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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534089/comparison-of-microbiomes-between-red-poultry-mite-populations-dermanyssus-gallinae-predominance-of-bartonella-like-bacteria
#1
Jan Hubert, Tomas Erban, Jan Kopecky, Bruno Sopko, Marta Nesvorna, Martina Lichovnikova, Sabine Schicht, Christina Strube, Olivier Sparagano
Blood feeding red poultry mites (RPM) serve as vectors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses among vertebrate hosts including wild birds, poultry hens, mammals, and humans. The microbiome of RPM has not yet been studied by high-throughput sequencing. RPM eggs, larvae, and engorged adult/nymph samples obtained in four poultry houses in Czechia were used for microbiome analyses by Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V4 region. A laboratory RPM population was used as positive control for transcriptome analysis by pyrosequencing with identification of sequences originating from bacteria...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#2
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533217/transcriptional-control-of-the-lateral-flagellar-genes-of-bradyrhizobium-diazoefficiens
#3
Elías J Mongiardini, J Ignacio Quelas, Carolina Dardis, M Julia Althabegoiti, Aníbal R Lodeiro
Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens, the soybean N2-fixing symbiont, possesses a dual flagellar system comprising a constitutive subpolar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella. Here, we analyzed the genomic organization and biosynthetic regulation of the lateral-flagellar genes. We found that those genes are located in a single genomic cluster, organized in two monocistronic transcriptional units and three operons, one possibly containing an internal transcription start site. Among the monocistronic units is blr6846, homologous to the Class-IB master regulators of flagella synthesis in Brucella melitensis and Ensifer meliloti, and required for the expression of all the lateral-flagellar genes except lafA2, which locus encodes a single lateral flagellin...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528947/syntrophic-association-of-termite-gut-bacterial-symbionts-with-bifunctional-characteristics-of-cellulose-degrading-and-polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing-bacteria
#4
Balasubramanian Cibichakravarthy, Subramani Abinaya, Solai Ramatchandirane Prabagaran
The guild between higher termites and their partnership with the diverse community of bacteria and archaea in their gut is a marvel evolutionary achievement. Sustained attempts were made worldwide with a quest for identifying viable important biological macromolecule polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating bacteria. Termite gut serve as a novel source for bacteria with dual properties like PHA production as well as cellulose degradation. Among 40 isolates cultivated, 32.5% turned positive for PCR based screening of PhaC gene...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522997/biogeographic-comparison-of-lophelia-associated-bacterial-communities-in-the-western-atlantic-reveals-conserved-core-microbiome
#5
Christina A Kellogg, Dawn B Goldsmith, Michael A Gray
Over the last decade, publications on deep-sea corals have tripled. Most attention has been paid to Lophelia pertusa, a globally distributed scleractinian coral that creates critical three-dimensional habitat in the deep ocean. The bacterial community associated with L. pertusa has been previously described by a number of studies at sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Norwegian fjords, off Great Britain, and in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). However, use of different methodologies prevents direct comparisons in most cases...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521174/high-degree-of-specificity-in-the-association-between-symbiotic-betaproteobacteria-and-the-host-euplotes-ciliophora-euplotia
#6
Claudia Vannini, Cristiana Sigona, Martin Hahn, Giulio Petroni, Masahiro Fujishima
The Betaproteobacteria-Euplotes association is an obligatory symbiotic system involving a monophyletic group of ciliate species and two betaproteobacteria species which can be alternatively present. Recent data showed that this relationship has been established more than once and that several symbiont-substitution events took place, revealing a complex and intriguing evolutionary path. Due to the different evolutionary pathways followed by the different symbionts, each bacterial strain could have differentially evolved and/or lost functional traits...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505340/members-of-microvirga-and-bradyrhizobium-genera-are-native-endosymbiotic-bacteria-nodulating-lupinus-luteus-in-northern-tunisian-soils
#7
A Msaddak, M Rejili, D Durán, L Rey, J Imperial, J Palacios, T Ruiz-Argüeso, M Mars
The genetic diversity of bacterial populations nodulating Lupinus luteus (yellow lupine) in Northern Tunisia was examined. Phylogenetic analyses of forty three isolates based on recA and gyrB partial sequences grouped them in three clusters, two of which belong to genus Bradyrhizobium (41 isolates) and one, remarkably, to Microvirga (2 isolates), a genus never previously described as microsymbiont of this lupine species. Representatives of the three clusters were analysed in-depth by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes (rrs, recA, glnII, gyrB and dnaK)...
May 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502854/characterization-of-a-bi-functional-cellulase-produced-by-a-gut-bacterial-resident-of-rosaceae-branch-borer-beetle-osphranteria-coerulescens-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#8
Atousa Hatefi, Ali Makhdoumi, Ahmad Asoodeh, Omid Mirshamsi
A cellulolytic bacterium was obtained from the digestive tract of Osphranteria coerulescens. The breakdown of woody and cellulosic substances by this insect may be relative in part to its symbiont bacteria. Under optimal cultural conditions the novel isolate produced 5.35U/ml cellulase after 72h. The enzyme was purified to 36 fold with a 0.59% yield and showed a specific activity of 9.0U/mg. It presented its maximum activity at 60°C and pH 5, while it was stable in a wide range of temperature from 20 to 60°C and pH from 5 to 10...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500544/diversity-and-plant-growth-promoting-properties-of-rhizobia-isolated-from-root-nodules-of-ononis-arvensis
#9
Sylwia Wdowiak-Wróbel, Monika Marek-Kozaczuk, Michał Kalita, Magdalena Karaś, Magdalena Wójcik, Wanda Małek
This is the first report describing isolates from root nodules of Ononis arvensis (field restharrow). The aim of this investigation was to describe the diversity, phylogeny, and plant growth promoting features of microsymbionts of O. arvensis, i.e., a legume plant growing in different places of the southern part of Poland. Twenty-nine bacterial isolates were characterized in terms of their phenotypic properties, genome fingerprinting, and comparative analysis of their 16S rRNA, nodC and acdS gene sequences...
May 12, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494244/quorum-sensing-attenuates-virulence-in-sodalis-praecaptivus
#10
Shinichiro Enomoto, Abhishek Chari, Adam Larsen Clayton, Colin Dale
Sodalis praecaptivus is a close relative and putative environmental progenitor of the widely distributed, insect-associated, Sodalis-allied symbionts. Here we show that mutant strains of S. praecaptivus that lack genetic components of a quorum-sensing (QS) apparatus have a rapid and potent killing phenotype following microinjection into an insect host. Transcriptomic and genetic analyses indicate that insect killing occurs as a consequence of virulence factors, including insecticidal toxins and enzymes that degrade the insect integument, which are normally repressed by QS at high infection densities...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494233/don-t-bite-the-hand-that-feeds-you
#11
Rita V M Rio
Eukaryotic-bacterial symbioses are ubiquitous in nature. Pathogens and symbionts employ similar machinery, yet symbionts can minimize host damage. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Enomoto et al. (2017) demonstrate how quorum sensing regulates expression of virulence genes at appropriate times, thereby enabling symbiont retention throughout the host lifespan.
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471518/bacterial-microbiota-in-small-brown-planthopper-populations-with-different-rice-viruses
#12
Shuo Li, Changwei Zhou, Guangyi Chen, Yijun Zhou
The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is an important virus vector, transmitting Rice stripe virus (RSV), and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). Insect symbionts play an essential role in the insect fitness, however, it is still unclear about their contributions to viral transmission by SBPH. Here, we investigated endosymbiont communities in non-viruliferous, RSV-infected, and RBSDV-infected SBPH populations using Illumina 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. In total, 281,803 effective sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were generated from different samples...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464532/correspondence-of-coral-holobiont-metabolome-with-symbiotic-bacteria-archaea-and-symbiodinium-communities
#13
Emilia M Sogin, Hollie M Putnam, Craig E Nelson, Paul Anderson, Ruth D Gates
Microbial symbiotic partners, such as those associated with Scleractinian corals, mediate biochemical transformations that influence host performance and survival. While evidence suggests microbial community composition partly accounts for differences in coral physiology, how these symbionts affect metabolic pathways remains underexplored. We aimed to assess functional implications of variation among coral-associated microbial partners in hospite. To this end, we characterized and compared metabolomic profiles and microbial community composition from nine reef-building coral species...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464440/symbiont-strain-is-the-main-determinant-of-variation-in-wolbachia-mediated-protection-against-viruses-across-drosophila-species
#14
Julien Martinez, Ignacio Tolosana, Suzan Ok, Sophie Smith, Kiana Snoeck, Jonathan P Day, Frank Jiggins
Wolbachia is a common heritable bacterial symbiont in insects. Its evolutionary success lies in the diverse phenotypic effects it has on its hosts coupled to its propensity to move between host species over evolutionary timescales. In a survey of natural host-symbiont associations in a range of Drosophila species, we found that 10 of 16 Wolbachia strains protected their hosts against viral infection. By moving Wolbachia strains between host species, we found that the symbiont genome had a much greater influence on the level of antiviral protection than the host genome...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453654/genomic-evidence-that-methanotrophic-endosymbionts-likely-provide-deep-sea-bathymodiolus-mussels-with-a-sterol-intermediate-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#15
Kiyotaka Takishita, Yoshihiro Takaki, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Tetsuro Ikuta, Genki Ozawa, Takao Yoshida, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Katsunori Fujikura
Sterols are key cyclic triterpenoid lipid components of eukaryotic cellular membranes, which are synthesized through complex multi-enzyme pathways. Similar to most animals, Bathymodiolus mussels, which inhabit deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems and harbor methanotrophic and/or thiotrophic bacterial endosymbionts, possess cholesterol as their main sterol. Based on the stable carbon isotope analyses, it has been suggested that host Bathymodiolus mussels synthesize cholesterol using a sterol intermediate derived from the methanotrophic endosymbionts...
May 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452983/convergent-evolution-of-a-modified-acetate-driven-tca-cycle-in-bacteria
#16
Waldan K Kwong, Hao Zheng, Nancy A Moran
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is central to energy production and biosynthetic precursor synthesis in aerobic organisms. There are few known variations of a complete TCA cycle, with the common notion being that the enzymes involved have already evolved towards optimal performance. Here, we present evidence that an alternative TCA cycle, in which acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT) replaces the enzymatic step typically performed by succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS), has arisen in diverse bacterial groups, including microbial symbionts of animals such as humans and insects...
April 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449118/polyphosphate-accumulating-bacterial-community-colonizing-the-calcium-bodies-of-terrestrial-isopod-crustaceans-titanethes-albus-and-hyloniscus-riparius
#17
Rok Kostanjšek, Vittori Miloš, Vesna Srot, Peter A van Aken, Štrus Jasna
Terrestrial isopods from the group Trichoniscidae accumulate calcium in specialized organs, known as the calcium bodies. These consist of two pairs of epithelial sacs located alongside the digestive system. These organs contain various forms of calcium and constantly present bacteria. To elucidate their origin and role, we analyzed the bacteria of the calcium bodies in the cave-dwelling isopod Titanethes albus and the epigean species Hyloniscus riparius, by microscopy, histochemistry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, 16S rRNA analysis and in situ hybridization...
April 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437427/bacterial-diversity-of-bacteriomes-and-organs-of-reproductive-digestive-and-excretory-systems-in-two-cicada-species-hemiptera-cicadidae
#18
Zhou Zheng, Dandan Wang, Hong He, Cong Wei
Cicadas form intimate symbioses with bacteria to obtain nutrients that are scarce in the xylem fluid they feed on. The obligate symbionts in cicadas are purportedly confined to specialized bacteriomes, but knowledge of bacterial communities associated with cicadas is limited. Bacterial communities in the bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems of two cicada species (Platypleura kaempferi and Meimuna mongolica) were investigated using different methods, and the bacterial diversity and distribution patterns of dominant bacteria in different tissues were compared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437159/specific-host-responsive-associations-between-medicago-truncatula-accessions-and-sinorhizobium-strains
#19
Théophile Kazmierczak, Marianna Nagymihály, Florian Lamouche, Quentin Barrière, Ibtissem Guefrachi, Benoit Alunni, Mouna Ouadghiri, Jamal Ibijbijen, Éva Kondorosi, Peter Mergaert, Véronique Gruber
Legume plants interact with rhizobia to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Legume-rhizobium interactions are specific and only compatible rhizobia and plant species will lead to nodule formation. Even within compatible interactions, the genotype of both the plant and the bacterial symbiont will impact on the efficiency of nodule functioning and nitrogen-fixation activity. The model legume Medicago truncatula forms nodules with several species of the Sinorhizobium genus. However, the efficiency of these bacterial strains is highly variable...
May 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430102/variable-virulence-phenotype-of-xenorhabdus-bovienii-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-absence-of-their-vector-hosts
#20
John G McMullen, Rebecca McQuade, Jean-Claude Ogier, Sylvie Pagès, Sophie Gaudriault, S Patricia Stock
Xenorhabdus bovienii bacteria have a dual lifestyle: they are mutualistic symbionts to many species of Steinernema nematodes and are pathogens to a wide array of insects. Previous studies have shown that virulence of X.bovienii-Steinernema spp. pairs decreases when the nematodes associate with non-cognate bacterial strains. However, the virulence of the X. bovienii strains alone has not been fully investigated. In this study, we characterized the virulence of nine X. bovienii strains in Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis and performed a comparative genomic analysis to correlate observed phenotypes with strain genotypes...
April 22, 2017: Microbiology
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