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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228351/defensive-behaviors-of-the-new-mealybug-citrus-pest-delottococcus-aberiae-hemiptera-pseudococcidae-against-three-generalist-parasitoids
#1
Alejandro Tena, Eliana Nieves, Julieta Herrero, Alberto Urbaneja
Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that has become a citrus pest in Europe. This mealybug species causes serious damage because it deforms the fruits. Here, we studied the defensive behavior of D. aberiae when it was attacked by three parasitoid species: Acerophagus angustifrons (Gahan), Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci (Girault), and Leptomastix algirica Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci and L. algirica detected and accepted nymphs and adult females of D...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222706/acute-toxicity-of-fresh-and-aged-residues-of-pesticides-to-the-parasitoid-tamarixia-radiata-and-to-the-hlb-bacteria-vector-diaphorina-citri
#2
V H Beloti, G R Alves, R A Moral, C G B Demétrio, P T Yamamoto
One method for controlling the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing, uses the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). However, the general intensive use of insecticides has reduced the numbers of this parasitoid. This study evaluated the effect of the residual action of 24 insecticides on T. radiata and also determined the differential toxicity of insecticides to D. citri and T. radiata, using three bioassays. In the first, when adults of the parasitoid were exposed to residues of the 24 insecticides, ten were considered short-life (class 1), six slightly persistent (class 2), five moderately persistent (class 3), and three insecticides were considered persistent (class 4), under the IOBC/WPRS classification system...
December 8, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213244/virus-infected-plants-altered-the-host-selection-of-encarsia-formosa-a-parasitoid-of-whiteflies
#3
Xin Liu, Gong Chen, Youjun Zhang, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang
The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most invasive pest species worldwide. Q and B biotypes are the two most devastating species within the B. tabaci complex. Bemisia tabaci can vector hundreds of plant viruses that seriously threaten crop production. Endoparasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, is widely used to control whiteflies, however, little is known about the effects of virus-infected plants on E. formosa parasitism of B. tabaci. Here, we reported that tomato, which was infected with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), altered the host selection of E...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213193/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-crude-venom-isolated-from-parasitoid-wasp-bracon-hebetor-say
#4
Evelyn Saba, Tahir Shafeeq, Muhammad Irfan, Yuan Yee Lee, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Myung Gi Seo, Sang-Joon Park, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee, Man Hee Rhee
Pest control in the agricultural fields, a major concern globally, is currently achieved through chemical or biological methods. Chemical methods, which leave toxic residue in the produce, are less preferred than biological methods. Venoms injected by stings of various wasps that kill the pest is considered as the examples of the biological method. Although several studies have investigated the biological control of pests through these venoms, very few studies have reported the effects of these venoms on mammalian cells...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207438/caterpillars-induce-jasmonates-in-flowers-and-alter-plant-responses-to-a-second-attacker
#5
Lucille T S Chrétien, Anja David, Eirini Daikou, Wilhelm Boland, Jonathan Gershenzon, David Giron, Marcel Dicke, Dani Lucas-Barbosa
In nature, herbivorous insects and plant pathogens are generally abundant when plants are flowering. Thus, plants face a diversity of attackers during their reproductive phase. Plant responses to one attacker can interfere with responses to a second attacker, and phytohormones that orchestrate plant reproduction are also involved in resistance to insect and pathogen attack. We quantified phytohormonal responses of flowering plants exposed to single or dual attack and studied resistance mechanisms of plants in the flowering stage...
December 5, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198250/cornicle-secretions-by-aphis-fabae-hemiptera-aphididae-result-in-age-dependent-costs-and-improved-host-suitability-for-lysiphlebus-fabarum-marshall-hymenoptera-braconidae
#6
Y Parvizi, A Rasekh, J P Michaud
We examined the life history consequences of cornicle secretion by Aphis fabae Scopoli in second and fourth instars, and its effects on host suitability for its parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall). Cornicle secretion did not affect aphid fecundity, but secretion in the second instar enhanced life table parameters, whereas secretion in the fourth instar affected them negatively, suggesting a higher cost of secretion in later instars. Secretion in either instar improved host suitability for L. fabarum...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198200/selecting-native-perennial-plants-for-ecological-intensification-in-mediterranean-greenhouse-horticulture
#7
E Rodríguez, M González, D Paredes, M Campos, E Benítez
Natural control by predators and parasitoids provides an important and often unnoticed ecosystem service to agricultural landscapes by reducing pest populations in crops. The current model of horticultural intensification in south-eastern Spain produces high yields but has also resulted in a landscape almost completely covered by plastic. Promoting natural areas among greenhouses could enhance biodiversity, by being beneficial insects, and reduce pest pressure outdoors. The first step is to ascertain how pests and their natural enemies (NEs) use Mediterranean vegetation for selecting the best plants for pest suppression outdoors...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197474/venomics-reveals-novel-ion-transport-peptide-likes-itpls-from-the-parasitoid-wasp-tetrastichus-brontispae
#8
Nai-Yong Liu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wei Yan, Xue-Min Ren, Zhi-Quan Zhang, Jia-Ying Zhu
Despite substantial advances in uncovering constituents of parasitoid venoms due to their potential applications as insecticides and pharmaceuticals, most of these studies are primarily restricted to braconid and ichneumonid wasps. Little information is available regarding virulent factors from venom of Eulophidae. In order to provide insight into the venom components of this family and parasitoid venom evolution, a venom protein repertoire (venomics) of the endoparasitoid wasp, Tetrastichus brontispae was deciphered using a proteomic approach...
November 29, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193807/thermal-plasticity-potentially-mediates-the-interaction-between-host-chilo-partellus-swinhoe-lepidoptera-crambidae-and-endoparasitoid-cotesia-flavipes-cameron-hymenoptera-braconidae-under-rapidly-changing-environments
#9
Reyard Mutamiswa, Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa
BACKGROUND: Increasing climatic average temperatures and variability elicit various insect physiological responses that affect fitness and survival and may influence subsequent trophic interactions in agroecosystems. In line with this background, we investigated short and long-term plastic responses to temperature of laboratory-reared stemborer, Chilo partellus and its larval endoparasitoid, Cotesia flavipes. RESULTS: Rapid cold- and -heat hardening effects in C...
November 28, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192234/architectural-diversity-and-galling-insects-on-caryocar-brasiliense-trees
#10
Germano Leão Demolin Leite, Ronnie Von Dos Santos Veloso, José Cola Zanuncio, Alcinei Mistico Azevedo, Júlia Letícia Silva, Carlos Frederico Wilcken, Marcus Alvarenga Soares
Galling insects are a highly sophisticated herbivore group on Caryocar brasiliense, a tree that represents the main income source for many communities. The effect of architectural diversity of C. brasiliense trees on galling insect community diversity and abundance was studied. The abundance of adult insects and galled leaves were seven and 1.6 times higher in trees with a greater height/width of canopy (RHW) ratio, respectively. Gall parasitoid richness was 1.8 times greater on trees with higher RHW. Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and ant numbers were 5...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187971/plant-diversity-has-contrasting-effects-on-herbivore-and-parasitoid-abundance-in-centaurea-jacea-flower-heads
#11
Norma Nitschke, Eric Allan, Helmut Zwölfer, Lysett Wagner, Sylvia Creutzburg, Hannes Baur, Stefan Schmidt, Wolfgang W Weisser
High biodiversity is known to increase many ecosystem functions, but studies investigating biodiversity effects have more rarely looked at multi-trophic interactions. We studied a tri-trophic system composed of Centaurea jacea (brown knapweed), its flower head-infesting tephritid fruit flies and their hymenopteran parasitoids, in a grassland biodiversity experiment. We aimed to disentangle the importance of direct effects of plant diversity (through changes in apparency and resource availability) from indirect effects (mediated by host plant quality and performance)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181449/transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-novel-candidate-genes-for-cardinium-hertigii-caused-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-and-host-cell-interaction
#12
Evelyne Mann, Corinne M Stouthamer, Suzanne E Kelly, Monika Dzieciol, Martha S Hunter, Stephan Schmitz-Esser
Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is an intriguing, widespread, symbiont-induced reproductive failure that decreases offspring production of arthropods through crossing incompatibility of infected males with uninfected females or with females infected with a distinct symbiont genotype. For years, the molecular mechanism of CI remained unknown. Recent genomic, proteomic, biochemical, and cell biological studies have contributed to understanding of CI in the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia and implicate genes associated with the WO prophage...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168623/factors-shaping-life-history-traits-of-two-proovigenic-parasitoids
#13
Michal Segoli, Shucun Sun, Dori E Nava, Jay A Rosenheim
What shapes the relative investment in reproduction vs. survival of organisms is one of the key questions in life history. Proovigenic insects mature all their eggs prior to emergence and are short lived, providing a unique opportunity to quantify their lifetime investments in the different functions. We investigated the initial eggloads and longevity of two proovigenic parasitoid wasps (Anagrus erythroneurae and Anagrus daanei, (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) that develop within leafhopper eggs in both agricultural vineyards and natural riparian habitats in Northern California...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166979/explaining-variations-in-the-diversity-of-parasitoid-assemblages-in-a-biosphere-reserve-of-mexico-evidence-from-vegetation-land-management-and-seasonality
#14
A González-Moreno, S Bordera, J Leirana-Alcocer, H Delfín-González, H S Ballina-Gómez
Insect fauna biodiversity in natural protected areas has not been thoroughly studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess whether and how vegetation types, land management and seasonality influence the diversity of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) in the Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve (Mexico). A sampling programme was conducted using Malaise traps from 2008 to 2009 in three vegetation types, each with two conservation zones (core and buffer zones). Three seasons were considered: rainy, dry and north-winds (isolated storms from November to February)...
November 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166289/a-statistical-method-for-analysing-cospeciation-in-tritrophic-ecology-using-electrical-circuit-theory
#15
Colleen Nooney, Stuart Barber, Arief Gusnanto, Walter R Gilks
We introduce a new method to test efficiently for cospeciation in tritrophic systems. Our method utilises an analogy with electrical circuit theory to reduce higher order systems into bitrophic data sets that retain the information of the original system. We use a sophisticated permutation scheme that weights interactions between two trophic layers based on their connection to the third layer in the system. Our method has several advantages compared to the method of Mramba et al. [Mramba, L. K., S. Barber, K...
November 27, 2017: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160609/plant-arthropod-interactions-who-is-the-winner
#16
Elia Stahl, Olivier Hilfiker, Philippe Reymond
Herbivorous arthropods have interacted with plants for millions of years. During feeding they release chemical cues that allow plants to detect the attack and mount an efficient defense response. A signaling cascade triggers the expression of hundreds of genes, which encode defensive proteins and enzymes for synthesis of toxic metabolites. This direct defense is often complemented by emission of volatiles that attract beneficial parasitoids. In return, arthropods have evolved strategies to interfere with plant defenses, either by producing effectors to inhibit detection and downstream signaling steps, or by adapting to their detrimental effect...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159796/host-preferences-of-telenomus-podisi-hymenoptera-scelionidae-parasitism-on-eggs-of-dichelops-melacanthus-euschistus-heros-and-podisus-nigrispinus-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#17
A P Queiroz, E A Taguti, A F Bueno, M L M Grande, C O Costa
Successful biological control requires detailed knowledge about host preferences of the released parasitoid, because the presence of alternative hosts may affect the control of the target pest. The objective of this work was therefore to evaluate host preferences of Telenomus podisi Ashmead among the eggs of three stink bug species: Dichelops melacanthus Dallas, Euschistus heros Fabricius, and Podisus nigrispinus Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Three independent experiments were carried out to study host preferences among the following: (1) E...
November 20, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155489/priming-of-cowpea-volatile-emissions-with-defense-inducers-enhances-the-plant-s-attractiveness-to-parasitoids-when-attacked-by-caterpillars
#18
Islam S Sobhy, Toby J A Bruce, Ted C J Turlings
BACKGROUND: The manipulation of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (HI-VOCs) via the application of the inducers BTH [benzo (1,2,3) thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester] and Laminarin [β-1,3-glucan] is known to enhance the attractiveness of caterpillar-damaged cotton and maize plants to parasitoids. To test if this is also the case for legumes, we treated cowpea with these inducers and studied the effects on HI-VOC emissions and the attraction of three generalist endoparasitoids...
November 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155485/advantages-of-diapause-in-trichogramma-dendrolimi-mass-production-via-eggs-of-the-chinese-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#19
Jun-Jie Zhang, Xue Zhang, Lian-Sheng Zang, Wen-Mei Du, Yang-Yang Hou, Chang-Chun Ruan, Nicolas Desneux
BACKGROUND: Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura is widely used as biological control agent for lepidopteran agricultural pests control in China and can be successfully reared using the large eggs of the Chinese silkworm, Antheraea pernyi. In this study, biological parameters of diapaused, non-diapaused, and cold-stored T. dendrolimi were investigated for two generations on host eggs of A. pernyi under the laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The cold-stored T. dendrolimi performed poorer than diapaused and non-diapaused T...
November 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150973/characterization-of-the-parasitic-dinoflagellate-amoebophrya-sp-infecting-akashiwo-sanguinea-in-coastal-waters-of-china
#20
Tiantian Chen, Yun Liu, Shuqun Song, Caiwen Li
The endoparasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya infects a number of free-living marine dinoflagellates, including harmful algal bloom species. The parasitoid eventually kills its host and has been proposed to be a significant loss factor for dinoflagellate blooms in restricted coastal waters. For several decades, the difficulties of culturing host-parasitoid systems have been a great obstacle for further research on the biology of Amoebophrya. Here, we established an Akashiwo sanguinea-Amoebophrya sp. co-culture from Chinese coastal waters and studied the parasitoid's generation time, dinospore survival and infectivity, as well as its host specificity...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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