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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648823/the-evolution-of-venom-by-co-option-of-single-copy-genes
#1
Ellen O Martinson, Mrinalini, Yogeshwar D Kelkar, Ching-Ho Chang, John H Werren
The classic model for the evolution of novel gene function is through gene duplication followed by evolution of a new function by one of the copies (neofunctionalization) [1, 2]. However, other modes have also been found, such as novel genes arising from non-coding DNA, chimeric fusions, and lateral gene transfers from other organisms [3-7]. Here we use the rapid turnover of venom genes in parasitoid wasps to study how new gene functions evolve. In contrast to the classic gene duplication model, we find that a common mode of acquisition of new venom genes in parasitoid wasps is co-option of single-copy genes from non-venom progenitors...
June 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643143/egg-parasitoid-complex-of-the-corn-leafhopper-dalbulus-maidis-delong-hemiptera-cicadellidae-in-argentina
#2
E Luft Albarracin, S V Triapitsyn, E G Virla
The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong), is the most important leafhopper pest of maize, Zea mays, in the Americas. A survey of the diversity of its egg parasitoids was carried out in northwestern Argentina. During summer from 2004 to 2007, the samples were collected, using sentinel eggs of D. maidis on corn leaves, exposed in 48 cornfields. Sixteen species belonging to four families of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) were identified. Among the parasitoid groups, Trichogrammatidae was the most represented family with eight species, followed by Mymaridae with six species...
June 22, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638944/the-effect-of-fight-cost-structure-on-fighting-behaviour-involving-simultaneous-decisions-and-variable-investment-levels
#3
Mark Broom, Michal Johanis, Jan Rychtář
In the "producer-scrounger" model, a producer discovers a resource and is in turn discovered by a second individual, the scrounger, who attempts to steal it. This resource can be food or a territory, and in some situations, potentially divisible. In a previous paper we considered a producer and scrounger competing for an indivisible resource, where each individual could choose the level of energy that they would invest in the contest. The higher the investment, the higher the probability of success, but also the higher the costs incurred in the contest...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638084/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-chemosensory-receptor-genes-in-an-aphid-endoparasitoid-aphidius-gifuensis
#4
Zhi-Wei Kang, Hong-Gang Tian, Fang-Hua Liu, Xiang Liu, Xiang-Feng Jing, Tong-Xian Liu
Olfaction and gustation play critical roles during the host-location search process of insects. Several chemosensory receptor genes are thought to be involved in providing specificity to the olfactory sensory neuron responses. The aphid endoparasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis, has been used as a biological control agent against a variety of aphid species; this parasitoid is able to detect its target host(s) effectively during the parasitic process. To understand the mechanism of host detection in A. gifuensis, we assembled specific antennal transcriptomes of each sex through next generation sequencing technology to identify the major chemosensory receptor genes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636632/parasitoid-wasp-usurps-its-host-to-guard-its-pupa-against-hyperparasitoids-and-induces-rapid-behavioral-changes-in-the-parasitized-host
#5
Prabitha Mohan, Palatty Allesh Sinu
Some parasites have an ability to fabricate the behavior of their host and impel the host to guard parasites' offspring, which is popularly called as bodyguard manipulation. Psalis pennatula larva parasitized by a braconid parasitoid wasp Microplitis pennatula exhibits some behavioral changes including the guarding of the parasitoid pupa from its natural enemies. We hypothesized that these behavioral change exhibited by the parasitized host larva are induced by the parasitoid and can be considered as an example of bodyguard manipulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632152/isolation-and-characterization-of-microsatellite-loci-for-cotesia-plutellae-hymenoptera-braconidae
#6
Tiansheng Liu, Fushi Ke, Shijun You, Wenbin Chen, Weiyi He, Minsheng You
Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in this transcriptome-based data analysis for Cotesia plutellae, which is an important larval parasitoid of the worldwide pest Plutella xylostella. A subsequent test was performed for a wild C. plutellae population (N = 32) from Fuzhou, Fujian, southeastern China, to verify the effectiveness of the 14 microsatellite loci in future studies on C. plutellae genetic diversity. The observed number of alleles ranged from two to six. The expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0...
June 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623149/subtle-effect-of-xenos-vesparum-xenidae-strepsiptera-on-the-reproductive-apparatus-of-its-male-host-parasite-or-parasitoid
#7
L Beani, D Marchini, F Cappa, I Petrocelli, M Gottardo, F Manfredini, F Giusti, R Dallai
Parasitic castration is an adaptive strategy where parasites usurp the hosts' reproductive physiology to complete their life cycle. The alterations in the host traits vary in their magnitude, from subtle changes in the host morpho-physiology and behaviour to the production of complex aberrant phenotypes, which often depend on the host gender. The strepsipteran macroparasite Xenos vesparum induces dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in its female host, the paper wasp Polistes dominula, while its effect on the male phenotype is largely unknown...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621508/avoidance-of-parasitized-host-by-female-wasps-of-aphidius-gifuensis-hymenoptera-braconidae-the-role-of-natal-rearing-effects-and-host-availability
#8
Ming-Zhen Pan, Tong-Xian Liu, Christian Nansen
Natal rearing experience of animals may affect their behaviors, such as, habitat selection and oviposition decision. As part of the overall fitness of insect parasitoids, successful host discrimination (distinguishing parasitized hosts from unparasitized hosts) is of paramount importance. In this study we examined whether and how parasitoids' natal rearing experience would affect their host discrimination ability according to host availability. We established separate colonies of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead by continually reared on two hosts, Sitobion avenae F...
June 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618174/intraspecific-maternal-competition-induces-summer-diapause-in-insect-parasitoids
#9
Kevin Tougeron, George Hraoui, Cécile Le Lann, Joan van Baaren, Jacques Brodeur
Organisms often live in unpredictable environments and have to adopt life history strategies that optimize their fitness under these conditions. According to bet-hedging theory, individuals can reduce variation in fitness outcomes by investing in different strategies at the same time. For arthropods, facultative summer diapause enables survival during dry and hot periods of the year, and can be triggered by a decrease in resource abundance. However, the effect of resource depletion on diapause induction has never been disentangled from the effect of the perception of the presence of competitors...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610286/a-survey-for-potential-biological-control-agents-of-i-pereskia-i-i-aculeata-i-miller-cactaceae-in-brazil-reveals-two-new-species-of-i-horismenus-i-walker-hymenoptera-eulophidae
#10
Tiago G Pikart, Valmir A Costa, Christer Hansson, Sandra C DE Cristo, Marcelo D Vitorino
This paper deals with the description of two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Brazil, parasitoids of larvae of Adetus analis (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Both species are similar to Horismenus steirastomae (Girault), a species that also parasitizes cerambycids. Adetus analis is a pest of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae), a minor crop in Brazil, Argentina and U.S.A., but also feeds in stems of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae), an ornamental plant that has become a problematic weed species in Africa, where it was introduced...
May 30, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610222/-i-anagrus-i-i-nedotepae-i-sp-n-hymenoptera-mymaridae-an-egg-parasitoid-of-i-nedotepa-curta-i-hemiptera-cicadellidae-a-pest-of-coconut-palm-in-west-africa
#11
Serguei V Triapitsyn, K Eric Kwadjo, Yaima Arocha Rosete
A new Afrotropical species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. nedotepae Triapitsyn sp. n., is described and illustrated. The type series was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Nedotepa curta Dmitriev (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) during a survey for its natural enemies in Côte d'Ivoire. This peculiar leafhopper, recently described from Ghana (Dmitriev 2016), lays its eggs on leaflets of coconut palm, and could be an economically important pest of this crop in West Africa, particularly because it is a suspected vector of the phytoplasma associated with the Côte d'Ivoire Lethal Yellowing disease of coconut, as characterized by Arocha-Rosete et al...
June 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610193/description-of-i-brachymeria-philornisae-i-sp-n-hymenoptera-chalcididae-%C3%A2-a-parasitoid-of-the-bird-parasite-i-philornis-i-i-trinitensis-i-diptera-muscidae-in-tobago-with-a-review-of-the-sibling-species
#12
Gérard Delvare, George E Heimpel, Hannes Baur, Dave D Chadee, Raymond Martinez, Sarah A Knutie
In this paper, we describe and illustrate a new species of parasitoid wasp as Brachymeria philornisae Delvare, sp. nov. The new species was reared from Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia that were found in the nests of the bird species Mimus gilvus (Vieillot) (Mimidae) and Tiaris bicolor (L.) (Thraupidae) in Tobago. The new species is of particular interest as it may be considered a potential biological control agent in locations where Philornis species are invasive, such as the Galapagos Islands...
March 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602235/influence-of-heavy-metal-contamination-on-urban-natural-enemies-and-biological-control
#13
REVIEW
Mary M Gardiner, James D Harwood
Urban agriculture is increasing worldwide. A history of contamination within urban landscapes may negatively impact the biota necessary for sustainable crop production, including arthropod natural enemies. This investigation revealed that heavy metal contamination can influence the composition of natural enemy communities and exposure can have reproductive, developmental, immunological and behavioral impacts on predators and parasitoids. Natural enemies exposed to heavy metals typically live shorter lives, take longer to develop and exhibit a reduced reproductive potential...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602234/climate-change-and-biological-control-the-consequences-of-increasing-temperatures-on-host-parasitoid-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Michael J Furlong, Myron P Zalucki
The relative thermal requirements and tolerances of hymenopteran parasitoids and their hosts were investigated based on published data. The optimal temperature (Topt) for development of parasitoids was significantly lower than that for their hosts. Given the limited plasticity of insect responses to high temperatures and the proximity of Topt to critical thermal maxima, this suggests that host-parasitoid interactions could be negatively affected by increasing global temperatures. A modelling study of the interactions between the diamondback moth and its parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum in Australia indicated that predicted temperature increases will have a greater negative impact on the distribution of the parasitoid than on its host and that they could lead to its exclusion from some agricultural regions where it is currently important...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601998/side-effects-of-spirotetramat-on-pupae-and-adults-of-a-neotropical-strain-of-eretmocerus-mundus-hymenoptera-aphelinidae-effects-on-the-life-parameters-and-demography
#15
Natalia Francesena, Nicolas Desneux, Mateus Ribeiro de Campos, Marcela Inés Schneider
The negative impact of conventional pesticides on the environment is already extensively discussed worldwide. Although the use of chemical agents for controlling agricultural pests remains as first-line strategy for pest control, novel biorational active insecticides, such as spirotetramat, have appeared in the pesticide market during recent years in Argentina. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of spirotetramat on two developmental stages of a Neotropical strain of Eretmocerus mundus, with the conventional insecticide cypermethrin as a positive control, and to determine spirotetramat's side effects on parasitoid demographic parameters...
June 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600808/lethal-effects-of-selected-novel-pesticides-on-immature-stages-of-trichogramma-pretiosum-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae
#16
Muhammad Ashraf Khan, John R Ruberson
BACKGROUND: Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important egg parasitoid and biological control agent of caterpillar pests. We studied acute toxicity of 20 pesticides (14 insecticides/miticides, 3 fungicides and 3 herbicides) exposed to recommended field rates. Egg, larval, and pupal stages of the parasitoid in their hosts were dipped in formulated solutions of the pesticides and evaluated 10 d later for percentage of host eggs with holes, number of parasitoids emerged per egg with holes, and stage-specific mortality of immature as well as adult wasps within the host eggs...
June 10, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600642/characterization-and-comparison-of-genetic-variation-in-cotesia-flavipes-hymenoptera-braconidae-mass-reared-for-biological-pest-control-using-microsatellite-markers
#17
F C Freitas, A C Morales-Corrêa E Castro, N C C P Barbosa, O A Fernandes
The larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important biological control agent of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). This exotic parasitoid has been mass reared for field release since its introduction in the 1970s. Insects are exchanged between labs or introduced from the field, but without basic studies or criteria. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of insects from six Brazilian States (São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Goiás, Maranhão, and Alagoas) using microsatellites...
June 9, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600542/an-effective-molecular-approach-for-assessing-cereal-aphid-parasitoid-endosymbiont-networks
#18
Zhengpei Ye, Ines M G Vollhardt, Susanne Girtler, Corinna Wallinger, Zeljko Tomanovic, Michael Traugott
Molecular approaches are increasingly being used to analyse host-parasitoid food webs as they overcome several hurdles inherent to conventional approaches. However, such studies have focused primarily on the detection and identification of aphids and their aphidiid primary parasitoids, largely ignoring primary parasitoid-hyperparasitoid interactions or limiting these to a few common species within a small geographical area. Furthermore, the detection of bacterial secondary endosymbionts has not been considered in such assays despite the fact that endosymbionts may alter aphid-parasitoid interactions, as they can confer protection against parasitoids...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595338/influence-of-temperature-on-the-reproductive-and-developmental-biology-of-ontsira-mellipes-hymenoptera-braconidae-implications-for-biological-control-of-the-asian-longhorned-beetle-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#19
Julian R Golec, Jian J Duan, Judith Hough-Goldstein
Ontsira mellipes Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a North American parasitoid species that develops on the invasive pest, Anoplophora glabripennis (Moltschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), under laboratory conditions and is currently being considered as a potential new-association biocontrol agent. To develop mass-rearing protocols and field-release strategies for this parasitoid, information on its reproductive biology in relation to temperature is needed. We determined the effect of temperature (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) on development, survivorship, and sex ratio, and its effect on the longevity, fecundity, and host attack rates (parasitism) of adults...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590879/tritrophic-interactions-microbe-mediated-plant-effects-on-insect-herbivores
#20
Ikkei Shikano, Cristina Rosa, Ching-Wen Tan, Gary W Felton
It is becoming abundantly clear that the microbes associated with plants and insects can profoundly influence plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on recent findings and propose directions for future research that involve microbe-induced changes to plant defenses and nutritive quality as well as the consequences of these changes for the behavior and fitness of insect herbivores. Insect (herbivore and parasitoid)-associated microbes can favor or improve insect fitness by suppressing plant defenses and detoxifying defensive phytochemicals...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
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