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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207182/immune-system-stimulation-by-the-gut-symbiont-frischella-perrara-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#1
Olivier Emery, Konstantin Schmidt, Philipp Engel
Gut bacteria engage in various symbiotic interactions with their host and impact gut immunity and homeostasis in different ways. In honey bees, the gut microbiota is composed of a relatively simple, but highly specialized bacterial community. One of its members, the gammaproteobacterium Frischella perrara induces the so-called scab phenotype, a dark-colored band that develops on the epithelial surface of the pylorus. To understand the underlying host response, we analyzed transcriptome changes in the gut in response to bacterial colonization...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167519/regulation-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-accumulation-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-by-the-trans-encoded-small-rna-mmgr
#2
Antonio Lagares, Germán Ceizel Borella, Uwe Linne, Anke Becker, Claudio Valverde
Riboregulation has a major role in the fine-tuning of multiple bacterial processes. Among the RNA players, trans-encoded untranslated small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate complex metabolic networks by tuning expression from multiple target genes in response to numerous signals. In Sinorhizobium meliloti, over 400 sRNAs are expressed under different stimuli. The sRNA MmgR-standing for Makes more granules Regulator-has been of particular interest to us since its sequence and structure are highly conserved among the α-proteobacteria, and its expression is regulated by the amount and quality of the bacterium's available nitrogen source...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159793/aphid-heritable-symbiont-exploits-defensive-mutualism
#3
Matthew R Doremus, Kerry M Oliver
: Insects and other animals commonly form symbioses with heritable bacteria, which can exert large influences on host biology and ecology. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is a model for studying effects of infection with heritable facultative symbionts (HFS) and each of its seven common HFS species have been reported to provide resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. However, one common HFS, called X-type, rarely occurs as a single infection in field populations and instead typically superinfects individual aphids with Hamiltonella defensa, another HFS that protects aphids against attack by parasitic wasps...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148990/discovery-of-a-highly-virulent-strain-of-photorhabdus-luminescens-ssp-akhurstii-from-meghalaya-india
#4
Jyoti Kushwah, Puneet Kumar, Veena Garg, Vishal Singh Somvanshi
Photorhabdus is an insect-pathogenic Gram negative enterobacterium found in the gut of Heterorhabditis nematodes. Photorhabdus is highly virulent to insects, and can kill insects rapidly upon injection at very low concentrations of one to few cells. We characterized the virulence of Photorhabdus symbionts isolated from the Heterorhabditis nematodes collected from various parts of India by injecting different concentrations of bacterial cells into fourth instar larval stage of insect Galleria mellonella. Photorhabdus luminescens ssp...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133884/entangled-fates-of-holobiont-genomes-during-invasion-nested-bacterial-and-host-diversities-in-caulerpa-taxifolia
#5
S Arnaud-Haond, T Aires, R Candeias, S J L Teixeira, C M Duarte, M Valero, E A Serrão
Successful prevention and mitigation of biological invasions requires retracing the initial steps of introduction, as well as understanding key elements enhancing the adaptability of invasive species. We studied the genetic diversity of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and its associated bacterial communities in several areas around the world. The striking congruence of α and ß diversity of the algal genome and endophytic communities reveals a tight association, supporting the holobiont concept as best describing the unit of spreading and invasion...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127053/comparison-of-bacterial-microbiota-of-the-predatory-mite-neoseiulus-cucumeris-acari-phytoseiidae-and-its-factitious-prey-tyrophagus-putrescentiae-acari-acaridae
#6
Apostolos Pekas, Eric Palevsky, Jason C Sumner, M Alejandra Perotti, Marta Nesvorna, Jan Hubert
Neoseiulus cucumeris is a predatory mite used for biological control of arthropod pests. Mass-reared predators are fed with factitious prey mites such as Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Although some information on certain endosymbionts of N. cucumeris and T. putrescentiae exists, it is unclear whether both species share bacterial communities. The bacterial communities in populations of predator and prey mites, as well as the occurence of potential acaropathogenic bacteria were analyzed. The comparisons were based on the following groups: (i) N...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111714/pyrosequencing-based-assessment-of-bacterial-diversity-in-turkish-rhipicephalus-annulatus-and-dermacentor-marginatus-ticks-acari-ixodidae
#7
Saban Tekin, Scot E Dowd, Marko Davinic, Ahmet Bursali, Adem Keskin
Ticks continue to be a threat to human and animal health in Turkey, as they are considered important vectors of human and animal diseases. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the microbial communities of two tick species, Rhipicephalus annulatus and Dermacenter marginatus, analyze patterns of co-occurrence among microbial taxa, identify and compare pathogens contributing human diseases, and determine whether avirulent symbionts could exclude human pathogens from tick communities. Furthermore, this study explores a microbiome of the R...
January 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107652/symbiont-derived-antimicrobials-contribute-to-the-control-of-the-lepidopteran-gut-microbiota
#8
Yongqi Shao, Bosheng Chen, Chao Sun, Keishi Ishida, Christian Hertweck, Wilhelm Boland
Insects develop efficient antimicrobial strategies to flourish in a bacterial world. It has long been proposed that native gut microbiota is an important component of host defense; however, the responsible species have rarely been isolated to elucidate the mechanism of action. Here we show that the dominant symbiotic bacterium Enterococcus mundtii associated with the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis actively secretes a stable class IIa bacteriocin (mundticin KS) against invading bacteria, but not against other gut residents, facilitating the normal development of host gut microbiota...
January 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106771/independent-effects-of-a-herbivore-s-bacterial-symbionts-on-its-performance-and-induced-plant-defences
#9
Heike Staudacher, Bernardus C J Schimmel, Mart M Lamers, Nicky Wybouw, Astrid T Groot, Merijn R Kant
It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant's response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant's defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094341/ecological-impact-of-a-secondary-bacterial-symbiont-on-the-clones-of-sitobion-avenae-fabricius-hemiptera-aphididae
#10
Chen Luo, Kun Luo, Linqin Meng, Bin Wan, Huiyan Zhao, Zuqing Hu
Many insects harbor heritable endosymbionts, whether obligatory or facultative, and the role of facultative endosymbionts in shaping the phenotype of these species has become increasingly important. However, little is known about whether micro-injected endosymbionts can have any effects on aphid clones, which was measured using various ecological parameters. We examined the effects between symbiotic treatments and the vital life history traits generated by Regiella insecticola on the life table parameters of Sitobion avenae...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091933/flagellar-regulation-and-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacteria-xenorhabdus-nematophila-and-photorhabdus-luminescens
#11
Alain Givaudan, Anne Lanois
There is a complex interplay between the regulation of flagellar motility and the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. Here, we review the literature on the direct and indirect roles of flagellar motility in mediating the tripartite interaction between entomopathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus), their nematode hosts, and their insect targets. First, we describe the swimming and swarming motility of insect pathogenic bacteria and its impact on insect colonization. Then, we describe the coupling between the expression of flagellar and virulence genes and the dynamic of expression of the flagellar regulon during invertebrate infection...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091546/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharides-activate-mucin-and-pectic-galactan-utilization-pathways-in-the-human-gut-symbiont-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#12
Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, Marieke Mulder, Sander van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing the infant intestine. These same effects are seen in infants after GOS consumption, however GOS are very complex mixtures and the underlying molecular mechanisms of how GOS mimic HMOs are relatively unknown. Here we studied the effects of GOS utilization on a prominent gut symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has been previously shown to consume HMOs via mucin O-glycan degradation pathways...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086786/widespread-introgression-in-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-mussels
#13
Corinna Breusing, Robert C Vrijenhoek, Thorsten B H Reusch
BACKGROUND: The analysis of hybrid zones is crucial for gaining a mechanistic understanding of the process of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. Hybrid zones have been studied intensively in terrestrial and shallow-water ecosystems, but very little is known about their occurrence in deep-sea environments. Here we used diagnostic, single nucleotide polymorphisms in combination with one mitochondrial gene to re-examine prior hypotheses about a contact zone involving deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels, Bathymodiolus azoricus and B...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076891/comparative-genomics-of-mortierella-elongata-and-its-bacterial-endosymbiont-mycoavidus-cysteinexigens
#14
J Uehling, A Gryganskyi, K Hameed, T Tschaplinski, P K Misztal, S Wu, A Desirò, N Vande Pol, Z Du, A Zienkiewicz, K Zienkiewicz, E Morin, E Tisserant, R Splivallo, M Hainaut, B Henrissat, R Ohm, A Kuo, J Yan, A Lipzen, M Nolan, K LaButti, K Barry, A H Goldstein, J Labbé, C Schadt, G Tuskan, I Grigoriev, F Martin, R Vilgalys, G Bonito
Endosymbiosis of bacteria by eukaryotes is a defining feature of cellular evolution. In addition to well-known bacterial origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts, multiple origins of bacterial endosymbiosis are known within the cells of diverse animals, plants and fungi. Early-diverging lineages of terrestrial fungi harbor endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the Burkholderiaceae. We sequenced the metagenome of the soil-inhabiting fungus Mortierella elongata and assembled the complete circular chromosome of its endosymbiont, Mycoavidus cysteinexigens, which we place within a lineage of endofungal symbionts that are sister clade to Burkholderia...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076289/from-bacteria-to-chloroplasts-evolution-of-the-chloroplast-srp-system
#15
Dominik Ziehe, Beatrix Dünschede, Danja Schünemann
Chloroplasts derive from a prokaryotic symbiont that lost most of its genes during evolution. As a result, the great majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded in the nucleus and are posttranslationally imported into the organelle. The chloroplast genome encodes only a few proteins. These include several multispan thylakoid membrane proteins which are synthesized on thylakoid-bound ribosomes and cotranslationally inserted into the membrane. During evolution, ancient prokaryotic targeting machineries were adapted and combined with novel targeting mechanisms to facilitate post- and cotranslational protein transport in chloroplasts...
January 10, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073072/life-cycle-of-blastocrithidia-papi-sp-n-kinetoplastea-trypanosomatidae-in-pyrrhocoris-apterus-hemiptera-pyrrhocoridae
#16
Alexander O Frolov, Marina N Malysheva, Anna I Ganyukova, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Alexei Y Kostygov
Blastocrithidia papi sp. n. is a cyst-forming trypanosomatid parasitizing firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus). It is a member of the Blastocrithidia clade and a very close relative of B. largi, to which it is almost identical through its SSU rRNA gene sequence. However, considering the SL RNA gene these two species represent quite distinct, not even related typing units. Morphological analysis of the new species revealed peculiar or even unique features, which may be useful for future taxonomic revision of the genus Blastocrithidia...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072559/control-of-endophytic-frankia-sporulation-by-alnus-nodule-metabolites
#17
Anne-Emmanuelle Hay De-Bettignies, Hasna Boubakri, Antoine Buonomo, Marjolaine Rey, Guillaume Meiffren, Laetitia Cotin-Galvan, Gilles Comte, Aude Herrera-Belaroussi
A unique case of microbial symbiont capable of dormancy within its living host cells has been reported in actinorhizal symbioses: some Frankia strains, named Sp+, are able to sporulate inside plant cells, contrarily to Sp- strains. The presence of metabolically slowed down bacterial structures in host cells alters our understanding of symbiosis based on reciprocal benefits between both partners, and its impact on the symbiotic processes remains unknown. The present work reports a metabolomic study of Sp+ and Sp- nodules (from Alnus glutinosa), in order to highlight variabilities associated with in-planta sporulation...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066711/metagenomic-analysis-of-microbial-community-of-a-parasitoid-wasp-megaphragma-amalphitanum
#18
A V Nedoluzhko, F S Sharko, S V Tsygankova, E S Boulygina, A S Sokolov, S M Rastorguev, V V Kadnikov, A V Mardanov, N V Ravin, A M Mazur, A A Polilov, N M Gruzdeva, E B Prokhortchouk, K G Skryabin
The vast majority of multicellular organisms coexist with bacterial symbionts that may play various roles during their life cycle. Parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) belongs to the smallest known insects whose size is comparable with some bacteria. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS), we described microbiota diversity for this arthropod and its potential impact on their lifecycle. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX2363723 and SRX2363724...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064360/greater-species-richness-of-bacterial-skin-symbionts-better-suppresses-the-amphibian-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#19
Jonah Piovia-Scott, Daniel Rejmanek, Douglas C Woodhams, S Joy Worth, Heather Kenny, Valerie McKenzie, Sharon P Lawler, Janet E Foley
The symbiotic microbes that grow in and on many organisms can play important roles in protecting their hosts from pathogen infection. While species diversity has been shown to influence community function in many other natural systems, the question of how species diversity of host-associated symbiotic microbes contributes to pathogen resistance is just beginning to be explored. Understanding diversity effects on pathogen resistance could be particularly helpful in combating the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) which has caused dramatic population declines in many amphibian species and is a major concern for amphibian conservation...
January 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062985/morphological-and-molecular-characterisation-of-an-isolate-of-steinernema-diaprepesi-nguyen-duncan-2002-rhabditida-steinernematidae-from-argentina-and-identification-of-its-bacterial-symbiont
#20
Milena Caccia, Juan Rondan Dueñas, Eleodoro Del Valle, Marcelo E Doucet, Paola Lax
Entomopathogenic nematodes of the families Heterorhabditidae Poinar, 1976 and Steinernematidae Chitwood & Chitwood, 1937 are used for biological control of insect pests. An isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi Nguyen & Duncan, 2002 was recovered from a carrot field in the locality of Santa Rosa de Calchines (Santa Fe Province, Argentina). These nematodes were characterised based on morphological, morphometric and molecular studies. Their symbiotic bacterium was identified as Xenorhabdus doucetiae Tailliez, Pagès, Ginibre & Boemare, 2006 by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene...
January 2017: Systematic Parasitology
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