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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049362/parallel-and-costly-changes-to-cellular-immunity-underlie-the-evolution-of-parasitoid-resistance-in-three-drosophila-species
#1
John E McGonigle, Alexandre B Leitão, Sarah Ommeslag, Sophie Smith, Jonathan P Day, Francis M Jiggins
A priority for biomedical research is to understand the causes of variation in susceptibility to infection. To investigate genetic variation in a model system, we used flies collected from single populations of three different species of Drosophila and artificially selected them for resistance to the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and found that survival rates increased 3 to 30 fold within 6 generations. Resistance in all three species involves a large increase in the number of the circulating hemocytes that kill parasitoids...
October 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045595/performance-of-apanteles-hemara-hymenoptera-braconidae-on-two-amaranth-leaf-webbers-spoladea-recurvalis-and-udea-ferrugalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#2
S T O Othim, K M Agbodzavu, R Kahuthia-Gathu, K S Akutse, S Muchemi, S Ekesi, K K M Fiaboe
Amaranth is an African indigenous vegetable that is gaining popularity due to its nutritional, medicinal, and economic values. In East Africa, frequent outbreaks of Lepidopteran leaf-webbers, Spoladea recurvalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Udea ferrugalis Hübner (1976) are reported on this crop, causing up to 100% foliage loss. The larval endoparasitoid Apanteles hemara Nixon is also frequently found associated with these pests during the outbreaks, however, its performance on both pests has never been documented...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042411/a-horizontally-transferred-autonomous-helitron-became-a-full-polydnavirus-segment-in-cotesia-vestalis
#3
Pedro Heringer, Guilherme B Dias, Gustavo C S Kuhn
Bracoviruses associate symbiotically with thousands of parasitoid wasp species in the family Braconidae, working as virulence gene vectors, and allowing the development of wasp larvae within hosts. These viruses are composed by multiple DNA circles that are packaged into infective particles and injected together with wasp's eggs during parasitization. One of the viral segments of Cotesia vestalis bracovirus contains a gene that has been previously described as a helicase of unknown origin. Here we demonstrate that this gene is a Rep/Helicase from an intact Helitron transposable element that covers the viral segment almost entirely...
October 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038753/infection-of-army-ant-pupae-by-two-new-parasitoid-mites-mesostigmata-uropodina
#4
Adrian Brückner, Hans Klompen, Andrew Iain Bruce, Rosli Hashim, Christoph von Beeren
A great variety of parasites and parasitoids exploit ant societies. Among them are the Mesostigmata mites, a particularly common and diverse group of ant-associated arthropods. While parasitism is ubiquitous in Mesostigmata, parasitoidism has only been described in the genus Macrodinychus. Yet information about the basic biology of most Macrodinychus species is lacking. Out of 24 formally described species, information about basic life-history traits is only available for three species. Here we formally describe two new Macrodinychus species, i...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038015/why-is-there-no-impact-of-the-host-species-on-the-cold-tolerance-of-a-generalist-parasitoid
#5
Lucy Alford, Hossein Kishani Farahani, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Françoise Burel, Joan van Baaren
For generalist parasitoids such as those belonging to the Genus Aphidius, the choice of host species can have profound implications for the emerging parasitoid. Host species is known to affect a variety of life history traits. However, the impact of the host on thermal tolerance has never been studied. Physiological thermal tolerance, enabling survival at unfavourable temperatures, is not a fixed trait and may be influenced by a number of external factors including characteristics of the stress, of the individual exposed to the stress, and of the biological and physical environment...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035870/oxidative-stress-and-cytotoxicity-elicited-lipid-peroxidation-in-hemocytes-of-bombyx-mori-larva-infested-with-dipteran-parasitoid-exorista-bombycis
#6
Makwana Pooja, Appukuttan Nair R Pradeep, Shambhavi P Hungund, Chandrashekhar Sagar, Kangayam M Ponnuvel, Arvind K Awasthi, Kanika Trivedy
Parasitization of silkworm, Bombyx mori by invasive larva of dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis caused upto 20% revenue loss in sericulture. The parasitism was successful by suppressing host immune system however mechanism of immune suppression induced by E. bombycis is unknown which is unravelled here. The infestation induced cytotoxic symptoms in host hemocytes, such as vacuolated cytoplasm, porous plasma membrane, indented nuclei with condensed chromatin and dilated RER. One of the markers of necrosis is cell permeabilization, which can be measured as released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030993/maternal-provision-of-non-sex-specific-transformer-messenger-rna-in-sex-determination-of-the-wasp-asobara-tabida
#7
E Geuverink, E C Verhulst, M van Leussen, L van de Zande, L W Beukeboom
In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, known as maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination (MEGISD). Here, we characterize the sex determination cascade of Asobara tabida, another hymenopteran parasitoid. We show the presence of the conserved sex determination genes doublesex (dsx), transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra2) orthologues in As...
October 14, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029118/potential-side-effects-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-anisopliae-on-the-egg-parasitoid-trichogramma-pretiosum-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-under-controlled-conditions
#8
M Potrich, L F A Alves, E R Lozano, A K Bonini, P M O J Neves
The purpose was to evaluate the side effects of strains Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin sensu lato Unioeste 43 and M. anisopliae sensu stricto ESALQ 1641 on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) under controlled conditions. A free-choice test for parasitism was performed, with the confinement of T. pretiosum females mated with cards (1 × 5 cm) containing age-standardized Anagasta kuehniella Zeller eggs, either sprayed with a fungal strain (109 conidia/ml) or 0.01% v/v Tween 80 (control)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029091/cockroach-oothecal-parasitoid-evania-appendigaster-hymenoptera-evaniidae-exhibits-oviposition-preference-towards-oothecal-age-most-vulnerable-to-host-cannibalism
#9
Hui-Siang Tee, Chow-Yang Lee
Many female parasitoid wasps optimize host selection to balance the benefits of high-quality hosts and the costs of predator- or hyperparasitoid-induced mortality risks to maximize their fitness. Cannibalism exists in many insect species and affects survival of parasitoid larvae developing in or on parasitized hosts. However, little is known about how parasitoid wasps resolve the fitness consequence of host cannibalism-induced mortality risk during host selection. We examined the effect of oothecal age on cannibalism in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana (L...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028992/spatial-distribution-of-megacopta-cribraria-hemiptera-plataspidae-adults-eggs-and-parasitism-by-paratelenomus-saccharalis-hymenoptera-platygastridae-in-soybean
#10
Ian A Knight, Phillip M Roberts, Wayne A Gardner, Kerry M Oliver, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Dominic D Reisig, Michael D Toews
Since 2014, populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), have declined in the southeastern United States and seldom require treatment. This decline follows the discovery of Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd; Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), a non-native egg parasitoid. The objective of this project was to observe the temporal and spatial dynamics of P. saccharalis parasitism of kudzu bug egg masses in commercial soybean fields. Four fields were sampled weekly for kudzu bugs and egg masses at a density of one sample per 0...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022245/prevalence-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-symptoms-a-cross-sectional-study-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#11
Bhaskarjyoti Baruah, Tarun Kumar, Prasenjit Das, Bhaskar Thakur, Vishnubatla Sreenivas, Vineet Ahuja, Siddhartha Datta Gupta, Govind K Makharia
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is being recognized increasingly all over the globe; Indian data is however sparse. We screened patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for presence of EoE in them. METHODS: Consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD underwent gastroduodenoscopy and esophageal biopsies, obtained from both the upper esophagus (5 cm below the upper esophageal sphincter) and lower esophagus (5 cm above gastroesophageal junction), as well as from any other endoscopically visible abnormal mucosa...
October 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019464/ovipositor-inspired-steerable-needle-design-and-preliminary-experimental-evaluation
#12
Marta Scali, Tim Philipp Pusch, Paul Breedveld, D Dodou
Flexible steerable needles have the potential to allow surgeons to reach deep targets inside the human body with higher accuracy than rigid needles do. Furthermore, by maneuvering around critical anatomical structures, steerable needles could limit the risk of tissue damage. However, the design of a thin needle (e.g., diameter under 2 mm) with a multi-direction steering mechanism is challenging. The goal of this paper is to outline the design and experimental evaluation of a biologically inspired needle with a diameter under 2 mm that advances through straight and curved trajectories in a soft substrate without being pushed, without buckling, and without the need of axial rotation...
October 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982152/are-pollinating-hawk-moths-declining-in-the-northeastern-united-states-an-analysis-of-collection-records
#13
Bruce E Young, Stephanie Auer, Margaret Ormes, Giovanni Rapacciuolo, Dale Schweitzer, Nicole Sears
Increasing attention to pollinators and their role in providing ecosystem services has revealed a paucity of studies on long-term population trends of most insect pollinators in many parts of the world. Because targeted monitoring programs are resource intensive and unlikely to be performed on most insect pollinators, we took advantage of existing collection records to examine long-term trends in northeastern United States populations of 26 species of hawk moths (family Sphingidae) that are presumed to be pollinators...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981711/identification-of-venom-proteins-of-the-indigenous-endoparasitoid-chouioia-cunea-hymenoptera-eulophidae
#14
Bei Xin, Peixuan Liu, Xiaorui Xu, Shun Zhang, Yanan Zheng
Chouioia cunea (Yang) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an indigenous pupal endoparasitoid that effectively attacks the exotic fall webworm Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in China. In this novel association, the parasitoid's venom has played an important role in subduing the immune defense of the host although little is known about the composition and functions of the parasitoid's venom. We therefore first identified the parasitoid's major venom proteins using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981689/potential-of-trichogramma-achaeae-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-in-biological-control-of-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-in-azorean-greenhouse-tomato-crops
#15
Luísa Oliveira, Ana C Durão, João Fontes, Inês S Roja, João Tavares
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important pest of tomato crops. It is native to South America and has rapidly extended its range into Mediterranean countries. The parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) has been recommended as a possible biological control agent of this invasive pest. The pest and parasitoid were accidentally introduced into the Azores Islands and became well-established owing to the climate conditions of the region. During an undertaken survey to determine the presence of natural parasitism, 2...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981634/modeling-the-temperature-and-age-dependent-survival-development-and-oviposition-rates-of-stable-flies-stomoxys-calcitrans-diptera-muscidae
#16
Henrik Skovgård, Gösta Nachman
Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) can be a serious pest associated with cattle facilities. In Denmark, they occur most abundantly at organic farms, where they cannot be controlled by means of insecticides. On traditional farms, where chemical control is widely used, development of resistance is of increasing concern. Therefore, interest in biological control or other alternative methods has been growing during the recent years. In order to understand the complex relationships between a pest and its natural enemies in a variable environment, it is necessary to know how temperature affects the dynamics of the involved species...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977774/ecology-worldwide-spread-and-management-of-the-invasive-south-american-tomato-pinworm-tuta-absoluta-past-present-and-future
#17
Antonio Biondi, Raul Narciso C Guedes, Fang-Hao Wan, Nicolas Desneux
The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is native to the eastern Neotropics. After invading Spain in 2006, it spread rapidly throughout Afro-Eurasia and has become a major threat to world tomato production. Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed, but widespread insecticide use has caused selection for insecticide resistances as well as undesirable effects on key beneficial arthropods. Augmentation and conservation biological control relying on omnivorous mirid predators has proved successful for management of T...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975358/nicosulfuron-plus-atrazine-herbicides-and-trichogrammatidae-hymenoptera-in-no-choice-test-selectivity-and-hormesis
#18
Germano L D Leite, Paula D de Paulo, José C Zanuncio, Wagner de S Tavares, Anarelly C Alvarenga, Luan R Dourado, Edilson P R Bispo, Marcus A Soares
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the herbicide mixture nicosulfuron + atrazine on 10 trichogrammatid species. A female of each trichogrammatid was placed in a test tube (no-choice) with a card with 45 Anagasta kuehniella eggs. Parasitism was allowed over a 48 h period, then the cards were sprayed with a solution containing nicosulfuron (30 g ha(-1)) + atrazine (1500 g ha(-1)), besides the control (distilled water). The nicosulfuron + atrazine mixture increased the Trichogramma atopovirilia and T...
October 3, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973492/what-limits-the-distribution-of-liriomyza-huidobrensis-and-its-congener-liriomyza-sativae-in-their-native-niche-when-temperature-and-competition-affect-species-distribution-range-in-guatemala
#19
G Rodríguez-Castañeda, C MacVean, C Cardona, A R Hof
Factors limiting distribution range for most species are generally unknown regardless of whether they are native or invasive. We studied factors that could enable or restrict the distribution of two cosmopolitan invasive leafminer fly species, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) in their native niche. In order to test which ecological and environmental factors affect leafminer distribution we conducted thermal tolerance assays, sampled along elevation gradients and modeled species distribution...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971341/the-gall-associates-of-asphondylia-poss-swaedicola-kieffer-j%C3%A3-rgensen-diptera-cecidomyiidae-on-suaeda-divaricata-moq-amaranthaceae-in-the-semiarid-argentina-and-summary-of-parasitic-hymenoptera-associated-with-suaeda-worldwide
#20
M W Gates, J Torrens, P Fidalgo, R R Kula, M L Buffington, D Adamski
We report on Asphondylia poss. swaedicola Kieffer & Jörgensen inducing apical stem galls on Suaeda divaricata Moquin-Tandon in the Monte region of Argentina. The putative inquiline gelechiid Scrobipalpula patagonica Povolný is confirmed as an associate of A. poss. swaedicola galls. The following hymenopteran parasitoids are associated with this system: Torymus nr swaedicola (Kieffer & Jörgensen), Aprostocetus sp., Horismenus sp., Bracon (Bracon) sp., Chelonus (Microchelonus) sp., Apanteles sp., Zaeucoila robusta (Ashmead), and Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead...
October 2, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
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