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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430102/variable-virulence-phenotype-of-xenorhabdus-bovienii-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-absence-of-their-vector-hosts
#1
John G McMullen, Rebecca McQuade, Jean-Claude Ogier, Sylvie Pagès, Sophie Gaudriault, S Patricia Stock
Xenorhabdus bovienii bacteria have a dual lifestyle: they are mutualistic symbionts to many species of Steinernema nematodes and are pathogens to a wide array of insects. Previous studies have shown that virulence of X.bovienii-Steinernema spp. pairs decreases when the nematodes associate with non-cognate bacterial strains. However, the virulence of the X. bovienii strains alone has not been fully investigated. In this study, we characterized the virulence of nine X. bovienii strains in Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis and performed a comparative genomic analysis to correlate observed phenotypes with strain genotypes...
April 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428832/a-meta-analysis-testing-eusocial-co-option-theories-in-termite-gut-physiology-and-symbiosis
#2
Michael E Scharf, Yunpeng Cai, Yijun Sun, Ruchira Sen, Rhitoban Raychoudhury, Drion G Boucias
The termite gut accomplishes key physiologic functions that underlie termite symbiosis and sociality. However, potential candidate functions of the host-symbiont holobiome have not yet been explored across seemingly divergent processes such as digestion, immunity, caste differentiation, and xenobiotic tolerance. This study took a meta-analysis approach for concurrently studying host and symbiont gut metatranscriptome responses of the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, which has ancestral characteristics and hosts a diverse mix of eukaryotic and bacterial symbionts...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426794/impact-of-wolbachia-on-oxidative-stress-sensitivity-in-the-parasitic-wasp-asobara-japonica
#3
David Monnin, Natacha Kremer, Emmanuel Desouhant, Fabrice Vavre
The oxidative homeostasis is the balance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant molecules. In addition to be considered as a key factor underlying life-history traits evolution, the oxidative homeostasis has been shown to be involved in many host-symbiont associations. Previous studies suggest an interaction between the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia and the oxidative homeostasis of some insect hosts. This interaction is likely to exert a strong influence on the host evolution, as it has been proposed in the wasp Asobara tabida, whose dependence upon Wolbachia is due to the evolutionary loss of its ability to regulate the oxidative homeostasis in the absence of the symbiont...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425179/resilience-of-the-prokaryotic-microbial-community-of-acropora-digitifera-to-elevated-temperature
#4
Andrian P Gajigan, Leomir A Diaz, Cecilia Conaco
The coral is a holobiont formed by the close interaction between the coral animal and a diverse community of microorganisms, including dinoflagellates, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. The prokaryotic symbionts of corals are important for host fitness but are also highly sensitive to changes in the environment. In this study, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing to examine the response of the microbial community associated with the coral, Acropora digitifera, to elevated temperature. The A. digitifera microbial community is dominated by operational taxonomic unit (OTUs) affiliated with classes Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria...
April 20, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419609/band-aids-for-buchnera-and-b-vitamins-for-all
#5
Jacob A Russell, Kerry M Oliver, Allison K Hansen
Evolution lacks foresight, and hence, key adaptations may produce major challenges over the long run. The natural world is rife with examples of long-term 'side effects' associated with quick-fix tinkering, including blind spots in vertebrate eyes. An important question is how nature compensates for imperfections once evolution has set a course. The symbioses associated with sap-feeding insects present a fascinating opportunity to address this issue. On one hand, the substantial diversity and biomass of sap-feeding insects are largely due to ancient acquisitions of nutrient-provisioning bacterial symbionts...
April 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419279/primates-lice-and-bacteria-speciation-and-genome-evolution-in-the-symbionts-of-hominid-lice
#6
Bret M Boyd, Julie M Allen, Nam-Phuong Nguyen, Pranjal Vachaspati, Zach Quicksall, Tandy Warnow, Lawrence Mugisha, Kevin P Johnson, David L Reed
Insects with restricted diets rely on symbiotic bacteria to provide essential metabolites missing in their diet. The blood-sucking lice are obligate, host-specific parasites of mammals and are themselves host to symbiotic bacteria. In human lice, these bacterial symbionts supply the lice with B-vitamins. Here we sequenced the genomes of symbiotic and heritable bacterial of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and monkey lice and used phylogenomics to investigate their evolutionary relationships. We find that these symbionts have a phylogenetic history reflecting the louse phylogeny, a finding contrary to previous reports of symbiont replacement...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412935/fitness-costs-of-symbiont-switching-using-entomopathogenic-nematodes-as-a-model
#7
John G McMullen, Brittany F Peterson, Steven Forst, Heidi Goodrich Blair, S Patricia Stock
BACKGROUND: Steinernematid nematodes form obligate symbioses with bacteria from the genus Xenorhabdus. Together Steinernema nematodes and their bacterial symbionts successfully infect, kill, utilize, and exit their insect hosts. During this process the nematodes and bacteria disassociate requiring them to re-associate before emerging from the host. This interaction can be complicated when two different nematodes co-infect an insect host. RESULTS: Non-cognate nematode-bacteria pairings result in reductions for multiple measures of success, including total progeny production and virulence...
April 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408911/metabolic-adaptation-a-specialized-leaf-organ-structure-and-vascular-responses-to-diurnal-n2-fixation-by-nostoc-azollae-sustain-the-astonishing-productivity-of-azolla-ferns-without-nitrogen-fertilizer
#8
Paul Brouwer, Andrea Bräutigam, Valerie A Buijs, Anne O E Tazelaar, Adrie van der Werf, Urte Schlüter, Gert-Jan Reichart, Anthony Bolger, Björn Usadel, Andreas P M Weber, Henriette Schluepmann
Sustainable agriculture demands reduced input of man-made nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet N2 fixation limits the productivity of crops with heterotrophic diazotrophic bacterial symbionts. We investigated floating ferns from the genus Azolla that host phototrophic diazotrophic Nostoc azollae in leaf pockets and belong to the fastest growing plants. Experimental production reported here demonstrated N-fertilizer independent production of nitrogen-rich biomass with an annual yield potential per ha of 1200 kg(-1) N fixed and 35 t dry biomass...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393904/transcriptomic-changes-in-an-animal-bacterial-symbiosis-under-modeled-microgravity-conditions
#9
Giorgio Casaburi, Irina Goncharenko-Foster, Alexandrea A Duscher, Jamie S Foster
Spaceflight imposes numerous adaptive challenges for terrestrial life. The reduction in gravity, or microgravity, represents a novel environment that can disrupt homeostasis of many physiological processes. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly clear that an organism's microbiome is critical for host health and examining its resiliency in microgravity represents a new frontier for space biology research. In this study, we examine the impact of microgravity on the interactions between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its beneficial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, which form a highly specific binary mutualism...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393425/the-structured-diversity-of-specialized-gut-symbionts-of-the-new-world-army-ants
#10
Piotr Łukasik, Justin A Newton, Jon G Sanders, Yi Hu, Corrie S Moreau, Daniel J C Kronauer, Sean O'Donnell, Ryuichi Koga, Jacob A Russell
Symbiotic bacteria play important roles in the biology of their arthropod hosts. Yet the microbiota of many diverse and influential groups remain understudied, resulting in a paucity of information on the fidelities and histories of these associations. Motivated by prior findings from a smaller scale, 16S rRNA-based study, we conducted a broad phylogenetic and geographical survey of microbial communities in the ecologically dominant New World army ants (Formicidae: Dorylinae). Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene across 28 species spanning the five New World genera showed that the microbial communities of army ants consist of very few common and abundant bacterial species...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392566/assembly-structure-function-and-regulation-of-type-iii-secretion-systems
#11
REVIEW
Wanyin Deng, Natalie C Marshall, Jennifer L Rowland, James M McCoy, Liam J Worrall, Andrew S Santos, Natalie C J Strynadka, B Brett Finlay
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein transport nanomachines that are found in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Resembling molecular syringes, T3SSs form channels that cross the bacterial envelope and the host cell membrane, which enable bacteria to inject numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and establish trans-kingdom interactions with diverse hosts. Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy and integrative imaging have provided unprecedented views of the architecture and structure of T3SSs...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386769/relative-abundance-and-strain-diversity-in-the-bacterial-endosymbiont-community-of-a-sap-feeding-insect-across-its-native-and-introduced-geographic-range
#12
Caroline Fromont, Markus Riegler, James M Cook
Most insects are associated with bacterial symbionts. The bacterial diversity and community composition within hosts may play an important role in shaping insect population biology, ecology and evolution. We focussed on the bacterial microbiome of the Australian fig homotomid Mycopsylla fici (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), which can cause defoliation of its only host tree, Ficus macrophylla. This sap-feeding insect is native to mainland Australia and Lord Howe Island (LHI) but also occurs where its host has been planted, notably in New Zealand...
April 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382473/strains-of-photorhabdus-spp-associated-with-polish-heterorhabditis-isolates-their-molecular-and-phenotypic-characterization-and-symbiont-exchange
#13
Waldemar Kazimierczak, Henryk Skrzypek, Ewa Sajnaga, Marcin Skowronek, Adam Waśko, Anna Kreft
The relationships between six bacterial symbionts of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Heterorhabditis megidis from Poland to species and subspecies of the genus Photorhabdus were evaluated. This study was based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data of five genes: 16S rRNA, gyrB, recA, gltX, and dnaN. The bacteria were also characterized phenotypically by biochemical and physiological tests. Our results have revealed that the Photorhabdus strains isolated from H. megidis belong to P...
April 5, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378393/multi-modal-defenses-in-aphids-offer-redundant-protection-and-increased-costs-likely-impeding-a-protective-mutualism
#14
Adam J Martinez, Matthew R Doremus, Laura J Kraft, Kyungsun L Kim, Kerry M Oliver
1.The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, maintains extreme variation in resistance to its most common parasitoid wasp enemy, Aphidius ervi, which is sourced from two known mechanisms: protective bacterial symbionts, most commonly Hamiltonella defensa, or endogenously encoded defenses. We have recently found that individual aphids may employ each defense individually, occasionally both defenses together, or neither. 2.In field populations, Hamiltonella-infected aphids are found at low to moderate frequencies and while less is known about the frequency of resistant genotypes, they show up less often than susceptible genotypes in field collections...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377780/pseudomonas-fluorescens-transportome-is-linked-to-strain-specific-plant-growth-promotion-in-aspen-seedlings-under-nutrient-stress
#15
Shalaka Shinde, Jonathan R Cumming, Frank R Collart, Philippe H Noirot, Peter E Larsen
Diverse communities of bacteria colonize plant roots and the rhizosphere. Many of these rhizobacteria are symbionts and provide plant growth promotion (PGP) services, protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic stresses and increasing plant productivity by providing access to nutrients that would otherwise be unavailable to roots. In return, these symbiotic bacteria receive photosynthetically-derived carbon (C), in the form of sugars and organic acids, from plant root exudates. PGP activities have been characterized for a variety of forest tree species and are important in C cycling and sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372899/phylogenetically-diverse-group-of-native-bacterial-symbionts-isolated-from-root-nodules-of-groundnut-arachis-hypogaea-l-in-south-africa
#16
Sanjay K Jaiswal, Levini A Msimbira, Felix D Dakora
Groundnut is an economically important N​2-fixing legume that can contribute about 100-190kgNha(-1) to cropping systems. In this study, groundnut-nodulating native rhizobia in South African soils were isolated from root nodules. Genetic analysis of isolates was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of 16S-23S rDNA. A total of 26 IGS types were detected with band sizes ranging from 471 to 1415bp. The rhizobial isolates were grouped into five main clusters with Jaccard's similarity coefficient of 0...
March 7, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370791/cyanobacterial-ent-sterol-like-natural-products-from-a-deviated-ubiquinone-pathway
#17
Philipp Moosmann, Reiko Ueoka, Laura Grauso, Alfonso Mangoni, Brandon I Morinaka, Muriel Gugger, Jörn Piel
Natural products from marine animals show high potential for the development of new medicines, but drug development based on these compounds is commonly hampered by their low natural abundance. Since many of these metabolites are suspected or known to be produced by uncultivated bacterial symbionts, the rapidly growing diversity of sequenced prokaryotic genomes offers the opportunity to identify alternative, culturable sources of natural products computationally. In this work, we investigated the potential of using this sequenced resource to facilitate the production of meroterpenoid-like compounds related to those from marine sources...
March 30, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360889/small-luggage-for-a-long-journey-transfer-of-vesicle-enclosed-small-rna-in-interspecies-communication
#18
REVIEW
Fabio A Lefebvre, Eric Lécuyer
In the evolutionary arms race, symbionts have evolved means to modulate each other's physiology, oftentimes through the dissemination of biological signals. Beyond small molecules and proteins, recent evidence shows that small RNA molecules are transferred between organisms and transmit functional RNA interference signals across biological species. However, the mechanisms through which specific RNAs involved in cross-species communication are sorted for secretion and protected from degradation in the environment remain largely enigmatic...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348879/absence-of-genome-reduction-in-diverse-facultative-endohyphal-bacteria
#19
David A Baltrus, Kevin Dougherty, Kayla R Arendt, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Dimitrios Stamatis, T B K Reddy, Chew Yee Ngan, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Victor Markowitz, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke, A Elizabeth Arnold
Fungi interact closely with bacteria, both on the surfaces of the hyphae and within their living tissues (i.e. endohyphal bacteria, EHB). These EHB can be obligate or facultative symbionts and can mediate diverse phenotypic traits in their hosts. Although EHB have been observed in many lineages of fungi, it remains unclear how widespread and general these associations are, and whether there are unifying ecological and genomic features can be found across EHB strains as a whole. We cultured 11 bacterial strains after they emerged from the hyphae of diverse Ascomycota that were isolated as foliar endophytes of cupressaceous trees, and generated nearly complete genome sequences for all...
February 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348026/cooperative-metabolism-in-a-three-partner-insect-bacterial-symbiosis-revealed-by-metabolic-modeling
#20
Nana Y D Ankrah, Junbo Luan, Angela E Douglas
An important factor determining the impact of microbial symbionts on their animal host is the balance between the cost of nutrients consumed by the symbionts and benefit of nutrients released back to the host, but the quantitative significance of nutrient exchange in symbioses involving multiple microbial partners has rarely been addressed. In this study on the association between two intracellular bacterial symbionts, Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa, and their animal host, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, we apply metabolic modeling to investigate host-symbiont nutrient exchange...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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