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Naresh Dangi, Un Taek Lim
A strain (ARP14) of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin was isolated from field-collected Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae). The lethal median concentration of the ARP14 strain was compared with that of a commercialized strain (GHA) of the same fungus against R. pedestris and its two egg parasitoids, Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Gryon japonicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Mortality and mycosis rates were evaluated after exposure to five concentrations of the fungus, i...
2018: PloS One
Farzane Forouzan, Mohammad Amin Jalali, Mahdi Ziaaddini, Hamid Hashemi Rad
Psix saccharicola (Mani) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is a solitary egg parasitoid of the pistachio green stink bug, Acrosternum arabicum (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which is one of the most important pests of pistachio in Iran. Augmentation of P. saccharicola field populations using mass-reared individuals may provide an alternative to conventional pesticide use for pistachio green stink bug control. Cold storage is an important component of mass-rearing protocols for optimum timing of host egg parasitization and potentially extended storage of P...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Samuel K Muchemi, Claus P W Zebitz, Christian Borgemeister, Komivi S Akutse, Caroline N Foba, Sunday Ekesi, Komi K M Fiaboe
Liriomyza spp., leafminer flies (Mik; Diptera: Agromyzidae), are economically important quarantine pests that puncture and mine leaves and fruits of various horticultural crops worldwide, affecting yield and trade. Halticoptera arduine (Walker; Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a key parasitoid from the pests' areas of origin in South America, was introduced as a potential alternative management strategy. Prior to H. arduine release, its potential interactions with the dominant local ectoparasitoid, Diglyphus isaea (Walker; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were assessed...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Norman C Elliott, Michael J Brewer, Kristopher L Giles
Winter wheat is Oklahoma's most widely grown crop, and is planted during September and October, grows from fall through spring, and is harvested in June. Winter wheat fields are typically interspersed in a mosaic of habitats in other uses, and we hypothesized that the spatial and temporal composition and configuration of landscape elements, which contribute to agroecosystem diversity also influence biological control of common aphid pests. The parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson; Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae) is highly effective at reducing aphid populations in wheat in Oklahoma, and though a great deal is known about the biology and ecology of L...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Yael Keinan, Rachel Braun, Tamar Keasar
Larvae of parasitoid wasps develop on a single arthropod host, and often face resource limitation that induces a tradeoff between egg maturation and somatic growth. Part of the variation in the growth-reproduction allocation was shown to be heritable, but how the larval developmental environment affects this allocation is not well-known. Detection of life history tradeoffs is often facilitated under stress conditions. We therefore exposed developing female larvae of the polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma koehleri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) to laboratory manipulations aimed to restrict host resources (either host-starvation or high larval density)...
2018: PloS One
Ze-Hua Wang, Rong-Min Hu, Xi-Qian Ye, Jian-Hua Huang, Xue-Xin Chen, Min Shi
Laccase (EC is a phenoloxidase found in many insect species. The Laccase 1 gene from Plutella xylostella (PxLac1) was cloned, and its expression patterns and functions were determined using qPCR and RNAi methods. The results showed that the expression levels of PxLac1 were consistently high in all larval stages, and the most abundant was in the midgut during the 4th instar stage. Moreover, the expression of PxLac1 was up-regulated in response to bacterial infection, and decreased 24 h after being parasitized by Cotesia vestalis...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Ricardo Perez-Alvarez, Brian A Nault, Katja Poveda
Landscape composition not only affects a variety of arthropod-mediated ecosystem services, but also disservices, such as herbivory by insect pests that may have negative effects on crop yield. Yet, little is known about how different habitats influence the dynamics of multiple herbivore species, and ultimately their collective impact on crop production. Using cabbage as a model system, we examined how landscape composition influenced the incidence of three specialist cruciferous pests (aphids, flea beetles, and leaf-feeding Lepidoptera), lepidopteran parasitoids, and crop yield across a gradient of landscape composition in New York, USA...
April 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Anna K Block, Charles T Hunter, Caitlin Rering, Shawn A Christensen, Robert L Meagher
The maize inbred line W22 has lower herbivore-induced volatile production than B73 but both fall armyworm larvae and the wasps that parasitize them prefer W22 over B73. Maize inbred line W22 is an important resource for genetic studies due to the availability of the UniformMu mutant population and a complete genome sequence. In this study, we assessed the suitability of W22 as a model for tritrophic interactions between maize, Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) and the parasitoid wasp Cotesia marginiventris...
April 3, 2018: Planta
Lisa Fors, Raimondas Mozuraitis, Laima Blažytė-Čereškienė, Thomas A Verschut, Peter A Hambäck
Parasitoid fitness is influenced by the ability to overcome host defense strategies and by the ability of parasitoid females to select high-quality host individuals. When females are unable to differentiate among hosts, their fitness will decrease with an increasing abundance of resistant hosts. To understand the effect of mixed host populations on female fitness, it is therefore necessary to investigate the ability of female parasitoids to select among hosts. Here, we used behavioral assays, headspace volatile collection, and electrophysiology to study the ability of Asecodes parviclava to use olfactory cues to select between a susceptible host ( Galerucella calmariensis ) and a resistant host ( Galerucella pusilla ) from a distance...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jérémy Gauthier, Philippe Gayral, Bruno Pierre LeRu, Séverine Jancek, Stéphane Dupas, Laure Kaiser, Gabor Gyapay, Elisabeth A Herniou
The African parasitoid wasp Cotesia sesamiae is a generalist species structured in locally adapted populations showing differences in host range. The recent discovery of C. typhae, a specialist, sister species to C. sesamiae, provides a good framework to study the genetic determinants of parasitoid host range. To investigate the genomic bases of divergence between these populations and species, we used a targeted sequencing approach on 24 samples. We targeted the bracovirus genomic region encoding virulence genes involved in the interaction with the lepidopteran hosts of the wasps...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Huan Yu, Zi-Qi Li, Lei He, Yi-Yi Ou-Yang, Ni Li, Guo-Hua Huang
Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3 h (HvAV-3h), a dsDNA insect virus, belonging to the family Ascoviridae, can infect caterpillars of several Noctuidae species by ovipositing parasitoid wasps. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the interactive responses of host larvae after infection by the ascovirus, a transcriptome analysis of Spodoptera exigua to HvAV-3h was conducted from 6 to 168 hours post infection (hpi). Approximately 101.64 Gb of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained from infected and uninfected S...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pumo Cai, Jingfang Hong, Cong Wang, Yanchuan Yang, Qiwen Zhang, Qinge Ji, Jiahua Chen
This study explored the potential for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae hatched from irradiated eggs as hosts for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). B. dorsalis eggs of three different ages (12-, 24-, and 36-h old) were analyzed for hatchability, pupation rate, pupal weight, emergence rate, and sex ratio after exposure to different doses of radiation (5 and 10 Gy) at different dose rates (1 and 6 Gy/min). For the eggs of different ages exposed to radiation, only the hatchability and pupal weight of 36-h-old eggs exposed to the dose rate of 1 Gy/min were not affected; therefore, 6 Gy/min was not suitable for irradiating eggs...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Maximilien A C Cuny, Johanna Gendry, Johnattan Hernández-Cumplido, Betty Benrey
Lima bean plants (Phaseolus lunatus) exhibit compensatory growth responses to herbivory. Among the various factors that have been identified to affect plant compensatory growth are the extent and type of tissue damage, the herbivore's feeding mode and the time of damage. Another factor that can greatly impact plant responses to herbivory, but has been largely ignored in previous studies, is the action of parasitoids. In most cases, parasitoids halt or slow down the development of herbivorous hosts, which, can result in decreased leaf damage, thereby affecting plant responses and ultimately plant fitness...
March 29, 2018: Oecologia
S Poncio, A M Nunes, R D S Gonçalves, H Lisboa, R Manica-Berto, M S Garcia, D E Nava
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most important pest in South American orchards. When control measures are not adopted, this pest can cause losses of up to 100%. Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval-pupal endoparasitoid that can be used as a native biological control agent against A. fraterculus. This study aimed to develop a rearing technique for D. brasiliensis in larvae of A. fraterculus. Trials were carried out to: 1) determine the optimal instar for parasitism, 2) define the exposure time of larvae to parasitoids, 3) determine the density requirements of A...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Keizo Takasuka, Niclas R Fritzén, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Rikio Matsumoto, Kaoru Maeto, Mark R Shaw
Accurate egg placement into or onto a living host is an essential ability for many parasitoids, and changes in associated phenotypes, such as ovipositor morphology and behaviour, correlate with significant host shifts. Here, we report that in the ichneumonid group of koinobiont spider-ectoparasitoids ("polysphinctines"), several putatively ancestral taxa (clade I here), parasitic on ground-dwelling RTA-spiders (a group characterised by retrolateral tibial apophysis on male palpal tibiae), lay their eggs in a specific way...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
D W Goerzen, M A Erlandson
The male-killing symbiont Arsenophonus nasoniae is a gamma-proteobacterium that infects parasitic wasps; the male progeny of infected females exhibit increased embryonic death. In this study, we examined methods to horizontally infect Pteromalus venustus (a parasitoid infesting populations of the alfalfa leafcutting bee Megachile rotundata) with A. nasoniae. We then tested the success of these methods via semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative digital PCR, using a molecular marker specific to A. nasoniae. Controlled parasitoid mating experiments were then undertaken to determine whether infections of A...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ruth Kahuthia-Gathu, Duncan Kirubi Thungu, Lucy Wangu, Rachael Kimani
Naivasha thorn tree, Acacia xanthophloea, is grown for foliage, timber, shade and rehabilitation of soils in areas with high water tables in Kenya. Its production is threatened by insect pests, which cause major losses. Very little is documented on wood-boring beetles which cause considerable economic damage to lumber used in a variety of applications, and little is known about their natural enemies in Kenya. We conducted the study to evaluate the occurrence of wood-boring beetles on A. xanthophloea in two different regions of Kenya...
2018: PloS One
Dennis O Ndolo, Josephine M Songa, Gábor L Lövei
Environmental stress can affect trait size and cause an increase in the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of bilateral morphological traits in many animals. For insect parasitoids, feeding of hosts on transgenic maize, expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene is a potential environmental stressor. We compared the size of antennae, forewings, and tibia, as well as their FA values, in two parasitoids developed on two East African host species feeding on non-transgenic vs. transgenic maize. The two lepidopteran stem-borer hosts were the native Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and a recent invader, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)...
March 27, 2018: Insects
Subodh Adhikari, Tim Seipel, Fabian D Menalled, David K Weaver
BACKGROUND: Cephus cinctus infestation causes $350 million in annual losses in the Northern Great Plains. We compared infestation and parasitism of C. cinctus in spring (including Kamut; Triticum turgidum, ssp. turanicum), and winter wheat cultivars grown in organic and conventional fields in Montana. In the greenhouse, we compared C. cinctus preference and survival in Kamut, Gunnison, and Reeder spring wheat cultivars. RESULTS: Stems cut by C. cinctus varied by farming systems and the seasonality of the wheat crop...
March 26, 2018: Pest Management Science
Fatemeh Rashidi, Gadir Nouri-Ganbalani, Sohrab Imani
The effects of four commonly used pesticides, diazinon (EC 60%), phosalone (EC 35%), fipronil (Granular formulation 0.2%), and pyriproxifen (EC 10%), on functional response of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were investigated using two lepidopteran hosts, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Heliothis viriplaca (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Laboratory bioassays determined diazinon and fipronil as highly toxic insecticides for all developmental stages of the parasitoid, while the acute toxicity of phosalone and pyriproxyfen was moderate to very low depending on the life-stage studied...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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