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bacterial symbionts

Emily L Kaufman, Nathan E Stone, Glen A Scoles, Crystal M Hepp, Joseph D Busch, David M Wagner
BACKGROUND: The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, is an important vector of pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals in North America. Although this tick species is widely distributed in the USA and Canada, knowledge of its range-wide phylogeographic patterns remains incomplete. METHODS: We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of D. variabilis using samples collected from 26 USA states and five Canadian provinces. Tick samples (n = 1053 in total) originated from two main sources: existing archives (2000-2011), and new collections made from 2012 to 2013...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Gwyn A Beattie, Bridget M Hatfield, Haili Dong, Regina S McGrane
Plants collect, concentrate, and conduct light throughout their tissues, thus enhancing light availability to their resident microbes. This review explores the role of photosensing in the biology of plant-associated bacteria and fungi, including the molecular mechanisms of red-light sensing by phytochromes and blue-light sensing by LOV (light-oxygen-voltage)-domain proteins in these microbes. Bacteriophytochromes function as major drivers of the bacterial transcriptome and mediate light-regulated suppression of virulence, motility, and conjugation in some phytopathogens and light-regulated induction of the photosynthetic apparatus in a stem-nodulating symbiont...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Alan J Medlar, Petri Törönen, Liisa Holm
We present AAI-profiler, a web server for exploratory analysis and quality control in comparative genomics. AAI-profiler summarizes proteome-wide sequence search results to identify novel species, assess the need for taxonomic reclassification and detect multi-isolate and contaminated samples. AAI-profiler visualises results using a scatterplot that shows the Average Amino-acid Identity (AAI) from the query proteome to all similar species in the sequence database. Taxonomic groups are indicated by colour and marker styles, making outliers easy to spot...
May 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Francisca Zepeda-Paulo, Sebastían Ortiz-Martínez, Andrea X Silva, Blas Lavandero
Bacterial endosymbionts that produce important phenotypic effects on their hosts are common among plant sap-sucking insects. Aphids have become a model system of insect-symbiont interactions. However, endosymbiont research has focused on a few aphid species, making it necessary to make greater efforts to other aphid species through different regions, in order to have a better understanding of the role of endosymbionts in aphids as a group. Aphid endosymbionts have frequently been studied by PCR-based techniques, using species-specific primers, nevertheless this approach may omit other non-target bacteria cohabiting a particular host species...
2018: PeerJ
Burçin Morçiçek, Belgin Gocmen Taskin, Ersin Doğaç, Taylan Doğaroğlu, Vatan Taskin
Establishing reliable risk projection information about the distribution pattern of members of the Culex pipiens complex is of particular interest, as these mosquitoes are competent vectors for certain disease-causing pathogens. Wolbachia, a maternally inherited bacterial symbiont, are distributed in various arthropod species and can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility, i.e., reduced egg hatch, in certain crosses. It is being considered as a tool for population control of mosquito disease vectors. The Aegean region is characterized by highly populated, rural, and agricultural areas and is also on the route of the migratory birds...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Rafael R da Costa, Michael Poulsen
Understanding how microbial symbiont community assemblies are shaped over evolutionary time is challenging. The current state of the art involves exploring similarities and differences in communities within and between host species, often aiming to link these to host ecology and evolution. However, this masks the evolutionary histories of individual bacterial lineages.
May 8, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Aida Ayoubi, Ali Asghar Talebi, Yaghoub Fathipour, Mohammad Mehrabadi
Bacterial endosymbionts play important roles in ecological traits of aphids. In this study, we characterize the bacterial endosymbionts of A. gossypii collected in Karaj, Iran and their role in the performance of the aphid. Our results indicated that beside Buchnera aphidicola, A. gossypii, also harbors both Hamiltonella defensa and Arsenophonus sp. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results revealed that the populations of the endosymbionts increased throughout nymphal development up to adult emergence; thereafter, populations of Buchnera and Arsenophonus were diminished while the density of H...
May 11, 2018: Insect Science
Lone Høj, Natalie Levy, Brett K Baillie, Peta L Clode, Raphael C Strohmaier, Nachshon Siboni, Nicole S Webster, Sven Uthicke, David G Bourne
Outbreaks of coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea stars (CoTS; Acanthaster spp. complex) cause substantial coral loss, hence there is considerable interest in developing prevention and control strategies. We characterised the microbiome of captive CoTS and assessed whether dysbiosis was evident in sea stars during a disease event. Most tissue types had a distinct microbiome. The exception was female gonads, which were highly variable amongst individuals. Male gonads were dominated (>97% of reads) by a single Mollicutes -related OTU...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Dominika Thiem, Marcin Gołębiewski, Piotr Hulisz, Agnieszka Piernik, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Black alder ( Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) belongs to dual mycorrhizal trees, forming ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular (AM) root structures, as well as represents actinorrhizal plants that associate with nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. We hypothesized that the unique ternary structure of symbionts can influence community structure of other plant-associated microorganisms (bacterial and fungal endophytes), particularly under seasonally changing salinity in A. glutinosa roots. In our study we analyzed black alder root bacterial and fungal microbiome present at two forest test sites (saline and non-saline) in two different seasons (spring and fall)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
N P Karagodina, A E Vishnyakov, O N Kotenko, A L Maltseva, A N Ostrovsky
Autozooids of the cheilostome bryozoan Aquiloniella scabra contain rod-like bacteria in the funicular bodies - the complex swellings of the funicular strands. Each funicular body contains symbionts in the central cavity surrounded by a large, synthetically active internal "sheath-cell" (bacteriocyte) and a group of the flat external cells. The tightly interdigitating lobes of these cells form a capsule well-isolated from the body cavity. Slit-like spaces between bacteria are filled with electron-dense matrix and cytoplasmic processes of various sizes and shapes (often branching) produced by the "sheath-cell"...
2018: Symbiosis
Toshiyuki Harumoto, Bruno Lemaitre
Several lineages of symbiotic bacteria in insects selfishly manipulate host reproduction to spread in a population 1 , often by distorting host sex ratios. Spiroplasma poulsonii2,3 is a helical and motile, Gram-positive symbiotic bacterium that resides in a wide range of Drosophila species 4 . A notable feature of S. poulsonii is male killing, whereby the sons of infected female hosts are selectively killed during development1,2 . Although male killing caused by S. poulsonii has been studied since the 1950s, its underlying mechanism is unknown...
May 2, 2018: Nature
James M Wiebler, Kevin D Kohl, Richard E Lee, Jon P Costanzo
Gut bacteria that produce urease, the enzyme hydrolysing urea, contribute to nitrogen balance in diverse vertebrates, although the presence of this system of urea-nitrogen recycling in Amphibia is as yet unknown. Our studies of the wood frog ( Rana sylvatica ), a terrestrial species that accrues urea in winter, documented robust urease activity by enteric symbionts and hence potential to recoup nitrogen from the urea it produces. Ureolytic capacity in hibernating (non-feeding) frogs, whose guts hosted an approximately 33% smaller bacterial population, exceeded that of active (feeding) frogs, possibly due to an inductive effect of high urea on urease expression and/or remodelling of the microbial community...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Cristina Díez-Vives, Ana I S Esteves, Rodrigo Costa, Shaun Nielsen, Torsten Thomas
Sponges interact with diverse and rich communities of bacteria that are phylogenetically often distinct from their free-living counterparts. Recent genomics and metagenomic studies have indicated that bacterial sponge symbionts also have distinct functional features from free-living bacteria, however it is unclear, if such genome-derived functional signatures are common and present in different symbiont taxa. We therefore compared here a large set of genomes from cultured (Pseudovibrio, Ruegeria, Aquimarina) and yet-uncultivated (Synechococcus) bacteria found either in sponge-associated or free-living sources...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Zhen-Hong Lv, Xiao-Ying Wei, Yun-Li Tao, Dong Chu
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that different symbionts of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) have differential susceptibility to antibiotic treatment. Changes in the community structure of B. tabaci-associated bacterial microbiota (BABM) following antibiotic treatment, however, remain poorly understood, although increasing numbers of B. tabaci-associated bacteria have been reported in recent years. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: The BABM of male or female B...
April 24, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Manabu Ote, Daisuke Yamamoto
The toxic manipulator of oogenesis (TomO) protein has been identified in the wMel strain of Wolbachia that symbioses with the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, as a protein that affects host reproduction. TomO protects germ stem cells (GSCs) from degeneration, which otherwise occurs in ovaries of host females that are mutant for the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). We isolated the TomO homologs from wPip, a Wolbachia strain from the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. One of the homologs, TomOw Pip 1, exerted the GSC rescue activity in fly Sxl mutants when lacking its hydrophobic stretches...
April 27, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Manuel Aira, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Jorge Domínguez
Animals start interactions with the bacteria that will constitute their microbiomes at embryonic stage. After mating, earthworms produce cocoons externally which will be colonized with bacteria from their parents and the environment. Due to the key role bacterial symbionts play on earthworm fitness, it is important to study bacterial colonization during cocoon formation. Here we describe the cocoon microbiome of the earthworms Eisenia andrei and E. fetida, which included 275 and 176 bacterial species, respectively...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joel Demián Arneodo, Clara Etcheverry, Tumelo Thebe, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola, María Celina Godoy, Paola Talia
Cohnella is a highly cellulolytic bacterial genus, which can be found in a variety of habitats. The aim of this study was to assess its presence in the digestive tract of termite species collected in North-eastern Argentina: Nasutitermes aquilinus, N. corniger and Cortaritermes fulviceps. Gut homogenates were incubated with cellulosic substrate for bacterial growth. Bacterial 16S rDNA was partially amplified using new primers for Cohnella spp. and cloned. Sequences obtained showed highest similarity (97.2-99...
April 23, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Tali S Berman, Sivan Laviad-Shitrit, Maya Lalzar, Malka Halpern, Moshe Inbar
Large mammalian herbivores greatly influence the functioning of grassland ecosystems. Through plant consumption, excreta, and trampling, they modify biodiversity, nutrient cycling, and soil properties. Grazing mammals can also alter soil and rhizosphere bacterial communities, but their effect on the microbiome of other animals in the habitat (i.e., insects) is unknown. Using an experimental field approach and Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we analyzed the influence of cattle grazing on the microbial community of spring webworm caterpillars, Ocnogyna loewii...
April 25, 2018: ISME Journal
Maria Giovanna Schu, Martina Schrallhammer
Caedibacter taeniospiralis is an obligate bacterial symbiont living in the cytoplasm of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Different studies analyzing the effect of this symbiont on its host's growth and maximal cell density arrive at contradicting conclusions, labeling it as either a parasite or a mutualist. We address the question whether extrinsic factors such as medium and food organism are responsible for the opposing results. Thus, we performed fitness assays comparing previously applied cultivation conditions...
April 24, 2018: Current Microbiology
Varsha Mathur, Javier Del Campo, Martin Kolisko, Patrick J Keeling
Apicomplexans are a group of obligate intracellular parasites, but their retention of a relict non-photosynthetic plastid reveals that they evolved from free-living photosynthetic ancestors. The closest relatives of apicomplexans include photosynthetic chromerid algae (e.g., Chromera and Vitrella), non-photosynthetic colpodellid predators (e.g., Colpodella), and several environmental clades collectively called Apicomplexan-Related Lineages (ARLs). Here we investigate the global distribution and inferred ecology of the ARLs by expansively searching for apicomplexan-related plastid small ribosomal subunit (SSU) genes in large-scale high-throughput bacterial amplicon surveys...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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