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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127624/evidence-from-the-gut-microbiota-of-swarming-alates-of-a-vertical-transmission-of-the-bacterial-symbionts-in-nasutitermes-arborum-termitidae-nasutitermitinae
#1
Michel Diouf, Vincent Hervé, Philippe Mora, Alain Robert, Sophie Frechault, Corinne Rouland-Lefèvre, Edouard Miambi
Studies on termite symbiosis have revealed that significant symbiont lineages are maintained across generations. However, most studies have focused only on the worker caste. Little is known about the gut microbiota of reproductives, the most probable vectors for transmitting these lineages to offspring. Using 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing, we compared the gut microbiota of swarming alates of the higher termite Nasutitermes arborum with those of their nestmates from the parental colony. The OTU-based alpha diversity indices showed that the gut microbiota of the alates was at least as diverse as those of non-reproductive adults...
November 10, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124861/inhibiting-bacterial-quorum-sensing-arrests-coral-disease-development-and-disease-associated-microbes
#2
Rebecca H Certner, Steven V Vollmer
Among the greatest threats to coral reefs are coral epizootics, which are increasing in frequency and severity across many reef ecosystems. In particular, white band disease (WBD) has devastated Caribbean acroporid populations since its initial outbreak in 1979. However, despite its widespread and damaging effects, the etiology of WBD remains largely unresolved. Here we examine the role of quorum sensing within bacterial communities associated with WBD-infected Acropora cervicornis. Microbial communities isolated from WBD-infected corals were exposed to quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) - a N-acyl homoserine lactone autoinducer antagonist - and then dosed onto healthy test corals...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119317/prodigiosin-violacein-and-volatile-organic-compounds-produced-by-widespread-cutaneous-bacteria-of-amphibians-can-inhibit-two-batrachochytrium-fungal-pathogens
#3
Douglas C Woodhams, Brandon C LaBumbard, Kelly L Barnhart, Matthew H Becker, Molly C Bletz, Laura A Escobar, Sandra V Flechas, Megan E Forman, Anthony A Iannetta, Maureen D Joyce, Falitiana Rabemananjara, Brian Gratwicke, Miguel Vences, Kevin P C Minbiole
Symbiotic bacteria can produce secondary metabolites and volatile compounds that contribute to amphibian skin defense. Some of these symbionts have been used as probiotics to treat or prevent the emerging disease chytridiomycosis. We examined 20 amphibian cutaneous bacteria for the production of prodigiosin or violacein, brightly colored defense compounds that pigment the bacteria and have characteristic spectroscopic properties making them readily detectable, and evaluated the antifungal activity of these compounds...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119316/accessing-the-hidden-microbial-diversity-of-aphids-an-illustration-of-how-culture-dependent-methods-can-be-used-to-decipher-the-insect-microbiota
#4
Alina S Grigorescu, François Renoz, Ahmed Sabri, Vincent Foray, Thierry Hance, Philippe Thonart
Microorganism communities that live inside insects can play critical roles in host development, nutrition, immunity, physiology, and behavior. Over the past decade, high-throughput sequencing reveals the extraordinary microbial diversity associated with various insect species and provides information independent of our ability to culture these microbes. However, their cultivation in the laboratory remains crucial for a deep understanding of their physiology and the roles they play in host insects. Aphids are insects that received specific attention because of their ability to form symbiotic associations with a wide range of endosymbionts that are considered as the core microbiome of these sap-feeding insects...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117633/ancient-symbiosis-confers-desiccation-resistance-to-stored-grain-pest-beetles
#5
Tobias Engl, Nadia Eberl, Carla Gorse, Theresa Krüger, Thorsten H P Schmidt, Rudy Plarre, Cornel Adler, Martin Kaltenpoth
Microbial symbionts of insects provide a range of ecological traits to their hosts that are beneficial in the context of biotic interactions. However, little is known about insect symbiont-mediated adaptation to the abiotic environment, e.g. temperature and humidity. Here we report on an ancient clade of intracellular, bacteriome-located Bacteroidetes symbionts that are associated with grain and wood pest beetles of the phylogenetically distant families Silvanidae and Bostrichidae. In the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, we demonstrate that the symbionts affect cuticle thickness, melanization and hydrocarbon profile, enhancing desiccation resistance and thereby strongly improving fitness under dry conditions...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106592/intrahost-genetic-diversity-of-bacterial-symbionts-exhibits-evidence-of-mixed-infections-and-recombinant-haplotypes
#6
Shelbi L Russell, Colleen M Cavanaugh
Even the simplest microbial-eukaryotic mutualisms are comprised of entire populations of symbionts at the level of the host individual. Early work suggested that these intrahost populations maintain low genetic diversity as a result of transmission bottlenecks or to avoid competition between symbiont genotypes. However, the amount of genetic diversity among symbionts within a single host remains largely unexplored. To address this, we investigated the chemosynthetic symbiosis between the bivalve Solemya velum and its intracellular bacterial symbionts, which exhibits evidence of both vertical and horizontal transmission...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104867/microbial-communities-in-north-american-ixodid-ticks-of-veterinary-and-medical-importance
#7
REVIEW
Andrea S Varela-Stokes, Si Hong Park, Sun Ae Kim, Steven C Ricke
Interest in microbial communities, or microbiota, of blood-feeding arthropods such as ticks (order Parasitiformes, suborder Ixodida) is increasing. Studies on tick microorganisms historically emphasized pathogens of high medical or veterinary importance. Current techniques allow for simultaneous detection of pathogens of interest, non-pathogenic symbionts, like Coxiella-LE and Francisella-LE, and microorganisms of unknown pathogenic potential. While each generation of ticks begins with a maternally acquired repertoire of microorganisms, microhabitats off and on vertebrate hosts can alter the microbiome during the life cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098761/phylogeny-and-genomics-of-saul-an-enigmatic-bacterial-lineage-frequently-associated-with-marine-sponges
#8
Carmen Astudillo-García, Beate M Slaby, David W Waite, Kristina Bayer, Ute Hentschel, Michael W Taylor
Many marine sponges contain dense and diverse communities of associated microorganisms. Members of the "sponge-associated unclassified lineage" (SAUL) are frequently recorded from sponges, yet little is known about these bacteria. Here we investigated the distribution and phylogenetic status of SAUL. A meta-analysis of the available literature revealed the widespread distribution of this clade and its association with taxonomically varied sponge hosts. Phylogenetic analyses, conducted using both 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny and concatenated marker protein sequences, revealed that SAUL is a sister clade of the candidate phylum "Latescibacteria"...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097716/dynamics-of-coral-associated-bacterial-communities-acclimated-to-temperature-stress-based-on-recent-thermal-history
#9
Jia-Ho Shiu, Shashank Keshavmurthy, Pei-Wen Chiang, Hsing-Ju Chen, Shueh-Ping Lou, Ching-Hung Tseng, Hernyi Justin Hsieh, Chaolun Allen Chen, Sen-Lin Tang
Seasonal variation in temperature fluctuations may provide corals and their algal symbionts varying abilities to acclimate to changing temperatures. We hypothesized that different temperature ranges between seasons may promote temperature-tolerance of corals, which would increase stability of a bacterial community following thermal stress. Acropora muricata coral colonies were collected in summer and winter (water temperatures were 23.4-30.2 and 12.1-23.1 °C, respectively) from the Penghu Archipelago in Taiwan, then exposed to 6 temperature treatments (10-33 °C)...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093227/culture-of-an-aphid-heritable-symbiont-demonstrates-its-direct-role-in-defence-against-parasitoids
#10
Jayce W Brandt, Germain Chevignon, Kerry M Oliver, Michael R Strand
Heritable symbionts are common in insects with many contributing to host defence. Hamiltonella defensa is a facultative, bacterial symbiont of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum that provides protection against the endoparasitoid wasp Aphidius ervi Protection levels vary among strains of H. defensa that are differentially infected by bacteriophages named APSEs. By contrast, little is known about mechanism(s) of resistance owing to the intractability of host-restricted microbes for functional study. Here, we developed methods for culturing strains of H...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075241/in-vivo-isotopic-labeling-of-symbiotic-bacteria-involved-in-cellulose-degradation-and-nitrogen-recycling-within-the-gut-of-the-forest-cockchafer-melolontha-hippocastani
#11
Pol Alonso-Pernas, Stefan Bartram, Erika M Arias-Cordero, Alexey L Novoselov, Lorena Halty-deLeon, Yongqi Shao, Wilhelm Boland
The guts of insects harbor symbiotic bacterial communities. However, due to their complexity, it is challenging to relate a specific symbiotic phylotype to its corresponding function. In the present study, we focused on the forest cockchafer (Melolontha hippocastani), a phytophagous insect with a dual life cycle, consisting of a root-feeding larval stage and a leaf-feeding adult stage. By combining in vivo stable isotope probing (SIP) with (13)C cellulose and (15)N urea as trophic links, with Illumina MiSeq (Illumina-SIP), we unraveled bacterial networks processing recalcitrant dietary components and recycling nitrogenous waste...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069352/the-gorgonian-coral-eunicella-labiata-hosts-a-distinct-prokaryotic-consortium-amenable-to-cultivation
#12
Tina Keller-Costa, Dominic Eriksson, Jorge M S Gonçalves, Newton C M Gomes, Asunción Lago-Lestón, Rodrigo Costa
Microbial communities inhabiting gorgonian corals are believed to benefit their hosts through nutrient provision and chemical defence; yet much remains to be learned about their phylogenetic uniqueness and cultivability. Here, we determined the prokaryotic community structure and distinctiveness in the gorgonian Eunicella labiata by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from gorgonian and seawater metagenomic DNA. Furthermore, we used a 'plate wash' methodology to compare the phylogenetic diversity of the 'total' gorgonian bacteriome and its 'cultivatable' fraction...
October 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067021/comparative-genomics-of-facultative-bacterial-symbionts-isolated-from-european-orius-species-reveals-an-ancestral-symbiotic-association
#13
Xiaorui Chen, Matthew D Hitchings, José E Mendoza, Virginia Balanza, Paul D Facey, Paul J Dyson, Pablo Bielza, Ricardo Del Sol
Pest control in agriculture employs diverse strategies, among which the use of predatory insects has steadily increased. The use of several species within the genus Orius in pest control is widely spread, particularly in Mediterranean Europe. Commercial mass rearing of predatory insects is costly, and research efforts have concentrated on diet manipulation and selective breeding to reduce costs and improve efficacy. The characterisation and contribution of microbial symbionts to Orius sp. fitness, behaviour, and potential impact on human health has been neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067008/diversity-and-transmission-of-gut-bacteria-in-atta-and-acromyrmex-leaf-cutting-ants-during-development
#14
Mariya Zhukova, Panagiotis Sapountzis, Morten Schiøtt, Jacobus J Boomsma
The social Hymenoptera have distinct larval and adult stages separated by metamorphosis, which implies striking remodeling of external and internal body structures during the pupal stage. This imposes challenges to gut symbionts as existing cultures are lost and may or may not need to be replaced. To elucidate the extent to which metamorphosis interrupts associations between bacteria and hosts, we analyzed changes in gut microbiota during development and traced the transmission routes of dominant symbionts from the egg to adult stage in the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex echinatior and Atta cephalotes, which are both important functional herbivores in the New World tropics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062851/larvicidal-activities-of-indigenous-bacillus-thuringiensis-isolates-and-nematode-symbiotic-bacterial-toxins-against-the-mosquito-vector-culex-pipiens-diptera-culicidae
#15
Ashraf M Ahmed, Hamdy I Hussein, Talat A El-Kersh, Yazeed A Al-Sheikh, Tahany H Ayaad, Hanan A El-Sadawy, Fahd A Al-Mekhlafi, Mohamed S Ibrahim, Jameel Al-Tamimi, Fahd A Nasr
BACKGROUND: The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have recently caused a panic to the authorities in the endemic countries. This study was conducted to identify native larvicidal biopesticides against Culex pipiens for utilization in the battle against mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: Larvicidal activities of new indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and crude toxin complexes (TCs) of two nematode bacterial-symbionts, Photorhabdus luminescens akhurstii (HRM1) and Ph...
June 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056925/host-microbiota-mutualism-in-metabolic-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Salvatore Fabbiano, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Mirko Trajkovski
The intestinal microbiota is a plastic ecosystem that is shaped by environmental and genetic factors, interacting with virtually all tissues of the host. Many signals result from the interplay between the microbiota with its mammalian symbiont that can lead to altered metabolism. Disruptions in the microbial composition are associated with a number of comorbidities linked to the metabolic syndrome. Promoting the niche expansion of beneficial bacteria through diet and supplements can improve metabolic disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054471/innate-immunity-and-tolerance-toward-mitochondria
#17
REVIEW
Anthony Rongvaux
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles that originate from a bacterial symbiont, and they retain multiple features of this bacterial ancestry. The immune system evolved to detect the presence of invading pathogens, including bacteria, to eliminate them by a diversity of antimicrobial mechanisms and to mount long-term protective immunity. Due to their bacterial ancestry, mitochondria are sensed by the innate immune system, and trigger inflammatory responses comparable to those induced by pathogenic bacteria...
October 17, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053633/diversity-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-bacterial-symbionts-in-three-whitefly-species-from-southeast-europe
#18
Marisa Skaljac, Surapathrudu Kanakala, Katja Zanic, Jasna Puizina, Ivana Lepen Pleic, Murad Ghanim
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) are whitefly species that harm agricultural crops in many regions of the world. These insects live in close association with bacterial symbionts that affect host fitness and adaptation to the environment. In the current study, we surveyed the infection of whitefly populations in Southeast Europe by various bacterial symbionts and performed phylogenetic analyses on the different symbionts detected. Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella were the most prevalent symbionts in all three whitefly species...
October 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051595/a-virus-carries-a-gene-encoding-juvenile-hormone-acid-methyltransferase-a-key-regulatory-enzyme-in-insect-metamorphosis
#19
Jun Takatsuka, Madoka Nakai, Tetsuro Shinoda
Microbial parasitism, infection, and symbiosis in animals often modulate host endocrine systems, resulting in alterations of phenotypic traits of the host that can have profound effects on the ecology and evolution of both the microorganisms and their hosts. Information about the mechanisms and genetic bases of such modulations by animal parasites is available from studies of steroid hormones. However, reports involving other hormones are scarce. We found that an insect virus, a betaentomopoxvirus, encodes a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase that can synthesize an important insect hormone, the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046673/genome-of-ca-pandoraea-novymonadis-an-endosymbiotic-bacterium-of-the-trypanosomatid-novymonas-esmeraldas
#20
Alexei Y Kostygov, Anzhelika Butenko, Anna Nenarokova, Daria Tashyreva, Pavel Flegontov, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
We have sequenced, annotated, and analyzed the genome of Ca. Pandoraea novymonadis, a recently described bacterial endosymbiont of the trypanosomatid Novymonas esmeraldas. When compared with genomes of its free-living relatives, it has all the hallmarks of the endosymbionts' genomes, such as significantly reduced size, extensive gene loss, low GC content, numerous gene rearrangements, and low codon usage bias. In addition, Ca. P. novymonadis lacks mobile elements, has a strikingly low number of pseudogenes, and almost all genes are single copied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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