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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748615/burying-beetles-regulate-the-microbiome-of-carcasses-and-use-it-to-transmit-a-core-microbiota-to-their-offspring
#1
Shantanu P Shukla, Heiko Vogel, David G Heckel, Andreas Vilcinskas, Martin Kaltenpoth
Necrophagous beetles utilize carrion, a highly nutritious resource that is susceptible to intense microbial competition, by treating it with antimicrobial anal and oral secretions. However, how this regulates the carcass microbiota remains unclear. Here, we show that carcasses prepared by the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides undergo significant changes in their microbial communities subsequent to their burial and 'preparation'. Prepared carcasses hosted a microbial community that was more similar to that of beetles' anal and oral secretions than to the native carcass community or the surrounding soil, indicating that the beetles regulated the carcass microbiota...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745553/the-role-of-midgut-symbiotic-bacteria-in-resistance-of-anopheles-stephensi-diptera-culicidae-to-organophosphate-insecticides
#2
Aboozar Soltani, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Ali Reza Chavshin
In the current study, the effects of the presence of symbiotic bacteria on the activity of the enzymes involved in An. stephensi resistance to temephos are evaluated for the first time. Four different strains (I. susceptible strain, II. resistant strain, III. resistant strain + antibiotic, and IV. resistant strain + bacteria) were considered in order to determine the possible effects of the symbiotic bacteria on their hosts' resistance to temephos. The median values of all enzymes of susceptible strain were compared with those of other resistant strains...
July 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743814/stringent-expression-control-of-pathogenic-r-body-production-in-legume-symbiont-azorhizobium-caulinodans
#3
Jun-Ichi Matsuoka, Fumiko Ishizuna, Keigo Kurumisawa, Kengo Morohashi, Tetsuhiro Ogawa, Makoto Hidaka, Katsuharu Saito, Tatsuhiro Ezawa, Toshihiro Aono
R bodies are insoluble large polymers consisting of small proteins encoded by reb genes and are coiled into cylindrical structures in bacterial cells. They were first discovered in Caedibacter species, which are obligate endosymbionts of paramecia. Caedibacter confers a killer trait on the host paramecia. R-body-producing symbionts are released from their host paramecia and kill symbiont-free paramecia after ingestion. The roles of R bodies have not been explained in bacteria other than CaedibacterAzorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, a microsymbiont of the legume Sesbania rostrata, carries a reb operon containing four reb genes that are regulated by the repressor PraR...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743462/bacteriophages-in-the-human-gut-our-fellow-travelers-throughout-life-and-potential-biomarkers-of-heath-or-disease
#4
REVIEW
Babak Bakhshinejad, Saeedeh Ghiasvand
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is populated by a huge variety of viruses. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) constitute the largest and the most unrecognized part of virome. The total bacteriophage community of the human gut is called phageome. Phages colonize the gut from the earliest moments of life and become our fellow travelers throughout life. Phageome seems to be unique to each individual and shows a high degree of interpersonal variation. In the healthy gut, a vast majority of phages have a lysogenic lifestyle...
July 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716396/the-role-of-pilin-protein-of-xenorhabdus-nematophila-against-immune-defense-reactions-of-insects
#5
Reyhaneh Darsouei, Javad Karimi, Gary B Dunphy
Xenorhabdus nematophila is a symbiotic bacterium of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). It produces several toxic proteins which interfere with the immune system of insects. The current study shows that purified pilin protein could be a virulence trait of X. nematophila. The fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was injected with purified pilin. Changes in the cellular defenses in terms of total haemocyte counts and granulocyte percentage and humoral factors including total protease, phospholipase A2, and phenoloxidase activities (humoral defense) as well as the expression of the three main antimicrobial peptides attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin were measured at specific times...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#6
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711576/explaining-coexistence-of-nitrogen-fixing-and-non-fixing-rhizobia-in-legume-rhizobia-mutualism-using-mathematical-modeling
#7
G Moyano, D Marco, D Knopoff, G Torres, C Turner
In the mutualism established between legumes and soil bacteria known as rhizobia, bacteria from soil infect plants roots and reproduce inside root nodules where they fix atmospheric N2 for plant nutrition, receiving carbohydrates in exchange. Host-plant sanctions against non N2 fixing, cheating bacterial symbionts have been proposed to act in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, to preserve the mutualistic relationship. Sanctions include decreased rhizobial survival in nodules occupied by cheating rhizobia. Previously, a simple population model experimentally based showed that the coexistence of fixing and cheating rhizobia strains commonly found in field conditions is possible, and that the inclusion of sanctions leads to the extinction of cheating strains in soil...
July 12, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707769/embryonic-development-of-eucorydia-yasumatsui-asahina-with-special-reference-to-external-morphology-insecta-blattodea-corydiidae
#8
Mari Fujita, Ryuichiro Machida
As the first step in the comparative embryological study of Blattodea, with the aim of reconstructing the groundplan and phylogeny of Dictyoptera and Polyneoptera, the embryonic development of a corydiid was examined and described in detail using Eucorydia yasumatsui. Ten to fifteen micropyles are localized on the ventral side of the egg, and aggregated symbiont bacterial "mycetomes" are found in the egg. The embryo is formed by the fusion of paired blastodermal regions, with higher cellular density on the ventral side of the egg...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705905/genome-wide-transcriptional-dynamics-in-the-companion-bacterial-symbionts-of-the-glassy-winged-sharpshooter-cicadellidae-homalodisca-vitripennis-reveal-differential-gene-expression-in-bacteria-occupying-multiple-host-organs
#9
Gordon M Bennett, Rebecca A Chong
The agricultural pest the Glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: GWSS), harbors two bacterial symbionts, "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca Baumannia cicadellinicola", that provide the ten essential amino acids (EAAs) limited in the host plant-sap diet. Although differing in origins and symbiotic age, both bacteria have experienced extensive genome degradation resulting from their ancient restriction to specialized host organs (bacteriomes) that provide cellular support and ensure vertical transmission...
July 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704687/antimicrobial-polyketide-furanoterpenoids-from-seaweed-associated-heterotrophic-bacterium-bacillus-subtilis-mtcc-10403
#10
Kajal Chakraborty, Bini Thilakan, Vamshi Krishna Raola
Brown seaweed Anthophycus longifolius (Turner) Kützing (family Sargassaceae) associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403 was found to be a potent isolate with broad range of antibacterial activity against important perceptive food pathogens Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium was positive for polyketide synthetase gene (KC589397), and therefore, was selected to bioprospect specialized metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the seaweed-associated bacterium segregated four homologous polyketide furanoterpenoids with potential antibacterial activities against clinically important pathogens...
July 10, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702004/screening-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-against-drug-resistant-bacteria-of-photorhabdus-and-xenorhabdus-associated-with-entomopathogenic-nematodes-from-mae-wong-national-park-thailand
#11
Paramaporn Muangpat, Temsiri Yooyangket, Chamaiporn Fukruksa, Manawat Suwannaroj, Thatcha Yimthin, Sutthirat Sitthisak, Narisara Chantratita, Apichat Vitta, Nicholas J Tobias, Helge B Bode, Aunchalee Thanwisai
Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are symbiotic with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. These bacteria produce several secondary metabolites including antimicrobial compounds. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify EPNs and their symbiotic bacteria from Mae Wong National Park, Thailand and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of symbiont extracts against drug resistant bacteria. A total of 550 soil samples from 110 sites were collected between August 2014 and July 2015...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700717/integrated-analysis-of-zone-specific-protein-and-metabolite-profiles-within-nitrogen-fixing-medicago-truncatula-sinorhizobium-medicae-nodules
#12
Aaron J Ogden, Mahmoud Gargouri, JeongJin Park, David R Gang, Michael L Kahn
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) between rhizobia and legumes requires metabolic coordination within specialized root organs called nodules. Nodules formed in the symbiosis between S. medicae and barrel medic (M. truncatula) are indeterminate, cylindrical, and contain spatially distinct developmental zones. Bacteria in the infection zone II (ZII), interzone II-III (IZ), and nitrogen fixation zone III (ZIII) represent different stages in the metabolic progression from free-living bacteria into nitrogen fixing bacteroids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700614/aphid-symbionts-and-endogenous-resistance-traits-mediate-competition-between-rival-parasitoids
#13
Laura J Kraft, James Kopco, Jason P Harmon, Kerry M Oliver
Insects use endogenous mechanisms and infection with protective symbionts to thwart attacks from natural enemies. Defenses that target specific enemies, however, potentially mediate competition between rivals and thereby impact community composition. Following its introduction to North America to control pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the parasitoid Aphidius ervi competitively displaced other parasitoids, except for the native Praon pequodorum. The pea aphid exhibits tremendous clonal variation in resistance to A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699015/sponge-prokaryote-communities-in-taiwanese-coral-reef-and-shallow-hydrothermal-vent-ecosystems
#14
F J R C Coelho, D F R Cleary, N C M Gomes, A R M Pólonia, Y M Huang, L-L Liu, N J de Voogd
Previously, it was believed that the prokaryote communities of typical 'low-microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'non-symbiont harboring' sponges were merely subsets of the prokaryote plankton community. Recent research has, however, shown that these sponges are dominated by particular clades of Proteobacteria or Cyanobacteria. Here, we expand on this research and assess the composition and putative functional profiles of prokaryotic communities from LMA sponges collected in two ecosystems (coral reef and hydrothermal vent) from vicinal islands of Taiwan with distinct physicochemical conditions...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696720/bacterial-production-of-a-pederin-analogue-by-a-free-living-marine-alphaproteobacterium
#15
Carmen Schleissner, Librada M Cañedo, Pilar Rodríguez, Cristina Crespo, Paz Zúñiga, Ana Peñalver, Fernando de la Calle, Carmen Cuevas
The polyketide pederin family are cytotoxic compounds isolated from insects, lichen, and marine sponges. During the past decade, different uncultivable bacteria symbionts have been proposed as the real producers of these compounds, such as those found in insects, lichen, and marine sponges, and their trans-AT polyketide synthase gene clusters have been identified. Herein we report the isolation and biological activities of a new analogue of the pederin family, compound 1, from the culture of a marine heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium, Labrenzia sp...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696422/metagenomic-binning-of-a-marine-sponge-microbiome-reveals-unity-in-defense-but-metabolic-specialization
#16
Beate M Slaby, Thomas Hackl, Hannes Horn, Kristina Bayer, Ute Hentschel
Marine sponges are ancient metazoans that are populated by distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. In order to obtain deeper insights into the functional gene repertoire of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba, we combined Illumina short-read and PacBio long-read sequencing followed by un-targeted metagenomic binning. We identified a total of 37 high-quality bins representing 11 bacterial phyla and two candidate phyla. Statistical comparison of symbiont genomes with selected reference genomes revealed a significant enrichment of genes related to bacterial defense (restriction-modification systems, toxin-antitoxin systems) as well as genes involved in host colonization and extracellular matrix utilization in sponge symbionts...
July 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686606/plant-fed-versus-chemicals-fed-rhizobacteria-of-lucerne-plant-only-teabags-culture-media-not-only-increase-culturability-of-rhizobacteria-but-also-recover-a-previously-uncultured-lysobacter-sp-novosphingobium-sp-and-pedobacter-sp
#17
Nabil A Hegazi, Mohamed S Sarhan, Mohamed Fayez, Sascha Patz, Brian R Murphy, Silke Ruppel
In an effort to axenically culture the previously uncultivable populations of the rhizobacteria of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), we propose plant-only teabags culture media to mimic the nutritional matrix available in the rhizosphere. Here, we show that culture media prepared from Lucerne powder teabags substantially increased the cultivability of Lucerne rhizobacteria compared with a standard nutrient agar, where we found that the cultivable populations significantly increased by up to 60% of the total bacterial numbers as estimated by Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675159/the-evolution-of-host-symbiont-dependence
#18
Roberta M Fisher, Lee M Henry, Charlie K Cornwallis, E Toby Kiers, Stuart A West
Organisms across the tree of life form symbiotic partnerships with microbes for metabolism, protection and resources. While some hosts evolve extreme dependence on their symbionts, others maintain facultative associations. Explaining this variation is fundamental to understanding when symbiosis can lead to new higher-level individuals, such as during the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. Here we perform phylogenetic comparative analyses on 106 unique host-bacterial symbioses to test for correlations between symbiont function, transmission mode, genome size and host dependence...
July 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669229/cytotoxic-activity-of-alkyl-benzoate-and-fatty-acids-from-the-red-sea-sponge-hyrtios-erectus
#19
Usama W Hawas, Lamia T Abou El-Kassem, Mohamed S Abdelfattah, Mohammed I Y Elmallah, Mennat Allah G Eid, Marwa Monier, M Nithiyanandam
The chemical investigation of the methylene chloride fraction of marine sponge Hyrtios erectus led to the isolation of the known oxysterol (2) along with a new alkyl benzoate compound identified by spectroscopic methods (NMR and MS) as 4'-methylheptyl benzoate (1), whilst the n-butanol fraction afforded the known indole 3-carbaldehyde and β-carboline derivatives. Moreover, the hexane fraction was analysed by GC-MS for their fatty acids (FAs). A total of 17 FAs with chain lengths between 14 and 25 carbons were identified...
July 3, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663939/penetrance-of-symbiont-mediated-parthenogenesis-is-driven-by-reproductive-rate-in-a-parasitoid-wasp
#20
Amelia R I Lindsey, Richard Stouthamer
Trichogramma wasps are tiny parasitoids of lepidopteran eggs, used extensively for biological control. They are often infected with the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia, which converts Trichogramma to an asexual mode of reproduction, whereby females develop from unfertilized eggs. However, this Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis is not always complete, and previous studies have noted that infected females will produce occasional males in the lab. The conditions that reduce penetrance of the parthenogenesis phenotype are not well understood...
2017: PeerJ
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