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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346623/a-large-scale-field-study-of-bacterial-communities-in-cereal-aphid-populations-across-morocco
#1
Samir Fakhour, Jérôme Ambroise, François Renoz, Vincent Foray, Jean-Luc Gala, Thierry Hance
Insects are frequently associated with bacteria that can have significant ecological and evolutionary impacts on their hosts. To date, few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors to microbiome composition of aphids. The current work assessed the diversity of bacterial communities of five cereal aphid species (Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis, Sipha maydis and Diuraphis noxia) collected across Morocco and covering a wide range of environmental conditions. We aimed to test whether symbiont combinations are host or environment specific...
January 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346449/within-host-selection-for-faster-replicating-bacterial-symbionts
#2
Ewa Chrostek, Luis Teixeira
Wolbachia is a widespread, intracellular symbiont of arthropods, able to induce reproductive distortions and antiviral protection in insects. Wolbachia can also be pathogenic, as is the case with wMelPop, a virulent variant of the endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. An extensive genomic amplification of the 20kb region encompassing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. The Octomom copy number in wMelPop can be highly variable between individual D. melanogaster flies, even when comparing siblings arising from a single female...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343832/infection-dynamics-of-insecticide-degrading-symbionts-from-soil-to-insects-in-response-to-insecticide-spraying
#3
Hideomi Itoh, Tomoyuki Hori, Yuya Sato, Atsushi Nagayama, Kanako Tago, Masahito Hayatsu, Yoshitomo Kikuchi
Insecticide resistance is a serious concern in modern agriculture, and an understanding of the underlying evolutionary processes is pivotal to prevent the problem. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris, a notorious pest of leguminous crops, acquires a specific Burkholderia symbiont from the environment every generation, and harbors the symbiont in the midgut crypts. The symbiont's natural role is to promote insect development but the insect host can also obtain resistance against the insecticide fenitrothion (MEP) by acquiring MEP-degrading Burkholderia from the environment...
January 17, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338795/the-first-report-of-xenorhabdus-indica-from-steinernema-pakistanense-co-phylogenetic-study-suggests-co-speciation-between-x-indica-and-its-steinernematid-nematodes
#4
A H Bhat, A K Chaubey, V Půža
During a survey in agricultural fields of the sub-humid region of Meerut district, India, two strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, labelled CS31 and CS32, were isolated using the Galleria baiting technique. Based on morphological and morphometric studies, and molecular data, the nematodes were identified as Steinernema pakistanense, making this finding the first report of this species from India. For the first time, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the bacterial symbiont of S. pakistanense...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336852/brazilian-species-of-calliandra-benth-tribe-ingeae-are-nodulated-by-diverse-strains-of-paraburkholderia
#5
Verônica Cordeiro Silva, Patricia Alves Casaes Alves, Mariana Ferreira Kruschewsky Rhem, José Miguel Ferreira Dos Santos, Euan K James, Eduardo Gross
The Chapada Diamantina in NE of Brazil is a biodiversity hotspot and a center of radiation for many Neotropical legume genera, such as Calliandra and Mimosa. The present study aimed to evaluate nodulation in Calliandra species endemic to various environments, and to characterize the diversity of their symbiotic rhizobia using housekeeping (16S rRNA, recA) and plasmid-borne, symbiosis-related (nifH and nodC) genes. The nodulation ability of selected isolates was assessed. All of the 126 bacterial isolates from 18 Calliandra species collected in six different vegetation types were identified as Paraburkholderia according to their housekeeping and symbiosis gene phylogenies...
January 5, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330187/acquisition-of-a-novel-sulfur-oxidizing-symbiont-in-the-gutless-marine-worm-inanidrilus-exumae
#6
C Bergin, C Wentrup, N Brewig, A Blazejak, C Erséus, O Giere, M Schmid, P De Wit, N Dubilier
Gutless phallodrilines are marine annelid worms without a mouth or gut, which live in an obligate association with multiple bacterial endosymbionts that supply them with nutrition. In this study, we discovered an unusual symbiont community in the gutless phallodriline Inanidrilus exumae that differs markedly from the microbiome of all other 22 examined host species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that I. exumae harboured co-occurring gamma-, alpha- and deltaproteobacterial symbionts, while all other known host species harbour gamma- and either alpha- or deltaproteobacterial symbionts...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325007/rifampicin-treatment-of-blattella-germanica-evidences-a-fecal-transmission-route-of-their-gut-microbiota
#7
Tania Rosas, Carlos García-Ferris, Rebeca Domínguez-Santos, Pablo Llop, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya
Eukaryotes have established symbiotic relationship with microorganisms, which enables them to accomplish functions that they cannot perform alone. In the German cockroach Blattella germanica, the obligate endosymbiont Blattabacterium coexists with a rich gut microbiota. The transmission of Blattabacterium is vertical but little is known about how the gut microbiota colonizes newborn individuals. In this study, we treated B. germanica populations with rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, during two generations and analyzed gut bacterial composition and the Blattabacterium load in control and rifampicin-treated populations...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299529/studying-the-symbiotic-bacterium-xenorhabdus-nematophila-in-individual-living-steinernema-carpocapsae-nematodes-using-microfluidic-systems
#8
Matthew D Stilwell, Mengyi Cao, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Douglas B Weibel
Animal-microbe symbioses are ubiquitous in nature and scientifically important in diverse areas, including ecology, medicine, and agriculture. Steinernema nematodes and Xenorhabdus bacteria compose an established, successful model system for investigating microbial pathogenesis and mutualism. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is a species-specific mutualist of insect-infecting Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. The bacterium colonizes a specialized intestinal pocket within the infective stage of the nematode, which transports the bacteria between insects that are killed and consumed by the pair for reproduction...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290388/drosophila-perpetuates-nutritional-mutualism-by-promoting-the-fitness-of-its-intestinal-symbiont-lactobacillus-plantarum
#9
Gilles Storelli, Maura Strigini, Théodore Grenier, Loan Bozonnet, Martin Schwarzer, Catherine Daniel, Renata Matos, François Leulier
Facultative animal-bacteria symbioses, which are critical determinants of animal fitness, are largely assumed to be mutualistic. However, whether commensal bacteria benefit from the association has not been rigorously assessed. Using a simple and tractable gnotobiotic model- Drosophila mono-associated with one of its dominant commensals, Lactobacillus plantarum-we reveal that in addition to benefiting animal growth, this facultative symbiosis has a positive impact on commensal bacteria fitness. We find that bacteria encounter a strong cost during gut transit, yet larvae-derived maintenance factors override this cost and increase bacterial population fitness, thus perpetuating symbiosis...
December 26, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287245/host-and-symbiont-intraspecific-variability-the-case-of-paramecium-calkinsi-and-candidatus-trichorickettsia-mobilis
#10
E Sabaneyeva, M Castelli, F Szokoli, K Benken, N Lebedeva, A Salvetti, M Schweikert, S Fokin, G Petroni
Newly isolated strains of the ciliate Paramecium calkinsi and their cytoplasmic bacterial endosymbionts were characterized by a multidisciplinary approach, including live observation, ultrastructural investigation, and molecular analysis. Despite morphological resemblance, the characterized P. calkinsi strains showed a significant molecular divergence compared to conspecifics, possibly hinting for a cryptic speciation. The endosymbionts were clearly found to be affiliated to the species "Candidatus Trichorickettsia mobilis" (Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae), currently encompassing only bacteria retrieved in an obligate intracellular association with other ciliates...
December 9, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284535/bacterial-diversity-of-wild-caught-lutzomyia-longipalpis-a-vector-of-zoonotic-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil-under-distinct-physiological-conditions-by-metagenomics-analysis
#11
Ana Clara Araújo Machado Pires, Luís Eduardo Martinez Villegas, Thaís Bonifácio Campolina, Alessandra Silva Orfanó, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta, Nágila Francinete Costa Secundino
BACKGROUND: The leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania, which are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. In the New World, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of visceral leishmaniasis and is a proven vector for Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil. During development within the vector, Leishmania can interact with a variety of microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. The presence of bacteria in the midgut of sand flies can influence the development and survival of the parasite...
December 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279407/multiple-origins-of-interdependent-endosymbiotic-complexes-in-a-genus-of-cicadas
#12
Piotr Łukasik, Katherine Nazario, James T Van Leuven, Matthew A Campbell, Mariah Meyer, Anna Michalik, Pablo Pessacq, Chris Simon, Claudio Veloso, John P McCutcheon
Bacterial endosymbionts that provide nutrients to hosts often have genomes that are extremely stable in structure and gene content. In contrast, the genome of the endosymbiont Hodgkinia cicadicola has fractured into multiple distinct lineages in some species of the cicada genus Tettigades To better understand the frequency, timing, and outcomes of Hodgkinia lineage splitting throughout this cicada genus, we sampled cicadas over three field seasons in Chile and performed genomics and microscopy on representative samples...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259165/unravelling-the-specificity-and-mechanism-of-sialic-acid-recognition-by-the-gut-symbiont-ruminococcus-gnavus
#13
C David Owen, Louise E Tailford, Serena Monaco, Tanja Šuligoj, Laura Vaux, Romane Lallement, Zahra Khedri, Hai Yu, Karine Lecointe, John Walshaw, Sandra Tribolo, Marc Horrex, Andrew Bell, Xi Chen, Gary L Taylor, Ajit Varki, Jesus Angulo, Nathalie Juge
Ruminococcus gnavus is a human gut symbiont wherein the ability to degrade mucins is mediated by an intramolecular trans-sialidase (RgNanH). RgNanH comprises a GH33 catalytic domain and a sialic acid-binding carbohydrate-binding module (CBM40). Here we used glycan arrays, STD NMR, X-ray crystallography, mutagenesis and binding assays to determine the structure and function of RgNanH_CBM40 (RgCBM40). RgCBM40 displays the canonical CBM40 β-sandwich fold and broad specificity towards sialoglycans with millimolar binding affinity towards α2,3- or α2,6-sialyllactose...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250734/acquisition-of-uropygial-gland-microbiome-by-hoopoe-nestlings
#14
Manuel Martín-Vivaldi, Juan José Soler, Ángela Martínez-García, Laura Arco, Natalia Juárez-García-Pelayo, Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez, Manuel Martínez-Bueno
Mutualistic symbioses between animals and bacteria depend on acquisition of appropriate symbionts while avoiding exploitation by non-beneficial microbes. The mode of acquisition of symbionts would determine, not only the probability of encountering but also evolutionary outcomes of mutualistic counterparts. The microbiome inhabiting the uropygial gland of the European hoopoe (Upupa epops) includes a variety of bacterial strains, some of them providing antimicrobial benefits. Here, the mode of acquisition and stability of this microbiome is analyzed by means of Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis and two different experiments...
December 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242567/a-coxiella-mutualist-symbiont-is-essential-to-the-development-of-rhipicephalus-microplus
#15
Melina Garcia Guizzo, Luís Fernando Parizi, Rodrigo Dutra Nunes, Renata Schama, Rodolpho M Albano, Lucas Tirloni, Daiane Patrícia Oldiges, Ricardo Pilz Vieira, Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira, Milane de Souza Leite, Sergio A Gonzales, Marisa Farber, Orlando Martins, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Pedro L Oliveira
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite that causes important economic losses in livestock. Different species of ticks harbor a symbiont bacterium of the genus Coxiella. It was showed that a Coxiella endosymbiont from R. microplus (CERM) is a vertically transmitted mutualist symbiont, comprising 98% of the 16S rRNA sequences in both eggs and larvae. Sequencing of the bacterial genome revealed genes for biosynthetic pathways for several vitamins and key metabolic cofactors that may provide a nutritional complement to the tick host...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234308/horizontal-transmission-of-intracellular-insect-symbionts-via-plants
#16
REVIEW
Ewa Chrostek, Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Gregory D D Hurst, Grant L Hughes
Experimental evidence is accumulating that endosymbionts of phytophagous insects may transmit horizontally via plants. Intracellular symbionts known for manipulating insect reproduction and altering fitness (Rickettsia, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and bacterial parasite of the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus) have been found to travel from infected insects into plants. Other insects, either of the same or different species can acquire the symbiont from the plant through feeding, and in some cases transfer it to their progeny...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233893/diversification-of-type-vi-secretion-system-toxins-reveals-ancient-antagonism-among-bee-gut-microbes
#17
Margaret I Steele, Waldan K Kwong, Marvin Whiteley, Nancy A Moran
Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232373/disentangling-metabolic-functions-of-bacteria-in-the-honey-bee-gut
#18
Lucie Kešnerová, Ruben A T Mars, Kirsten M Ellegaard, Michaël Troilo, Uwe Sauer, Philipp Engel
It is presently unclear how much individual community members contribute to the overall metabolic output of a gut microbiota. To address this question, we used the honey bee, which harbors a relatively simple and remarkably conserved gut microbiota with striking parallels to the mammalian system and importance for bee health. Using untargeted metabolomics, we profiled metabolic changes in gnotobiotic bees that were colonized with the complete microbiota reconstituted from cultured strains. We then determined the contribution of individual community members in mono-colonized bees and recapitulated our findings using in vitro cultures...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214346/comparative-genomics-reveals-the-presence-of-putative-toxin-antitoxin-system-in-wolbachia-genomes
#19
Kopal Singhal, Sujata Mohanty
Multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are housed in different locations within the bacterial genome and are known to be associated with various cellular processes and stress-related adaptation. In endosymbionts, although, the TA system has scarce occurrence but studies have highlighted its presence in enhancing host-symbiont interactions. Wolbachia, an obligate endosymbiont, has recently been proposed as a biocontrol agent which may be helpful in controlling vector-borne diseases. There are reports suggesting the role of TA system in inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in case of Wolbachia, however, the underlying mechanism is still not known...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214046/high-resolution-bacterial-16s-rrna-gene-profile-meta-analysis-and-biofilm-status-reveal-common-colorectal-cancer-consortia
#20
Julia L Drewes, James R White, Christine M Dejea, Payam Fathi, Thevambiga Iyadorai, Jamuna Vadivelu, April C Roslani, Elizabeth C Wick, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Mun Fai Loke, Kumar Thulasi, Han Ming Gan, Khean Lee Goh, Hoong Yin Chong, Sandip Kumar, Jane W Wanyiri, Cynthia L Sears
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer worldwide, with a growing incidence among young adults. Multiple studies have presented associations between the gut microbiome and CRC, suggesting a link with cancer risk. Although CRC microbiome studies continue to profile larger patient cohorts with increasingly economical and rapid DNA sequencing platforms, few common associations with CRC have been identified, in part due to limitations in taxonomic resolution and differences in analysis methodologies...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
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