose and 115 steady-state pharmacokinetic studies, and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was reported in 299 single-dose studies and 112 steady-state pharmacokinetic studies...
May 2017: CNS Drugs
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