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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453570/contrasting-effects-of-heat-pulses-on-different-trophic-levels-an-experiment-with-a-herbivore-parasitoid-model-system
#1
Stijn J J Schreven, Enric Frago, Annemiek Stens, Peter W de Jong, Joop J A van Loon
Under predicted global climate change, species will be gradually exposed to warmer temperatures, and to a more variable climate including more intense and more frequent heatwaves. Increased climatic variability is expected to have different effects on species and ecosystems than gradual warming. A key challenge to predict the impact of climate change is to understand how temperature changes will affect species interactions. Herbivorous insects and their natural enemies belong to some of the largest groups of terrestrial animals, and thus they have a great impact on the functioning of ecosystems and on the services these ecosystems provide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439681/side-effects-of-pesticides-used-in-irrigated-rice-areas-on-telenomus-podisi-ashmead-hymenoptera-platygastridae
#2
Juliano de Bastos Pazini, Rafael Antonio Pasini, Enio Júnior Seidel, Matheus Rakes, José Francisco da Silva Martins, Anderson Dionei Grützmacher
Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an important agent for the biological control of stink bug eggs in irrigated rice areas and the best strategy for its preservation is the use of selective pesticides. The aim of this study was to know the side-effects of pesticides used in Brazilian irrigated rice areas on egg parasitoid T. podisi. We evaluated, under laboratory conditions, 13 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 11 herbicides, and a control (distilled water) in choice and no-choice tests. In the no-choice tests, the pesticides were sprayed at pre and post-parasitism stages (egg and larval stages of T...
April 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436049/elevated-carbon-dioxide-reduces-emission-of-herbivore-induced-volatiles-in-zea-mays
#3
Anna Block, Martha M Vaughan, Shawn A Christensen, Hans T Alborn, James H Tumlinson
Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of climate change on this form of plant defense. To investigate how a central component of climate change affects indirect defense, we measured herbivore induced volatile emissions in plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ). We found that S. exigua infested or elicitor treated Z...
April 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434411/direct-and-indirect-resistance-of-sugarcane-to-diatraea-saccharalis-induced-by-jasmonic-acid
#4
P A Sanches, F Santos, M F G V Peñaflor, J M S Bento
Treating plants with synthetic jasmonic acid (JA) induces a defensive response similar to herbivore attack, and is a potential strategy for integrated pest management. Despite the importance of sugarcane, its JA-induced defences have not yet been studied. We investigated the effects of JA treatment on the direct and indirect resistance of sugarcane to the key-pest and specialist herbivore Diatraea saccharalis and the generalist Spodoptera frugiperda. Indirect defences were examined by testing the attraction of Cotesia flavipes, a sugarcane-borer parasitoid, to JA-induced volatile...
April 24, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432783/gene-structure-and-expression-characteristic-of-a-novel-odorant-receptor-gene-cluster-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator-hymenoptera-braconidae
#5
S-N Wang, S Shan, Y Zheng, Y Peng, Z-Y Lu, Y-Q Yang, R-J Li, Y-J Zhang, Y-Y Guo
Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in the antennae of parasitoid wasps are responsible for detection of various lipophilic airborne molecules. In the present study, 107 novel OR genes were identified from Microplitis mediator antennal transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of the set of OR genes from M. mediator and Microplitis demolitor revealed that M. mediator OR (MmedOR) genes can be classified into different subfamilies, and the majority of MmedORs in each subfamily shared high sequence identities and clear orthologous relationships to M...
April 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426132/a-parasitoid-wasp-s-odd-pupal-vigil
#6
Eric F LoPresti, Douglass H Morse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425140/response-of-parasitoid-egg-load-to-host-dynamics-and-implications-for-egg-load-evolution
#7
Craig B Phillips, John M Kean
A theoretical debate about whether parasitoids should be time- or egg-limited now recognises both as feasible, and interest has turned to determining the circumstances under which each might arise in the field, and their implications for parasitoid behaviour and evolution. Egg loads of parasitoids sampled from the field are predicted to show a negative response to host availability, but empirical support for this relationship is scarce. We measured how a parasitoid's egg load responded to seasonal fluctuations in host population density and recorded the predicted correlation...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424460/generation-of-heritable-germline-mutations-in-the-jewel-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis-using-crispr-cas9
#8
Ming Li, Lauren Yun Cook Au, Deema Douglah, Abigail Chong, Bradley J White, Patrick M Ferree, Omar S Akbari
The revolutionary RNA-guided endonuclease CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be a powerful tool for gene editing in a plethora of organisms. Here, utilizing this system we developed an efficient protocol for the generation of heritable germline mutations in the parasitoid jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, a rising insect model organism for the study of evolution, development of axis pattern formation, venom production, haplo-diploid sex determination, and host-symbiont interactions. To establish CRISPR-directed gene editing in N...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423426/the-invasive-liriomyza-huidobrensis-diptera-agromyzidae-understanding-its-pest-status-and-management-globally
#9
Phyllis G Weintraub, Sonja J Scheffer, Diedrich Visser, Graciela Valladares, Alberto Soares Correa, B Merle Shepard, Aunu Rauf, Sean T Murphy, Norma Mujica, Charles MacVean, Jürgen Kroschel, Miriam Kishinevsky, Ravindra C Joshi, Nina S Johansen, Rebecca H Hallett, Hasan S Civelek, Bing Chen, Helga Blanco Metzler
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) is native to South America but has expanded its range and invaded many regions of the world, primarily on flowers and to a lesser extent on horticultural product shipments. As a result of initial invasion into an area, damage caused is usually significant but not necessarily sustained. Currently, it is an economic pest in selected native and invaded regions of the world. Adults cause damage by puncturing abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces for feeding and egg laying sites. Larvae mine the leaf parenchyma tissues which can lead to leaves drying and wilting...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423420/functional-response-of-eretmocerus-delhiensis-on-trialeurodes-vaporariorum-by-parasitism-and-host-feeding
#10
Jafar Ebrahimifar, Arsalan Jamshidnia, Hossein Allahyari
The parasitoid wasp, Eretmocerus delhiensis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) is a thelytokous and syn-ovigenic parasitoid. To evaluate E. delhiensis as a biocontrol agent in greenhouse, the killing efficiency of this parasitoid by parasitism and host-feeding, were studied. Killing efficiency can be compared by estimation of functional response parameters. Laboratory experiments were performed in controllable conditions to evaluate the functional response of E. delhiensis at eight densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 100, and 120 third nymphal stage) of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on two hosts including; tomato and prickly lettuce...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419344/a-place-to-grow-host-choice-and-larval-performance-of-microplitis-similis-hymenoptera-braconidae-in-the-host-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#11
Xu-Yang Chen, R J Hopkins, Yi-Pei Zhao, Guo-Hua Huang
Host selection is a key stage in the lifecycle of parasitoids, and is critical to both their function in control and to the maintenance of their population. The solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis similis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a potential biological control agent of Spodoptera litura (F.) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In this study, we examined the preference M. similis exhibits for different instars of the host, host instar effects on parasitoid development, and the weight gain and food consumption of different instars of parasitized larvae...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417942/protein-discovery-combined-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analyses-of-venom-from-the-endoparasitoid-cotesia-chilonis-hymenoptera-braconidae
#12
Zi-Wen Teng, Shi-Jiao Xiong, Gang Xu, Shi-Yu Gan, Xuan Chen, David Stanley, Zhi-Chao Yan, Gong-Yin Ye, Qi Fang
Many species of endoparasitoid wasps provide biological control services in agroecosystems. Although there is a great deal of information on the ecology and physiology of host/parasitoid interactions, relatively little is known about the protein composition of venom and how specific venom proteins influence physiological systems within host insects. This is a crucial gap in our knowledge because venom proteins act in modulating host physiology in ways that favor parasitoid development. Here, we identified 37 possible venom proteins from the polydnavirus-carrying endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis by combining transcriptomic and proteomic analyses...
April 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405915/does-aphid-infestation-interfere-with-indirect-plant-defense-against-lepidopteran-caterpillars-in-wild-cabbage
#13
Yehua Li, Berhane T Weldegergis, Surachet Chamontri, Marcel Dicke, Rieta Gols
Attraction of parasitoids to plant volatiles induced by multiple herbivory depends on the specific combinations of attacking herbivore species, especially when their feeding modes activate different defense signalling pathways as has been reported for phloem feeding aphids and tissue feeding caterpillars. We studied the effects of pre-infestation with non-host aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) for two different time periods on the ability of two parasitoid species to discriminate between volatiles emitted by plants infested by host caterpillars alone and those emitted by plants infested with host caterpillars plus aphids...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405368/concurrence-in-the-ability-for-lipid-synthesis-between-life-stages-in-insects
#14
Bertanne Visser, Denis S Willett, Jeffrey A Harvey, Hans T Alborn
The ability to synthesize lipids is critical for an organism's fitness; hence, metabolic pathways, underlying lipid synthesis, tend to be highly conserved. Surprisingly, the majority of parasitoids deviate from this general metabolic model by lacking the ability to convert sugars and other carbohydrates into lipids. These insects spend the first part of their life feeding and developing in or on an arthropod host, during which they can carry over a substantial amount of lipid reserves. While many parasitoid species have been tested for lipogenic ability at the adult life stage, it has remained unclear whether parasitoid larvae can synthesize lipids...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405274/natal-origin-affects-host-preference-and-larval-performance-relationships-in-a-tritrophic-system
#15
Thomas A Verschut, Laima Blažytė-Čereškienė, Violeta Apšegaitė, Raimondas Mozūraitis, Peter A Hambäck
Many insects face the challenge to select oviposition sites in heterogeneous environments where biotic and abiotic factors can change over time. One way to deal with this complexity is to use sensory experiences made during developmental stages to locate similar habitats or hosts in which larval development can be maximized. While various studies have investigated oviposition preference and larval performance relationships in insects, they have largely overlooked that sensory experiences made during the larval stage can affect such relationships...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404777/transcriptomics-of-an-extended-phenotype-parasite-manipulation-of-wasp-social-behaviour-shifts-expression-of-caste-related-genes
#16
Amy C Geffre, Ruolin Liu, Fabio Manfredini, Laura Beani, Jeyaraney Kathirithamby, Christina M Grozinger, Amy L Toth
Parasites can manipulate host behaviour to increase their own transmission and fitness, but the genomic mechanisms by which parasites manipulate hosts are not well understood. We investigated the relationship between the social paper wasp, Polistes dominula, and its parasite, Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera), to understand the effects of an obligate endoparasitoid on its host's brain transcriptome. Previous research suggests that X. vesparum shifts aspects of host social caste-related behaviour and physiology in ways that benefit the parasitoid...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398560/the-effects-of-temperature-and-host-age-on-the-fecundity-of-four-trichogramma-species-egg-parasitoids-of-the-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#17
Jun-Ce Tian, Zi-Chen Wang, Guo-Rong Wang, Lie-Quan Zhong, Xu-Song Zheng, Hong-Xing Xu, Lian-Sheng Zang, Zhong-Xian Lu
The Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) is one of the most important rice pests in Asia and is difficult to control by chemical insecticides due to its rapid development of resistance. To screen potential species for biological control of C. medinalis, we investigated the effects of temperature (20, 24, 28, 32, and 36 °C) and host age (1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old) on the fecundity of four Trichogramma spp. on C. medinalis eggs. Our results indicated that C. medinalis eggs were acceptable to T. japonicum, T. chilonis, T...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387028/induced-plant-defences-in-biological-control-of-arthropod-pests-a-double-edged-sword
#18
REVIEW
Maria L Pappas, Colette Broekgaarden, George D Broufas, Merijn R Kant, Gerben J Messelink, Anke Steppuhn, Felix Wäckers, Nicole M van Dam
Biological control is an important ecosystem service delivered by natural enemies. Together with breeding for plant defence, it constitutes one of the most promising alternatives to pesticides for controlling herbivores in sustainable crop production. Especially induced plant defences may be promising targets in plant breeding for resistance against arthropod pests. Because they are activated upon herbivore damage, costs only incur when defence is needed. Moreover, they can be more specific than constitutive defences...
April 7, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383689/efficacy-and-mode-of-action-of-kaolin-in-the-control-of-empoasca-vitis-and-zygina-rhamni-hemiptera-cicadellidae-in-vineyards
#19
Federico Tacoli, Francesco Pavan, Elena Cargnus, Elisabetta Tilatti, Alberto Pozzebon, Pietro Zandigiacomo
During 2015, the influence of kaolin applications and bunch-zone leaf removal on the grapevine leafhoppers, Empoasca vitis (Göthe) and Zygina rhamni Ferrari, and their egg parasitoids (Anagrus spp.) was tested in four vineyards of northeastern Italy. The mode of action of kaolin on E. vitis nymphs was also investigated in the laboratory. In the treated plots, kaolin was applied at a rate of 2% w/v on two occasions separated by 5-6 d. In two vineyards, it was applied either on the whole canopy or the bunch zone at the beginning of the E...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382881/effects-of-superparasitism-on-immature-and-adult-stages-of-diachasmimorpha-longicaudata-ashmead-hymenoptera-braconidae-reared-on-ceratitis-capitata-wiedemann-diptera-tephritidae
#20
F Devescovi, G E Bachmann, A L Nussenbaum, M M Viscarret, J L Cladera, D F Segura
The optimal use of available host by parasitoid insects should be favoured by natural selection. For solitary parasitoids, superparasitism (i.e. the egg-laying of several eggs/host) may represent a detrimental phenomenon both in a biological and an applied sense, but under certain circumstances it may be adaptive. Here, we studied the effects of increasing levels of superparasitism (LSPs, number of parasitoid larvae/host) on fitness-related parameters of the immature and adult stages of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a solitary endoparasitoid parasitizing Ceratitis capitata...
April 6, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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